Accessibility Issues


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Accessibility Issues

  1. 1. Accessibility Issues - 2005 Liddy Nevile
  2. 2. Inaccessibility <ul><li>NOT telecommunications problems ..?? </li></ul><ul><li>NOT economic equity </li></ul><ul><li>NOT a list of disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>IS a list of requirements </li></ul><ul><li>NOT a human classification </li></ul><ul><li>IS a description of a relationship between a resource and a user </li></ul>
  3. 3. Inaccessibility definitions
  4. 4. Problem Definition <ul><li>Many people have visual, aural, tactile and cognitive disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t always know who has what disability - but do we want to know? </li></ul><ul><li>We all have symptoms of disabilities according to where we are and what we are doing. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problem Definition <ul><li>People’s symptoms change over time </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ needs change with purpose and context </li></ul><ul><li>Sites with accessibility problems are almost impossible to fix </li></ul><ul><li>The W3C ‘good construction’ guidelines do not necessarily cover a particular user’s problem - broad improvement but specific failure </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problem Definition <ul><li>Authors just cannot learn to make universally accessible resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technical training is very expensive in terms of time and money </li></ul><ul><li>The recommended user agents are often not standards compliant </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative content production is often a skilled 3rd party activity </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is the solution? <ul><li>Give authors better tools because the tools often can make accessible content </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute the burden between technology and authors </li></ul><ul><li>Make greater demands on publishing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Support re-use and interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Use metadata!!! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Accessibility definitions <ul><li>Original W3C - device independence, separation of content from presentation - universal accessibility - test the resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. - s. 508 for Federal Govt. contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia - common law system with regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK, European Commission … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New IMS/DC/ISO etc Working definition: mismatch between user needs and content - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service </li></ul>
  9. 9. Accessibility definitions <ul><li>Continuing W3C definition - universal accessibility - test the resource </li></ul><ul><li>New IMS/DC/ISO etc definition: - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service </li></ul>
  10. 10. Accessibility definitions <ul><li>W3C - universal accessibility - test the resource </li></ul><ul><li>Self-contained accessibility, just-in-case </li></ul><ul><li>ISO/IMS/DC Working definition: - universal user-centred accessibility - test the service </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed accessibility, just-in-time </li></ul>
  11. 11. How big is the problem?
  12. 12. How big is the problem?
  13. 13. How big is the problem? <ul><li>Visual, dexterity, and hearing difficulties are the most common among working-age adults: </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately one in four (27%) have a visual difficulty or impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>One in four (26%) have a dexterity difficulty or impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>One in five (21%) have a hearing difficulty or impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat fewer working-age adults have a cognitive difficulty or impairment (20%) and very few (4%) have a speech difficulty or impairment. </li></ul>
  14. 14. How big is the problem?
  15. 15. How expensive is the problem? <ul><li>Fairfax Digital have </li></ul><ul><li>40 sites - 5 or 6 key destinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>,,,,, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMH/AGE alone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>135 million PI's per month - 6 mill uv's ▪ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The leading News sites in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>3 to 4 minute average session times </li></ul>
  16. 16. How expensive is the problem? <ul><ul><ul><li>What Fairfax did: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moved their biggest sites across to XHTML/CSS in a 6 month timeframe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had the smoothest rollout they have ever experienced , and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will save a million $ in bandwidth per year! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Typical users’ problems <ul><li>Can’t see screen </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t see colours </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t read text </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t hear </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t control cursor </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t type </li></ul>
  18. 18. OS support Add this to Favorites folder Add this to startup items Apple channel …..
  19. 19. Browser support (?) <ul><li>Lynx </li></ul><ul><li>IE </li></ul><ul><li>Netscape/Mozilla </li></ul><ul><li>iCab </li></ul><ul><li>Opera </li></ul><ul><li>Amaya </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 35 browsers in common use… </li></ul><ul><li>(Note W3C UAAG - includes LMS) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Assistive Technologies
  21. 21. Assistive Technologies
  22. 22. Anti-access Technologies
  23. 23. New IMS/DC/…approach <ul><li>Think of the user and work towards user needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a good, easy way to record user needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Describe content in terms of needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid all issues to do with disabilities and to do with legal liability </li></ul>
  24. 24. User accessibility profiles <ul><li>An independent accessibility element </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple, cascading profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Three main classes of requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display (presentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. AccLIP (User profile) <ul><li>AccessForAll: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility/ </li></ul>
  26. 26. Resource accessibility profile <ul><li>An independent accessibility element </li></ul><ul><li>Simple or composite profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Three main classes of characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display (presentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. AccMD (Resource Profile) <ul><li>A statement of media/modality types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hasImage, hasText, hasVideo, hasAudio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An EARL statement … so a URI: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility </li></ul>
  28. 28. Implementation <ul><li>The Inclusive Learning Exchange at </li></ul>
  29. 31. Learner priorities <ul><li>Users should always have final say over choice of resources and items </li></ul><ul><li>Content/display/control choices can be ‘exploited’ easily </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed groups can negotiate / accommodate conditions for collaborative work </li></ul>
  30. 32. Pedagogical priorities <ul><li>The approach promotes choice </li></ul><ul><li>And inclusivity </li></ul><ul><li>Without emphasis on abilities and disabilities and with </li></ul><ul><li>far less effort for authors and teachers </li></ul>
  31. 33. Tools and Implementations <ul><li>Accessible tools </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for accessible authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Validators ie code validators </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators ie compliance with guidelines producing metadata (EARL) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital repositories for descriptive metadata </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-fly repair tools (SWAP, ...) </li></ul><ul><li>Web-4-All (smart card adaptation to needs) </li></ul>
  32. 34. Tools and Implementations <ul><li>In the ePortfolio demonstator tool for the EPICC project, Giunti have implemented a small part of AccLIP 1.0 that adjusts the interface (fonts etc.) on importing a portfolio. </li></ul><ul><li>The USB standards group headed by ATIA will be using AccLIP as the basis and referent for their USB device communication standard. This will mean a universal Web-4-All and adherence to AccLIP by all USB devices. </li></ul>
  33. 35. References <ul><li>http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http: //dublincore .org/groups/access/ </li></ul><ul><li>http: //inclusivelearning .ca </li></ul>