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This document represented the moment of transformation of the battle of the settlers from Great Britain for the
protection of his rights of “English “ men in a revolution aimed at overthrowing the existing form of government at
the time. It was not aimed to define a new form of government and , therefore, it should not be confused with the
Constitution of the United States of America. To the American colonists it represented an announcement to the
whole world achieved independence from the British colonies . The objective was to strengthen the support to make
their own battle and encourage intervention in favor of some European powers , particularly France. The statement
was drafted by the Commission of the Five composed by Thomas Jefferson (chief editor), John Adams , Benjamin
Franklin, Robert R. Livingston and Roger Sherman. It was ratified in Philadelphia July 4, 1776 by thirty-three
delegates of the Second Continental Congress (called Founding Fathers).
The original of the declaration, almost illegible , is exhibited in the National Archives in Washington , the museum
that houses many documents , official or otherwise, of the events that have marked the history of the United States.
The declaration of independence is preserved and exhibited to the public together with the United States
Constitution and the Bill of Rights in the most prestigious hall , called the Rotunda because of its circular shape.
In the first part there are some references to Enlightenment principles and natural law , including the reference to "
natural and divine law " and the principle of equality : "All men are created equal ," and immediately after the
reference to " inalienable rights " . It also refers to the right of the people to rebel against constituted authority
theorized by Locke : "It is the right of the people to alter or abolish " .
The systemof federal government
Established by ArticleI of the Constitution, the
Legislative Branch consists of the house of
representative and senate, which together form
the United States congress.
Legislative Branch
TheCongress has got the sole authority to enact legislation and declare war, the right to confirm or reject
many Presidential appointments and substantial investigative powers. Congress has also authority over
financial and budgetary policy through the enumerated power to lie and collected taxes, duties, imposts and
excises, to pay the debts.
TheHouseof Representative is made up of 435 elected members divided among the fifty states in proposition
on the population each state contains. There are also 6 and no-voting members, representing the District of
Columbia, the common wealth of Puerto Rico, and four other territories of the United States. The members of
the house are elected every two years and its members must be 25 years of age, U.S. citizens for at least 7
years and residents of the state they represent. The house has the power to initiate revenue bills, impeach
federal officials, and direct the president in case of an electoral college tie.
TheSenateis composed of 100 senators, two for each state. Until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in
1913, senators were chosen by state legislatures, not by popular vote. Since then, they have been elected to six-
year terms by the people of each state. About one-third of the senate is up for reelection every two years.
Senators must be third years of age, U.S. citizens for at least nine years, and residents of the state they
represent. Is power to confirm the President’s appointments that require consent, and to ratify treaties.
The Executive Branch
The President
The power of the Executive Branch is vested in the President of the United States, who also acts as head of state and
Commander- in- Chief of the armed forces. Under Article II of Constitution, the President is responsible for the execution
and enforcement of the laws created by Congress. The president as the power either to sign legislation into law or to veto
bills enacted by Congress, although Congress may override a veto with a two-thirds vote of both houses. The Executive
Branch conducts diplomacy with other nations, and the President has the power to negotiate and sign treaties, which also
must be ratified by two-thirds of the Senate. The President can issue executive orders, which direct executive officers of
clarify and further existing laws. The President also has unlimited power to extend pardons and clemencies for federal
crimes, except in cases of impeachment . The Constitution lists only three qualifications for the17 Presidency – the President
must be 35 years of age, be a natural born citizen, and must have lived in the United State for at least 14 years. And though
millions of Americans vote in presidential election every four years, the President is not, in fact , directly elected by the
people. Instead, on the first Tuesday in November of every fourth year, the people elect the members of the Electoral College.
Apportioned by population to the 50 states-one for each member of their congressional delegation- these Electors then cast
the votes for President. There are currently 538 electors in the Electoral College.
The Cabinet
The Cabinet is an advisory body made up of the heads of the 15 executive departments (Department of agriculture
,Department of commerce, Department of defense, Department of education, Department of energy, Department of health
and human services , Department of homeland security, Department of housing and urban development, Department of
interior, Department of justice, Department of labor, Department of state, Department of transportation, Department of
treasury, Department of veterans affairs).Appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to running
major federal agencies, the play an important role in the Presidential line of succession. All the members of the Cabinet take
the title Secretary, excepting the head of the Justice Department, who is styled Attorney General.
