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Bridging the Gap
Encouraging Engagement with Library Services & Technologies
Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph. D., Senior Resea...
Evolution of User Behavior
• Previously:
• Institutionally-provided resources & technology

• Local infrastructure
• User ...
Outside-In & Inside-Out: Discovery and Discoverability

• Outside-in
• Acquired books, journals,
databases from external s...
84%

of users began
information
search with a
search engine

How many began their search on a library
website?

1%

(Centr...
Americans who have
visited a library website
(past 12 months)

Those who used a
handheld device to
access library website
...
Current Environment
• Challenges
• Budget cuts
• High retirement rates
• Hiring freezes

• Opportunity
• Best value for mo...
Importance of Assessment
“Librarians are increasingly called upon to document
and articulate the value of academic and res...
Why Assessment?

• Answers questions:
• What do users/stakeholders want & need?
• How can services/programs better meet ne...
Assessment Defined
Process of…
• Defining

Collecting

• Selecting
• Designing

Analyzing

• Collecting
• Analyzing

Inter...
User-centered data
collection &
assessment
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Surveys

The world’s libraries. Connected.

#InsightSeries
Example: WorldCat Usability Survey

• Paper or Online (e.g., Survey
Monkey)
• Consider order of questions

• Be specific
•...
Individual
Interviews

The world’s libraries. Connected.

#InsightSeries
Example: Digital Visitors & Residents Participant Questions

1. Describe the things you enjoy doing
with technology and th...
Example: Digital Visitors & Residents Participant Questions
4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you
needed a...
Focus Group
Interviews

The world’s libraries. Connected.

#InsightSeries
Example: Focus Group Interviews
How & why do users employ
Uses

?

• Resource discovery
• Determining location of items
• ...
Diaries

The world’s libraries. Connected.

#InsightSeries
Example: Digital Visitors and Residents Diaries

The world’s libraries. Connected.
Findings

The world’s libraries. Connected.

#InsightSeries
Sources are overwhelmingly digital
The world’s libraries. Connected.
E-journals
•Visit only a few
minutes
•Shorter sessions
•Basic search
•View few pages

The world’s libraries. Connected.

(...
Online resources
•99.5% use journals as
primary resource
•Google, Web of Science,
PubMed, Science Direct,
JSTOR

The world...
Information-Seeking Behavior
• Power browsing
• Scan small chunks of
information
• View first few pages
• No real reading
...
The word “librarian” only
mentioned once in original
interviews by Emerging Stage
participants as a source of
information
...
Mobile Access

The world’s libraries. Connected.
Databases
• Electronic databases
not perceived as library
sources

The world’s libraries. Connected.

• Frustration locati...
Social Media

Need to be present & available in
spaces where users live or dwell
(Connaway, Lanclos , and Hood 2013)

The ...
“I get on Twitter a whole bunch. It‟s
Twitter or Facebook are what I usually
use the most to talk to my friends.”
(USS1, F...
Can‟t live without…

“I think my phone….I just – it‟s just the easiest
way to keep in contact with people. And also with
p...
Course Management Systems vs. the Open Web

“I felt that they used limited
resources and did not research
the topic other ...
The Learning Black Market

“It‟s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all
say – you know, when they explain t...
Evaluation, Authority, and Legitimacy

Reliability
• Concerned with selecting
reliable sources
• Websites that end in .edu...
“It depends, it depends who‟s made the website or
what I have been told about the website or whether I
know about it at al...
Convenience

Convenience trumps all other reasons for selecting and using a source
(Connaway, Lanclos, and Hood 2013)

The...
Recommendations

The world’s libraries. Connected.

#InsightSeries
Smart Searching

• Anticipate/ understand the
user‟s needs
• Search filters

• Customize range of time
• Search from mobil...
Convenient and Familiar Interface Designs

The world’s libraries. Connected.

