Chapter 2 Drug Use Yesterday And Today


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Chapter 2 Drug Use Yesterday And Today

  1. 1. Drug Use: Yesterday and Today Chapter 2
  2. 2. Historical Overview <ul><li>Drugs have been used for a variety of reasons in different cultures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altering states of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief of pain and distress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fermentation – A combustive process in which yeasts interact with the sugars in plants such as grapes, grains, and fruits to produce an enzyme that converts the sugar into alcohol. Alcohol was probably discovered following accidental fermentation </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Beer and huckleberry wine used as early as 6400 B.C. Grape wine did not appear until 300-400 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Opium Poppy – A plant cultivated for centuries, primarily in Eurasia, for opium – a narcotic that acts as a central nervous system depressant </li></ul><ul><li>Used in Asia Minor about 5000 B.C. as a “joy plant” </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis Sativa – The Indian hemp plant popularly knows as marijuana; its resin, flowering tops, leaves, and stem contain the plant’s psychoactive substances </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Brewed as a tea, dates to around 2700 B.C. in China. Emperor Shen Nung recommended it to his citizens for gout, absentmindedness, and other ailments. </li></ul><ul><li>Hashish – Produced from the resin that covers the flowers of the cannabis hemp plant. The resin generally contains a greater concentration of the drug’s psychoactive properties </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>People in the Stone Age are thought to have used opium, hashish, and cocaine to produce altered states of consciousness, or to prepare for battle </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing coca leaves ( one way to ingest cocaine) is recorded among Indian burial sites in Central and South America as far back as 2500 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Peyote – A cactus plant, the top of which (a “button”) is dried and ingested for its hallucinogenic properties </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The use of a drug in one culture does not mean people in another culture were at the same time exposed to or using that substance. Instead, cultures (now, as well as then) are characterized by both diversity and similarity in their patterns of drug use. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians whom Columbus encountered introduced him and later explorers to tobacco and other psychoactive plants, including peyote , while Europeans, in turn, introduced alcohol to the New World </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In cases such as the Opium Wars between China and Great Britain, the British acted to keep the drug trade open and flourishing despite the fact that millions of Chinese men had become addicted to opium brought to China by British traders. </li></ul><ul><li>The British did not witness such a degree of addiction among users in England despite the fact that opium was widely used in medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think this is ? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Drug Use in the United States <ul><li>There were few restrictions on drug availability or drug use prior to the beginning of the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs such as opium, morphine, marijuana, heroin and cocaine were easy to obtain without prescription, at grocery stores or through mail order. </li></ul><ul><li>Opium was frequently taken in liquid form in mixtures such as laudanum (one grain of opium to 25 drops of alcohol) and was used in calming and quieting crying babies ! </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Morphine – A derivative of opium that is best known as a potent pain-relieving medication </li></ul><ul><li>Narcotic – A central nervous system depressant that contains sedative and pain-relieving compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Patent Medicines – Products that were sold, most often in the 19 th century, as medicines that would cure a host of illnesses and diseases. Examples include Godfrey’s Cordial and Mrs. Wilson’s Soothing Syrup </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Physicians referred to opium and morphine as “God’s Own Medicine” (G.O.M.) and recommended their use </li></ul><ul><li>The widespread use of morphine during and after the Civil War is considered responsible for large numbers of soldiers developing the “soldier’s disease – morphine addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking of opium was introduced in the U.S. by Chinese laborers and was widespread practice in the mid-1800’s, especially on the West Coast </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In the 1800’s, physicians used a liquid extract of marijuana as an all-purpose medication. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmedical use increased in the 1920’s in reaction to alcohol prohibition and then held constant in the 1930s through the 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>Use was limited to urban areas and rural areas where it was grown and harvested </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1960s, its popularity soared and has remained strong </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cocaine was also used in “tonics” and patent medicines, including Coca-Cola. </li></ul><ul><li>Amphetamine – A central nervous system stimulant that acts like naturally occurring adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>Amphetamines were used in the 1930s to treat depression, were given to soldiers in World War II to enhance alertness, and were overprescribed in the 1960s and 1970s for weight control </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Minor tranquilizers became popular in the 1950s and are among the most commonly prescribed psychiatric drugs in this country today </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent inhaling also appeared in the 1950s and is still a serious problem among boys in their teens. </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent – A substance, usually a liquid or gas, that contains one or more intoxicating components, examples are glue, gasoline, lighter fluids, cleaning solvents, nonstick frying-pan sprays, and more recently, sniffing of correction fluids. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The 1960s was the era of lysergic acid diethylamide-25, commonly known as LSD, and popularized by Dr. Timothy Leary, a Harvard psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>A more recent psychedelic substance to appear on the scene was methylenedioxymethamphetamine, better known as MDMA or “ecstacy” </li></ul><ul><li>MDMA is one of a cluster of drugs referred to as “club drugs” </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Club drugs – Drugs used by young adults at all night dance parties such as “raves” and “trances” and at dance clubs and bars. Examples are: MDMA, GHB, Ketamine, and Rohypnol (date rape drug) </li></ul><ul><li>Heroin was first synthesized in the late 1890s and has traditionally been used by lower and higher socioeconomic groups. The exception is during the Vietnam War when there was a high incidence of use among U.S. soldiers in Vietnam. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Soldiers who used heroin overseas did not tend to continue its use following their return to the States </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this ? </li></ul><ul><li>Due to low price and easy availability, heroin in recent years has been showing a renewed popularity </li></ul><ul><li>Use by teenagers is an ongoing concern – among those using heroin for the first time in the late 1990s, approximately 25% were under the age of 18 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Medical Science and Drug Use <ul><li>Medicinal uses of psychoactive substances (whether folk medicine or more contemporary medicine), medical science, and nonmedical drug use and abuse will always be closely intertwined </li></ul><ul><li>In the past, folk or cultural use of a substance often became incorporated into the practice of medicine. More common today is that a substance developed for the practice of medicine is incorporated into the array of drugs used in nonmedicinal ways </li></ul>