The Judicial Branch
Where the Executive and legislative branches are elected by people, members of the judicial branch are appointed
by the president and confirmed by the senate.
ArticleIII of the constitution which establishes the Judicial Branch, leaves Congress significant discretion to
determine the shape and structure in the federal judiciary .Even the number of supreme court Justices is left to
congress (nowadays the members are nine with one Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices).
Federal judges can only be removed through impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction in the
Senate. Judges and Justices serve no fixed them, the serve until their death, retirement, or conviction by the
Senate. Generally, congress determines the jurisdiction of the federal courts. In some cases, however, the
constitution grants the Supreme Court original jurisdiction. The courts only try actual cases and controversies:
these means that the courts do no issue advisory opinions on the constitutionality of laws or de legality of actions
if the ruling would have no practical effect.
Federal courts enjoy the sole power to interpret the law, determine the constitutionality of the law, and apply it to
individual cases.
Section 2.
The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising
under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties
made, or which shall be made, under their authority;--to all cases
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;--to all
cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;--to controversies to
which the United States shall be a party;--to controversies between
two or more states;--between a state and citizens of another state;--
between citizens of different states;--between citizens of the same
state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a
state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.
Section 1 .
In every State shall be allocated the full faith and full credit to the acts , access to
public documents and judicial proceedings of other states;
Section 2 .
The citizens of each State shall be entitled in all other states to all the privileges
and immunities relating to the condition of all citizens.
Section 3 .
New States may be admitted to the Union by decision of the Congress ; but no
new State shall be formed or within the jurisdiction of any existing state ; and no
State may be formed by the meeting of two or more States , or parts of States,
without the consent of the Legislature of the States concerned as well as of the
Congress.
The Congress shall have the authority to dispose of land and other property
belonging to the United States and to establish all the rules and measures in that
territory were considered necessary .
Section 4 .
The United States shall guarantee to every state in the Union a republican form of
government , and shall protect each of them against any invasion ;
The Congress shall convene the Assembly to propose amendments. No
amendment , first year
1808 may change in any way the first and fourth paragraphs of Section 9 of
Article 1, and that no State, without its consent , shall be deprived of equal
representation in the Senate.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the
several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United
States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support
this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to
any Office or public Trust under the United States.
Cicala Francesca
Isernia Martina
Manto Maria Pia
Persico Roberta
Tafuri Alessia

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4I 2014

  • 1.
  • 2. This document represented the moment of transformation of the battle of the settlers from Great Britain for the protection of his rights of “English “ men in a revolution aimed at overthrowing the existing form of government at the time. It was not aimed to define a new form of government and , therefore, it should not be confused with the Constitution of the United States of America. To the American colonists it represented an announcement to the whole world achieved independence from the British colonies . The objective was to strengthen the support to make their own battle and encourage intervention in favor of some European powers , particularly France. The statement was drafted by the Commission of the Five composed by Thomas Jefferson (chief editor), John Adams , Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston and Roger Sherman. It was ratified in Philadelphia July 4, 1776 by thirty-three delegates of the Second Continental Congress (called Founding Fathers). The original of the declaration, almost illegible , is exhibited in the National Archives in Washington , the museum that houses many documents , official or otherwise, of the events that have marked the history of the United States. The declaration of independence is preserved and exhibited to the public together with the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights in the most prestigious hall , called the Rotunda because of its circular shape. In the first part there are some references to Enlightenment principles and natural law , including the reference to " natural and divine law " and the principle of equality : "All men are created equal ," and immediately after the reference to " inalienable rights " . It also refers to the right of the people to rebel against constituted authority theorized by Locke : "It is the right of the people to alter or abolish " .
  • 3. The systemof federal government Established by ArticleI of the Constitution, the Legislative Branch consists of the house of representative and senate, which together form the United States congress.