#InsightSeries
Embedding & Engaging in the Individuals‟ Networks

• Available 24/7
• Digital & face-to-face communities are
critical
• So...
Community is Content
• Social networks formed around
social objects
• Music, photos, videos, links

• Reviewing
• Tagging
...
“By focusing on relationship building instead
of service excellence, organizations can
uncover new needs and be in positio...
References
Association of College and Research Libraries. 2010. Value of academic libraries: A comprehensive research revi...
References
Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Donna Lanclos, and Erin M. Hood. 2013. “I find Google a lot easier than going to the ...
References
Dempsey, Lorcan. 2012. Thirteen ways of looking at libraries, discovery, and the catalog: Scale, workflow, atte...
References
OCLC Research. 2012. Max Klein named OCLC Research Wikipedian in Residence. May 22,
http://oclc.org/research/ne...
References

WorldCat iPhone app offers “smart prefix” search. Library Journal 134, no. 8 (2009): 17. Library, Information ...
Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D.
connawal@oclc.org

@LConnaway

Questions?

The world’s libraries. Connected.
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Bridging the Gap: Encouraging Engagement with Library Services and Technologies

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Bridging the Gap: Encouraging Engagement with Library Services and Technologies

  1. 1. Bridging the Gap Encouraging Engagement with Library Services & Technologies Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph. D., Senior Research Scientist, OCLC Presented by in partnership with Getting off the Island: Collaborating to Create Boundless Collections October 15, 2013 The world’s libraries. Connected.
  2. 2. Evolution of User Behavior • Previously: • Institutionally-provided resources & technology • Local infrastructure • User built workflow around the library • Currently: • Attention scarce, resources abundant • Free sources of information • Outside the institution (Dempsey 2008) (Dempsey 2012) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  3. 3. Outside-In & Inside-Out: Discovery and Discoverability • Outside-in • Acquired books, journals, databases from external systems • Provided discovery systems for local constituency • Inside-out • Now a producer of a range of resources • Digitized images, special collections, learning & research materials, research data, administrative records • Promote discoverability of institutional resources (Dempsey 2012) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  4. 4. 84% of users began information search with a search engine How many began their search on a library website? 1% (Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research 2008) The world’s libraries. Connected. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  5. 5. Americans who have visited a library website (past 12 months) Those who used a handheld device to access library website 25% 13% “Looking and reading an entire book takes too long when the specific information can be gained online in a matter of minutes.” (US, Age 38) (De Rosa 2005) (Zickuhr, Rainie and Purcell 2013) The world’s libraries. Connected. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  6. 6. Current Environment • Challenges • Budget cuts • High retirement rates • Hiring freezes • Opportunity • Best value for most use • Understand how, why, & under what circumstances individuals use systems & services • Promote value of library The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  7. 7. Importance of Assessment “Librarians are increasingly called upon to document and articulate the value of academic and research libraries and their contribution to institutional mission and goals.” (ACRL Value of Academic Libraries 2010, 6) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  8. 8. Why Assessment? • Answers questions: • What do users/stakeholders want & need? • How can services/programs better meet needs? • Is what we do working? • Could we do better? • What are problem areas? • Traditional stats don‟t tell whole story The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  9. 9. Assessment Defined Process of… • Defining Collecting • Selecting • Designing Analyzing • Collecting • Analyzing Interpreting • Interpreting • Using information to increase service/program effectiveness The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  10. 10. User-centered data collection & assessment The world’s libraries. Connected.
  11. 11. Surveys The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  12. 12. Example: WorldCat Usability Survey • Paper or Online (e.g., Survey Monkey) • Consider order of questions • Be specific • Introduce sections • Keep it simple • Pre-test! 21 focus group interviews with: • 61 Librarians • 40 Students • 10 Booksellers • 7 Historians The world’s libraries. Connected. (Connaway and Wakeling 2012) #InsightSeries
  13. 13. Individual Interviews The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  14. 14. Example: Digital Visitors & Residents Participant Questions 1. Describe the things you enjoy doing with technology and the web each week. 2. Think of the ways you have used technology & the web for your studies. Describe a typical week. 3. Think about the next stage of your education. Tell me what you think this will be like. (White and Connaway 2011) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  15. 15. Example: Digital Visitors & Residents Participant Questions 4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed answers or solutions and you did a quick search and made do with it. You knew there were other sources but you decided not to use them. Please include sources such as friends, family, teachers, coaches, etc. 5. Have there been times when you were told to use a library or virtual learning environment (or learning platform), & used other source(s) instead? 6. