Accessibility Issues


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Accessibility Issues

  1. 1. Accessibility Issues Liddy Nevile
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Accessibility definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Current work to minimise problems </li></ul><ul><li>IMS accessibility activities </li></ul><ul><li>Matching content to people’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Implementations </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Accessibility definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Not … </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications …. Or is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic equity … or is it? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Typical problems <ul><li>Can’t see screen </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t see colours </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t read text </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t hear </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t control cursor </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t type </li></ul>
  5. 5. OS support Add this to Favorites folder Add this to startup items Apple channel …..
  6. 6. Browser support (?) <ul><li>Lynx </li></ul><ul><li>IE </li></ul><ul><li>Netscape/Mozilla </li></ul><ul><li>iCab </li></ul><ul><li>Opera </li></ul><ul><li>Amaya </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 35 browsers in common use… </li></ul><ul><li>(Note W3C UAAG - includes LMS) </li></ul>
  7. 7. ATs for people with vision disabilities
  8. 8. Jason White
  9. 9. Other assistive technologies
  10. 10. Other accessibility problems
  11. 11. Accessibility definitions <ul><li>W3C - device independence, separation of content from presentation </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. - s. 508 for Federal Govt. contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Australia - common law system with regulations </li></ul><ul><li>UK, European Commission … </li></ul><ul><li>IMS/MMI-DC Working definition: mismatch between user needs and content </li></ul>
  12. 12. W3C Guidelines <ul><li>Accessibility guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Checkpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Checkpoint techniques </li></ul><ul><li>QA and Certification </li></ul><ul><li>- for authors, authoring tools, user agents </li></ul>
  13. 13. Localisation of W3C guidelines <ul><li>University, system, organisational guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling systems and templates </li></ul><ul><li>EuroAccessibility efforts </li></ul><ul><li>CEN MMI-DC Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>IMS Accessibility Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>( -> maths interest) </li></ul>
  14. 14. W3C Technologies that work <ul><li>Cascading style sheets (CSS1) </li></ul><ul><li>eXtensible Markup Language and CSS2 </li></ul><ul><li>Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronised Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) </li></ul><ul><li>eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSLT) </li></ul><ul><li>ChemML, MathML, MusicML, ... </li></ul>
  15. 15. SVG example
  16. 16. SVG example <ul><li>Image is represented as vectors in text </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-images can be identified </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata can be added </li></ul><ul><li>Rights management can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviours can be controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg an interactive knee dissection linked to external resources </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Technologies that work (contd.) <ul><li>XML => MathML, ChemML, etc </li></ul><ul><li>MathML as an example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The equation x 2 + 4x + 4 =0 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Separate presentation from content <ul><li>Presentational markup to ensure display can be controlled - with style sheets to define the display characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Content markup to provide machine readable version of content so it could be read into content manipulators </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li><mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><msup> <mi>x</MI> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mo>+</MO> </li></ul><ul><li><mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><mn>4</mn> </li></ul><ul><li><MO>&InvisibleTimes;</MO> </li></ul><ul><li><MI>x</MI> </li></ul><ul><li></mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><MO>+</MO> </li></ul><ul><li><mn>4</mn> </li></ul><ul><li></mrow> </li></ul><ul><li><MO>=</MO> </li></ul><ul><li><mn>0</mn> </li></ul><ul><li></mrow> </li></ul>MathML is like HTML…
  20. 20. Screen presentation <ul><li>It can be read aloud by screen readers </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used in maths applications </li></ul><ul><li>It can be programmed for interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>It can be programmed for feedback </li></ul><ul><li>But it can’t yet be used in Braille. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Technologies that work (contd.) <ul><li>XML and RDF and EARL …. </li></ul><ul><li>XML - human readable, schemas etc ….. </li></ul><ul><li>RDF - this ‘object’ has property ‘this’ </li></ul><ul><li>EARL - this ’agent’ said this ‘object’ has this ‘property’ on this ‘date’ </li></ul><ul><li>Eg “The application ‘Lift’ evaluated this page as accessible (didn’t fail) on 3/9/2002”. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Author support <ul><li>W3C described what to do, how to do it, when and why,… </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic support is required -> </li></ul><ul><li>W3C Authoring Tools Accessibility Guidelines - note s. 508 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Accessibility tools <ul><li>Accessible tools </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for accessible authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Validators ie code validators </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators ie compliance with guidelines producing metadata (EARL) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital repositories for descriptive metadata </li></ul><ul><li>(re-usable metadata??) </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-fly repair tools (SWAP, TILE, ..) </li></ul>
  24. 24. New IMS/DC/…approach <ul><li>Think of the user and work towards user needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a good, easy way to record user needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Describe content in terms of needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid all issues to do with disabilities and to do with legal liability </li></ul>
  25. 25. Accessibility issues <ul><li>Direct accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative modality </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent content </li></ul><ul><li>User choice </li></ul>
  26. 26. User profiles <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Display (presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>A special element to add to the LIP because this info is usually managed by a different person from the teacher (and sometimes the student) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple, cascading profiles </li></ul>
  27. 27. AccLIP (User profile) <ul><li>AccessForAll: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility/ </li></ul>
  28. 28. Content profiles <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Display (presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>A separate element as the information is usually an EARL statement </li></ul><ul><li>Same schema for exact matching and easy maintenance </li></ul>
  29. 29. AccMD (Content profile) <ul><li>An EARL statement … so a URI: http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility </li></ul>
  30. 30. Implementation <ul><li>The Inclusive Learning Exchange at </li></ul>
  31. 31. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. imsproject .org/accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>http:// dublincore .org/groups/access/ </li></ul><ul><li>http:// inclusivelearning .ca </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. OZeWAI .org/ </li></ul>