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  1. 1. WWII
  2. 2. Causes of WWII <ul><li>1) Great Depression : Worldwide economic crisis puts too much stress on many countries </li></ul><ul><li>2) Treaty of Versailles : Unfair treaty after WWI punished Germany too severely </li></ul><ul><li>3) Failure of the League of Nations : League was too weak to stop Japanese, Italian, & German aggression </li></ul><ul><li>4) Japanese Aggression: Japanese military takes over Manchuria (part of China; 1931) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes of WWII <ul><li>5) Italian Aggression : Italy attacks Ethiopia; 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>6) German Aggression : After taking Austria and Czechoslovakia, Hitler invades Poland </li></ul>
  4. 4. The World in the 1930’s <ul><li>The Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by dictator Joseph Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarian government: the government and every aspect of the peoples’ lives is controlled by one party </li></ul><ul><li>5 year plans forced USSR to modernize </li></ul><ul><li>Execution & torture of political enemies </li></ul>
  5. 5. It a ly <ul><li>Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini in power </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism = militarism, extreme nationalism (my country is always right) and total loyalty to the leader “Il Duce” </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded and took over Ethiopia; 1935 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Germany <ul><li>Germany kept taking more and more land from its neighbors while the League of Nations did nothing. Rhineland, Sudetenland, Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Adolph Hitler & Nazi Party came to power by blaming Jews for Treaty of Versailles along with most of Germany's problems </li></ul><ul><li>Fascist Government </li></ul><ul><li>German invasion of Poland caused WWII in Europe </li></ul>
  7. 7. Japan <ul><li>Depression hurt Japanese economy </li></ul><ul><li>Military took over </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Hirohito </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Japanese would conquer all of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Manchuria, China; 1931 </li></ul>
  8. 8. USA <ul><li>President: FDR </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign policy of isolationism (WWI) </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on Western Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Good Neighbor policy in Latin America </li></ul>
  9. 9. WWII Begins <ul><li>1937; Asia: </li></ul><ul><li>Japan begins total war with China </li></ul><ul><li>The Rape of Nanking: 300,000 civilians & POW’s killed in 6 weeks </li></ul>
  10. 11. Europe <ul><li>Hitler kept taking more and more land </li></ul><ul><li>UK & France thought he would stop </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed to give Czechoslovakia to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Appeasement at Munich </li></ul>Peace in our time. Sucker!
  11. 13. War in Europe <ul><li>Summer, 1939: Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact </li></ul><ul><li>September, 1939: -Blitzkrieg- Germany Invades Poland.– England & France declare war on Germany & its allies; Italy & Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>1940 Germany Invades France successfully using Manstein Plan (like Schleiffen Plan) </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact </li></ul>
  13. 15. German Invasion of Poland
  14. 16. Germany Conquers France using Manstein Plan
  15. 17. Axis vs. Allies <ul><li>Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Allies </li></ul><ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>USSR </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul>
  16. 18. US Moves Toward War <ul><li>1) Cash & Carry , Old Destroyers to UK. </li></ul><ul><li>2) More $ for the military, 1 st peace-time draft declared </li></ul><ul><li>3) June 1941: Hitler launches surprise attack on Soviet Union breaking non-aggression pact </li></ul><ul><li>4) Lend-Lease Act : March 1941, allowed US to sell or lease military supplies to the Allies including U.S.S.R. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this isolationism? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. On December 7 th 1941 the Japanese Navy attacked the US Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawai’i
  18. 24. The U.S.S. Arizona continues to leak oil in this 2004 photograph
  19. 26. WHY did the Japanese attack the United States?
  20. 27. Because <ul><li>1) The U.S, was conducting an embargo which kept the Japanese from acquiring the raw materials and petroleum they needed to keep their war machine going </li></ul><ul><li>2) The Japanese knew that war with the U.S. was inevitable, so they hoped to destroy our navy before the war started. </li></ul>
  21. 28. Results of the Attack <ul><li>2,388 people were killed and another 1,178 were wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>Though the U.S. Navy lost several ships and many planes, the damages were not critical. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not damage aircraft carriers. The US will use those carriers to defeat Japan in a few years </li></ul>
  22. 29. Reactions to the attack
  23. 30. Reactions to the attack <ul><li>US citizens want revenge </li></ul>
  24. 31. Reactions to the attack <ul><li>Congress declares war on Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and Italy declare war on US </li></ul>
  25. 33. The United States Goes to War <ul><li>Training : Army, Navy, & Air Force bases constructed all over the country to train combat troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Women joined armed forces, not allowed in combat, many female pilots used for cargo flights </li></ul>
  26. 34. Production <ul><li>Government takes control of economy during the war </li></ul><ul><li>War Production Board: government agency in charge of the economy. Helped factories convert to making military goods </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment went way down, production went way up, Depression over </li></ul>
  27. 35. Rationing <ul><li>Most factories were producing military goods, so consumer goods became scarce. </li></ul><ul><li>The government limited amount of goods people could buy. Americans had to use coupons to buy many products. No coupons = no products </li></ul><ul><li>Victory Gardens: Americans encouraged to grow their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Government paid for the war by raising taxes and selling bonds </li></ul>
  28. 36. Women & the Economy <ul><li>Similar to WWI, many women worked in factories producing military goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 5 million women worked </li></ul><ul><li>Many won better wages & hours </li></ul><ul><li>War work made women more confident in themselves </li></ul>
  29. 37. African Americans <ul><li>Many African Americans joined the segregated military </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to WWI, many African Americans moved to northern cities for factory work </li></ul><ul><li>Double “V” Campaign : Victory in war & victory against discrimination at home. Reduced job discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans served in all branches of armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Tuskegee Airmen: group of very successful, heroic African American fighter pilots </li></ul>
  30. 38. Japanese Internment
  31. 39. Because Pearl Harbor was a “sneak attack” Americans began to distrust Americans of Japanese or even Chinese descent.
