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Figurative Language
         Identifying
  Metaphor, Simile, Hyperbole
   Personification and Irony
PURPOSES
 Capture the reader’s interest
 Intensify the intended meaning
 Strengthen reader’s mental envisioning
 Contribute to the mood or tone
 Help the reader make personal
  connections
Simile
 A literary
  comparison using
  “like” or “as”
 Example: Mary had
  a little lamb, its
  fleece was white as
  snow.
Metaphor
 A literary comparison
  between two things in which
  something is described as
  though it were something
  else. This type of comparison
  does not use “like” or “as.”
 Example: Ronnie is a pig
  when he eats.
Hyperbole
 A literary technique that
  uses exaggeration for
  emphasis or humorous
  effect
 Example: Sherri said she
  was so hungry she could
  eat an elephant.
Personification
 A literary technique
  where non-human things
  are given human
  characteristics
 Example: The graceful
  tree stretched out her
  branches to touch the
  sky.
Irony
 A literary technique that
  involves surprising, interesting,
  or amusing contradictions. A
  contrast between expectation
  and reality.
 Example: The scientific genius
  Albert Einstein flunked out of
  math when he was in high
  school.
PRACTICE
 Correctly identify the type
of figurative language being
     used in the following
          examples:
1. Personification, Simile or Metaphor

He wore a white oxford
 (shirt) that was perfectly
 pressed and smooth as a
 newborn’s flesh.
                       --Mauren Stuart
                       Elements of Literature, First
                       Course
2. Personification, Simile or
           Hyperbole

“Your grandmother must
 be as old as dirt,”
 Jonathan whispered to
 Joy.
3. Irony, Simile or Metaphor

Even at nighttime Mama
 is a sunrise that promises
 tomorrow and tomorrow.

                    --Evelyn Tooley Hunt
                    Elements of Literature, First
                    Course
4. Irony, Hyperbole, or Simile

My sister wears so much
 make-up that she loses
 30 pounds when she
 takes it off at night.
5. Personification, Simile or
           Hyperbole

The old car grumbled as
 grandpa tried to start the
 engine.
6. Irony, Personification, Metaphor

 When Brooke, the drama queen,
  tried out for the school play, she
  was certain she would be awarded
  the lead part. However, when the
  cast list was posted she had been
  assigned to be the leading lady’s
  servant.
7. Irony, Personification, Hyperbole

 Mr. Richards, an 89-year old
  man, won the PowerBall lottery
  for $7.8 million, and died in his
  sleep that same day.
8. Personification, Simile or Metaphor

 For most of November, winter
  toyed with Two Mills, whispered
  in its ear, tickled it under the
  chin.


                      --Jerry Spinelli
                      Maniac Magee
9. Hyperbole, Simile or Irony

 High above, a silver plane
  crossed the sky, silent as a
  spider.



                      --Jerry Spinelli
                      Maniac Magee
10. Hyperbole, Simile or Irony

 I have a million things to do
  today complained Ms. Fredrick
  as she hurried across the
  parking lot.
11. Irony, Simile or Metaphor

 “Humor is the shock absorber of
  life; it helps us take the blows.”




                      --Peggy Noonan
12. Personification, Simile or
             Metaphor

 Although the cowboy pushed
  with all his might, the heavy
  rock refused to budge.
13. Personification, Simile or
             Metaphor
 He slithered into town quietly so
  no one would notice when he
  dug his fangs in and slowly
  poisoned their minds.
14. Personification, Simile or
             Metaphor
 He took a step further into the
  room, his head swinging from
  side to side like an old tiger
  scenting prey.


                       --Neil Gaiman
                       The Graveyard Book
15. Personification, Simile or
             Metaphor
 The hills turned as soft and
  green as velvet.
16. Personification, Simile or
             Metaphor

 “…now all my questions
  bunched up in my throat like a
  big wad of feathers.”


                      --Clare Vanderpool
                      Moon Over Manifest
17. Personification, Simile or
             Metaphor

 “…he looked like a dandelion
  puff before the wind decapitated
  it.”


                      --Clare Vanderpool
                      Moon Over Manifest
18. Personification, Simile or
            Metaphor

 The whole gym shakes when
  she lands after a lay-up.
19. Personification, Simile or
             Metaphor

 My heart did a somersault in my
  chest.
20. Metaphor, Simile, Irony
 A poacher who killed elephants for their tusks
  snuck into a wild life refuge's animal hospital area
  to kill a sick elephant because he thought it would
  be easy money. The elephant's problem was
  apparently constipation, and the medicine they
  gave the old fellow decided to take effect about
  this time. The poacher was trying to sneak up
  behind the elephant, trying to get close enough to
  pop it with a tranquilizer without making too much
  noise. As he got just behind the elephant, out
  gushed about 2 weeks worth of... well... crap. The
  poacher was completely buried and smothered to
  death.
Review Your Notes
 What is the difference between a
  simile and a metaphor?
 Name an example of either hyperbole
  or personification in song lyrics.
 Create a simile to describe your
  current mood.
 Why would a writer use
  personification to describe a
  character’s emotions.