  18. 18. Development of Drug Laws <ul><li>Legislation is the main way society establishes formal guidelines for drug use and the central means for addressing its concerns about drugs </li></ul><ul><li>The San Francisco Ordinance of 1875 – Only notable law regarding drug use in the 19 th century that had any effect. Opium dens were banned (not the smoking of opium) and the larger, more obvious dens closed, though the number of smaller dens increased. The law set the stage for drug regulation in other parts of the country, as other cities passed similar ordinances in later years. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Pure Food and Drug Act – Passed in 1906 and designed to control opiate addiction by legislating that producers of medicines must indicate on the packaging the amount of drug contained in their product. The Act focused primarily on the opiates opium, morphine, and heroin, but also mandated the accurate labeling of products that contain alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The Pure Food and Drug Act did not ban opiates in patent medicines thus had little impact on addicts at the time, but did decrease the number of new addicts due to subsequent political and educational efforts to describe the addictive potential of patent medicines containing opiates </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 strictly regulated, but did not prohibit, the legal supply of certain drugs, particularly the opiates. It stated that the marketing and prescribing of these drugs required licensing. </li></ul><ul><li>The act restricted manufacturers of patent medicines by requiring that they “not contain more than two grains of opium, or more than one-fourth of a grain of morphine, or more than one-eighth of a grain of heroin … in one avoirdupois ounce”. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Avoirdupois – Something sold or measured by weight based on 1 pound = 16 ounces </li></ul><ul><li>The act included cocaine as a narcotic </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment Centers for addicts began to open in some of the larger cities, however they were open only for a few years and thus had limited opportunity to help alleviate opiate addiction. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Alcohol Prohibition <ul><li>The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution passed in 1920, better known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the production, sale, transportation, and importing of alcohol in any part of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The act defined an “intoxicating beverage” as one containing more than 0.5% alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition – The legislative forbidding of the sale of a substance, as in the alcohol Prohibition era in the United States, 1920-1933 </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Prohibition was repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment 13 years later and is cited as a drug-use control measure that failed overall, however it did have a substantial effect on drinking in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking was reduced by one-third to one-half and there were decreases in death rates attributable to liver cirrhosis, admission rates to hospitals for treatment of alcoholism, and arrest rates for alcohol-related offenses </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Undesired consequences associated with Prohibition included: increase in coffee intake, more extensive use of marijuana, shift in drinking habits from beer to distilled spirits ,advent of the speakeasy, takeover of alcohol distribution by criminal groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Speakeasy – A slang expression used to describe a saloon operating without a license; popularly used during Prohibition </li></ul>
  26. 26. Post-Prohibition Legislation <ul><li>Establishment of Federal Bureau of Narcotics … Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs … Drug Enforcement Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 – Required authorized producers, manufacturers, importers, and dispensers to register and pay an annual license fee </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Abuse Control Amendment of 1965 – Regulated nonnarcotic drug use such as stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogenic substances </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Shifting of attention to the treatment of drug abuse through such measures as the Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963 and the Narcotic Rehabilitation Act of 1966. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act – Passed in 1970 and more commonly known as the Controlled Substances Act, is the basis for drug regulation in the United States today. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Current Drug Laws <ul><li>The 1970 Controlled Substances Act classifies drugs according to their medical use, their potential for abuse, and their likelihood for producing dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoactive substances were placed in one of five categories or schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Substances with little or no potential for abuse or dependence such as major tranquilizers and the antidepressants are not classified </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Provisions for adding drugs to the schedules and for rescheduling drugs, i.e., Valium and other benzodiazepines were unscheduled when act was passed but were classified as Schedule IV drugs in 1975, and substances such as Benzedrine and Seconal were reclassified from Schedule III to Schedule II during the early 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes penalties for criminal manufacture or distribution of the scheduled drugs with increases based on quantity involved and number of previous offenses </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Controlled Substances Analogue Enforcement Act – Allowed for the immediate classification of a substance as a controlled substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Passed in 1986 in response to the production of designer drugs - drugs structurally similar but not identical to illegal substances – that were difficult to control due to the time-consuming process of documenting the drug and having it certified as a controlled substance. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 – Controls distribution of particular chemicals, tabulating and encapsulating machines used in the manufacture of illicit substances </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act of 1996 – Restricts access to chemicals used to make methamphetamine, monitor purchases of these preparation chemicals, increase penalties for the possession of chemicals or equipment used in the production of methamphetamine and for trafficking and manufacturing the drug. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The War on Drugs <ul><li>The “War on Drugs” was implemented in the 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Hallmark features are efforts to catch drug smugglers and sellers (in this country and overseas) and a zero-tolerance approach to even casual drug users </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the hundreds of millions of dollars spent on efforts to intercept drugs, most experts conclude the effort has been a failure and the flow of drugs into the Unites States has not been significantly altered </li></ul>
  33. 33. Drug Testing <ul><li>Drug testing in the workplace is controversial because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It infringes on constitutional rights of privacy when administered randomly without “probable cause” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relationship between a positive test result and actual job performance is not clearly demonstrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinalysis test results are often unreliable </li></ul></ul>