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The study of language

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Summary of chapters 18, 19 & 20 only.

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The study of language

  1. 1. The study of language Chapter 18 The Standard language Standartlanguage isthe language isassociatedwithadministrative,commercial andeducational centersregarlessof regions. Accentand Dialect  Accentis relatedtothe aspectsof pronounciation.  Dialectisrelatedtothe descriptionof featuresof grammarandvocabulary. Dialectology Dialectologyisthe studythatdistinguishestwodifferentdialectsof the same language inwhich speakerscanunderstandeachother,andothertwolanguage inwhichspeakerscannot understanderthem. Isoglossesanddialectboundaries  Isoglossesisthe boundarybetweenareaswithregardtothat one particularlinguistic term  Dialectboundaryisa numberof isoglossesthatcome together neartwoareas. The dialectcontinuum It’sthe mergingof dialectboundariesof twolanguage nearthe side of politicalborders. Bilingualismanddiglossia  Bilingualism:It’safeature of minorgroupsinwhichthese groupsgrow upin one linguistic community.  Diglossia:It’sthe acquisitionof language thatit’sonlyusedforlocal andeverydayaffairs. Language planning In some countriesthere are multiple dialectsandlanguagessoalanguage planningdetermines whichlanguage isusedforofficial bussiness. Pidginsandcreoles  Pidginisa varietyof language thatwasdevelopedforaspefici purpose.  Creole iswhenapidginbecomesfirstlanguage.
  2. 2. Chapter 19 Sociolinguistic It isthe studyof the relationshipbetweenlanguage andsociety Social dialect It’sconcern withgroup of speakersincitiesandtowns. Educationand occupation Idiolect:We tendtosoundlike otherswithwe share similareducationalbackgroundor occupation. Social markers It’sthe differenttype of speechesthatcanbe foundwiththe social class Speech style andstyle-shifting  Speechstyle isasocial feature onthe use of language (Formal oInformal)  Style-shiftingisthe movementbetweenone styletoanother. Speechacomodotion It isthe abilitytomodifyourspeechstyle towardsorawayfromthe perceivedstyleof the person we are talkingto. There are twotermswithinspeechacomodation: 1. Convergence:We adaptourspeechtoreduce social distance 2. Divergence:We use ourspeechtoemphasize oursocial status Registerandjargon  Register:Itisa situationwayof usinglanguage inaspecificcontext.  Jargon:It is a specificwayof language we generallyuse inside academicgroups Slang It isgenerallybyyoungpeople outsidehigh-statusgroups.The wordsnormallyare partof the colloquial speechinwhich onlyyoungerpeople canunderstandthem. Chapter 20 Culture Culture referstothe ideasandassumptionsaboutthe nature of thingsandpeole thatwe learnwe become membersof social groups Categories It isa groupwithcertaincharacteristicincommon such as vocabulary.
  3. 3. Kinshipterm Theyare lexicalizedwordsthatare usedto refertopeople whoare membersof the same family. Each language differsonhowtheyputthe relativesindifferentpositions. Linguisticrelativity Linguisticrelativitystudies howpeopleperceivetheirworld. The Sapir-whorf hypothesis Thishypothesiswascoinedinthe middleof the twenthiethcentury.Itfocusesonhow different languagesclassifyeachwordeitherabtrasct,animate,male orfemale.Somelanguagesordialects believesthatcloudsare animate objectswhile inEnglishtheyare not. Cognitive caterogies It isthe analysingof the thinkingprocessof how people fromothersculturesdeterminethe characteristicof the word. Classifiers Theyare normallyusedinconnectionwithnumberstoindicate type of things. Social categories Theyare wordsthat are usedtodistinguishhow see the otherpersoninoursocial context. Addressterms We use wordsto create a conceptof closenessbyusingspeficicvocabularythatisnotusedina normal context.(e.gsayingbrothertoanotherpersonthatyoudon’tknow in orderto getsome money) Gender It’sthe distinctionbetweenmaleandfemale Genderedwords Theyare wordsthat are usedonlybymenor women. Genderedspeech Men usuallyspeakinalowerpitchrange,while womendoitina higherpitch.Womentendtouse softwordsand menusuallyuse strongandexaggaretedwords. Genderedinteraction  Man-man interaction:There are few interruptions.  Women-Womeninteraction:Women usuallyuse back-channelsintheirconversationto emphasize theyare payingattention  Man-women:Mengenerallytendtointerruptwomen

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