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Figurative Language Practice

  • 1. Figurative Language Identifying Metaphor, Simile, Hyperbole Personification and Irony
  • 2. PURPOSES  Capture the reader’s interest  Intensify the intended meaning  Strengthen reader’s mental envisioning  Contribute to the mood or tone  Help the reader make personal connections
  • 3. Simile  A literary comparison using “like” or “as”  Example: Mary had a little lamb, its fleece was white as snow.
  • 4. Metaphor  A literary comparison between two things in which something is described as though it were something else. This type of comparison does not use “like” or “as.”  Example: Ronnie is a pig when he eats.
  • 5. Hyperbole  A literary technique that uses exaggeration for emphasis or humorous effect  Example: Sherri said she was so hungry she could eat an elephant.
  • 6. Personification  A literary technique where non-human things are given human characteristics  Example: The graceful tree stretched out her branches to touch the sky.
  • 7. Irony  A literary technique that involves surprising, interesting, or amusing contradictions. A contrast between expectation and reality.  Example: The scientific genius Albert Einstein flunked out of math when he was in high school.
  • 8. PRACTICE Correctly identify the type of figurative language being used in the following examples:
  • 9. 1. Personification, Simile or Metaphor He wore a white oxford (shirt) that was perfectly pressed and smooth as a newborn’s flesh. --Mauren Stuart Elements of Literature, First Course
  • 10. 2. Personification, Simile or Hyperbole “Your grandmother must be as old as dirt,” Jonathan whispered to Joy.
  • 11. 3. Irony, Simile or Metaphor Even at nighttime Mama is a sunrise that promises tomorrow and tomorrow. --Evelyn Tooley Hunt Elements of Literature, First Course
  • 12. 4. Irony, Hyperbole, or Simile My sister wears so much make-up that she loses 30 pounds when she takes it off at night.
  • 13. 5. Personification, Simile or Hyperbole The old car grumbled as grandpa tried to start the engine.
  • 14. 6. Irony, Personification, Metaphor  When Brooke, the drama queen, tried out for the school play, she was certain she would be awarded the lead part. However, when the cast list was posted she had been assigned to be the leading lady’s servant.
  • 15. 7. Irony, Personification, Hyperbole  Mr. Richards, an 89-year old man, won the PowerBall lottery for $7.8 million, and died in his sleep that same day.
  • 16. 8. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  For most of November, winter toyed with Two Mills, whispered in its ear, tickled it under the chin. --Jerry Spinelli Maniac Magee
  • 17. 9. Hyperbole, Simile or Irony  High above, a silver plane crossed the sky, silent as a spider. --Jerry Spinelli Maniac Magee
  • 18. 10. Hyperbole, Simile or Irony  I have a million things to do today complained Ms. Fredrick as she hurried across the parking lot.
  • 19. 11. Irony, Simile or Metaphor  “Humor is the shock absorber of life; it helps us take the blows.” --Peggy Noonan
  • 20. 12. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  Although the cowboy pushed with all his might, the heavy rock refused to budge.
  • 21. 13. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  He slithered into town quietly so no one would notice when he dug his fangs in and slowly poisoned their minds.
  • 22. 14. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  He took a step further into the room, his head swinging from side to side like an old tiger scenting prey. --Neil Gaiman The Graveyard Book
  • 23. 15. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  The hills turned as soft and green as velvet.
  • 24. 16. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  “…now all my questions bunched up in my throat like a big wad of feathers.” --Clare Vanderpool Moon Over Manifest
  • 25. 17. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  “…he looked like a dandelion puff before the wind decapitated it.” --Clare Vanderpool Moon Over Manifest
  • 26. 18. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  The whole gym shakes when she lands after a lay-up.
  • 27. 19. Personification, Simile or Metaphor  My heart did a somersault in my chest.
  • 28. 20. Metaphor, Simile, Irony  A poacher who killed elephants for their tusks snuck into a wild life refuge's animal hospital area to kill a sick elephant because he thought it would be easy money. The elephant's problem was apparently constipation, and the medicine they gave the old fellow decided to take effect about this time. The poacher was trying to sneak up behind the elephant, trying to get close enough to pop it with a tranquilizer without making too much noise. As he got just behind the elephant, out gushed about 2 weeks worth of... well... crap. The poacher was completely buried and smothered to death.
  • 29. Review Your Notes  What is the difference between a simile and a metaphor?  Name an example of either hyperbole or personification in song lyrics.  Create a simile to describe your current mood.  Why would a writer use personification to describe a character’s emotions.