  32. 40. There were rumors that Japanese-American citizens would spy for Japan or sabotage the war effort.
  33. 41. The U.S. government decided to lock up any Japanese-Americans for the duration of the war.
  34. 42. Internment camps were set-up in isolated areas of the country
  35. 43. Japanese-Americans were rounded and sent by train to their new “homes”
  36. 45. 120,000 Japanese-Americans were placed in camps for the duration of the war.
  37. 46. More Discrimination <ul><li>German & Italian Americans also faced discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Curfews, job discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>11,000 Germans & several hundred Italian-Americans locked up for the war </li></ul>
  38. 47. Mexican Americans & the Bracero Program <ul><li>US didn’t have enough workers </li></ul><ul><li>1942 treaty with Mexico: allowed businesses to bring in Mexican laborers; The Bracero Program </li></ul><ul><li>Led to racial tension & fights between Mexicans & Anglos in the Southwest </li></ul><ul><li>Many Mexican-Americans served in military </li></ul>
  39. 48. Major Battles & Turning Points <ul><li>Siege of Stalingrad: Nazis running out of oil. Need to get oil in Caspian Sea. Can’t conquer Stalingrad. 900 day siege, Nazis fail. 1 million Soviets die . </li></ul>Stalingrad
  40. 49. Stalingrad <ul><li>Important because the Soviets did not allow the Nazis to get the oil that their war machine needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Tide of war began turning in favor of the Allies </li></ul>
  41. 50. The Japanese in the Pacific <ul><li>By 1942 the Japanese controlled much of the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>US Navy (aircraft carriers) started to turn the tide at the Battle of Wake Island </li></ul>
  42. 51. Battle of El Alamein <ul><li>British defeat Germans in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Beat German General Erwin Rommel </li></ul><ul><li>Saved supply route </li></ul><ul><li>Cut Nazis off from oil </li></ul>Allied Supplies
  43. 52. Invasion of Italy, 1943 <ul><li>Combined British & American invasion of Italy didn’t go very well, but it stretched the German army very thin </li></ul>
  44. 53. Invasion of Normandy (D-Day), 1944 <ul><li>Allies invade France to free it from German control </li></ul><ul><li>Created 2 Front war for Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Germany will soon be overpowered by Allies </li></ul>
  45. 54. Allies Win, FDR Dies <ul><li>1944: British, Americans, Soviets all close in on Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler commits suicide in bunker, Germans surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>FDR wins re-election in 1944, dies in 1945. Harry S Truman becomes President </li></ul>
  46. 55. War in the Pacific <ul><li>A. US Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i. Regain the Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii. Invade the Japanese Islands </li></ul></ul>
  47. 56. War in the Pacific… <ul><li>B. Island Hopping: invade Japan by capturing islands in the Pacific along the way </li></ul>
  48. 57. Island Hopping <ul><li>i. Navajo code-talkers help US forces communicate without Japanese interception </li></ul>
  49. 58. Island Hopping <ul><li>ii. Gen. MacArthur leads US forces to victory in Philippines, Iwo Jima, & Okinawa </li></ul>
  50. 61. II. Surrender of Japan <ul><li>Potsdam Declaration: Allies demand unconditional surrender or Japan will face, “prompt and utter destruction.” </li></ul><ul><li>Enola Gay drops 1 st atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan; 70,000 people killed instantly. 3 days later another a-bomb dropped on Nagasaki. 40,000 people killed instantly. Many more people die later from radiation poisoning. </li></ul>
  51. 62. The Atomic Bomb
  52. 65. The Holocaust <ul><li>6 million Jews, 5 million Gypsies, communists, homosexuals, mentally & physically disabled, POW’s, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 11 million people systematically murdered by the Nazi regime of Germany </li></ul>
  53. 69. The Nuremberg Trials <ul><li>War crimes trials </li></ul><ul><li>1945-1946: The Allies put Nazi leaders on trial for the atrocities of the Holocaust </li></ul><ul><li>“ I was just following orders” not an excuse </li></ul><ul><li>12 Nazi leaders hanged for their crimes </li></ul>