  • 4. Legislative Branch TheCongress has got the sole authority to enact legislation and declare war, the right to confirm or reject many Presidential appointments and substantial investigative powers. Congress has also authority over financial and budgetary policy through the enumerated power to lie and collected taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts. TheHouseof Representative is made up of 435 elected members divided among the fifty states in proposition on the population each state contains. There are also 6 and no-voting members, representing the District of Columbia, the common wealth of Puerto Rico, and four other territories of the United States. The members of the house are elected every two years and its members must be 25 years of age, U.S. citizens for at least 7 years and residents of the state they represent. The house has the power to initiate revenue bills, impeach federal officials, and direct the president in case of an electoral college tie. TheSenateis composed of 100 senators, two for each state. Until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913, senators were chosen by state legislatures, not by popular vote. Since then, they have been elected to six- year terms by the people of each state. About one-third of the senate is up for reelection every two years. Senators must be third years of age, U.S. citizens for at least nine years, and residents of the state they represent. Is power to confirm the President’s appointments that require consent, and to ratify treaties.
  • 5. The Executive Branch The President The power of the Executive Branch is vested in the President of the United States, who also acts as head of state and Commander- in- Chief of the armed forces. Under Article II of Constitution, the President is responsible for the execution and enforcement of the laws created by Congress. The president as the power either to sign legislation into law or to veto bills enacted by Congress, although Congress may override a veto with a two-thirds vote of both houses. The Executive Branch conducts diplomacy with other nations, and the President has the power to negotiate and sign treaties, which also must be ratified by two-thirds of the Senate. The President can issue executive orders, which direct executive officers of clarify and further existing laws. The President also has unlimited power to extend pardons and clemencies for federal crimes, except in cases of impeachment . The Constitution lists only three qualifications for the17 Presidency – the President must be 35 years of age, be a natural born citizen, and must have lived in the United State for at least 14 years. And though millions of Americans vote in presidential election every four years, the President is not, in fact , directly elected by the people. Instead, on the first Tuesday in November of every fourth year, the people elect the members of the Electoral College. Apportioned by population to the 50 states-one for each member of their congressional delegation- these Electors then cast the votes for President. There are currently 538 electors in the Electoral College. The Cabinet The Cabinet is an advisory body made up of the heads of the 15 executive departments (Department of agriculture ,Department of commerce, Department of defense, Department of education, Department of energy, Department of health and human services , Department of homeland security, Department of housing and urban development, Department of interior, Department of justice, Department of labor, Department of state, Department of transportation, Department of treasury, Department of veterans affairs).Appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to running major federal agencies, the play an important role in the Presidential line of succession. All the members of the Cabinet take the title Secretary, excepting the head of the Justice Department, who is styled Attorney General.
  • 6. The Judicial Branch Where the Executive and legislative branches are elected by people, members of the judicial branch are appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate. ArticleIII of the constitution which establishes the Judicial Branch, leaves Congress significant discretion to determine the shape and structure in the federal judiciary .Even the number of supreme court Justices is left to congress (nowadays the members are nine with one Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices). Federal judges can only be removed through impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate. Judges and Justices serve no fixed them, the serve until their death, retirement, or conviction by the Senate. Generally, congress determines the jurisdiction of the federal courts. In some cases, however, the constitution grants the Supreme Court original jurisdiction. The courts only try actual cases and controversies: these means that the courts do no issue advisory opinions on the constitutionality of laws or de legality of actions if the ruling would have no practical effect. Federal courts enjoy the sole power to interpret the law, determine the constitutionality of the law, and apply it to individual cases.
  • 7. Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;--to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;--to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;--to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;--to controversies between two or more states;--between a state and citizens of another state;-- between citizens of different states;--between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.
  • 8. Section 1 . In every State shall be allocated the full faith and full credit to the acts , access to public documents and judicial proceedings of other states; Section 2 . The citizens of each State shall be entitled in all other states to all the privileges and immunities relating to the condition of all citizens. Section 3 . New States may be admitted to the Union by decision of the Congress ; but no new State shall be formed or within the jurisdiction of any existing state ; and no State may be formed by the meeting of two or more States , or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislature of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. The Congress shall have the authority to dispose of land and other property belonging to the United States and to establish all the rules and measures in that territory were considered necessary . Section 4 . The United States shall guarantee to every state in the Union a republican form of government , and shall protect each of them against any invasion ;
  • 9. The Congress shall convene the Assembly to propose amendments. No amendment , first year 1808 may change in any way the first and fourth paragraphs of Section 9 of Article 1, and that no State, without its consent , shall be deprived of equal representation in the Senate. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
  • 10.
  • 11. Cicala Francesca Isernia Martina Manto Maria Pia Persico Roberta Tafuri Alessia