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal way of getting information be? How would you go about using the systems and services? When? Where? How? (Connaway and Radford 2005-2007) (Dervin, Connaway and Prabha 2003-2005) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  16. 16. Focus Group Interviews The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  17. 17. Example: Focus Group Interviews How & why do users employ Uses ? • Resource discovery • Determining location of items • Academic / professional Strengths Challenges • Global scope • Search functionality • Content > functionality • Duplicate records & lack of a work-level • Interface = positive • Discrepancy between students and librarians • “Find a copy” functioned poorly outside US • Dead links • Marketing WorldCat (Connaway and Wakeling 2012) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  18. 18. Diaries The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  19. 19. Example: Digital Visitors and Residents Diaries The world’s libraries. Connected.
  20. 20. Findings The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  21. 21. Sources are overwhelmingly digital The world’s libraries. Connected.
  22. 22. E-journals •Visit only a few minutes •Shorter sessions •Basic search •View few pages The world’s libraries. Connected. (Wong, Stelmaszewska, Bhimani, Barn and Barn 2009)
  23. 23. Online resources •99.5% use journals as primary resource •Google, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, JSTOR The world’s libraries. Connected. (Research Information Network 2006)
  24. 24. Information-Seeking Behavior • Power browsing • Scan small chunks of information • View first few pages • No real reading • Squirreling • Short basic searches • Download content for later use • Differ with discipline (Research Information Network 2006) (Consortium of University Research Libraries, and Research Information Network 2007) (Connaway and Dickey 2010) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  25. 25. The word “librarian” only mentioned once in original interviews by Emerging Stage participants as a source of information One participant referred to “a lady in the library who helps you find things” (USU5, Male, Age 19, Systems Engineering) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  26. 26. Mobile Access The world’s libraries. Connected.
  27. 27. Databases • Electronic databases not perceived as library sources The world’s libraries. Connected. • Frustration locating & accessing full-text copies
  28. 28. Social Media Need to be present & available in spaces where users live or dwell (Connaway, Lanclos , and Hood 2013) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  29. 29. “I get on Twitter a whole bunch. It‟s Twitter or Facebook are what I usually use the most to talk to my friends.” (USS1, Female, Age 17, High School Student) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  30. 30. Can‟t live without… “I think my phone….I just – it‟s just the easiest way to keep in contact with people. And also with phones these days it‟s like a mini computer to be honest, Smartphones so yes.” (UKS7, Female, Age 17, Secondary School Student) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  31. 31. Course Management Systems vs. the Open Web “I felt that they used limited resources and did not research the topic other than using the internet. I can do an effective Google search myself and come up with the same resources.” (UOS-65381, Female, Age Range 56-65) Open web outnumbers CMS (Connaway, Lanclos, and Hood 2013) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  32. 32. The Learning Black Market “It‟s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, „Don‟t use Wikipedia.‟” (USU7, Female, Age 19, Political Science) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  33. 33. Evaluation, Authority, and Legitimacy Reliability • Concerned with selecting reliable sources • Websites that end in .edu, .ac., or .gov • Appearance of site determines reliability • Repetition is measure of reliability The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  34. 34. “It depends, it depends who‟s made the website or what I have been told about the website or whether I know about it at all. But it sounds silly but sometimes you can just tell whether a website looks reliable or not depending on how professional that looks and who‟s written it.” (UKU6, Female, Age 19, History) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  35. 35. Convenience Convenience trumps all other reasons for selecting and using a source (Connaway, Lanclos, and Hood 2013) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  36. 36. Recommendations The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  37. 37. Smart Searching • Anticipate/ understand the user‟s needs • Search filters • Customize range of time • Search from mobile phone • “Smart prefix search” The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  38. 38. Convenient and Familiar Interface Designs The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  39. 39. Embedding & Engaging in the Individuals‟ Networks • Available 24/7 • Digital & face-to-face communities are critical • Social media tools can be used to build relationships • Engage in interesting discussions & inventive strategies for making collections come to life using social media (Connaway, Lanclos , and Hood 2013) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  40. 40. Community is Content • Social networks formed around social objects • Music, photos, videos, links • Reviewing • Tagging • Commenting • Rating (Dempsey 2012) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  41. 41. “By focusing on relationship building instead of service excellence, organizations can uncover new needs and be in position to make a stronger impact.” (Matthews 2012) The world’s libraries. Connected. #InsightSeries
  42. 42. References Association of College and Research Libraries. 2010. Value of academic libraries: A comprehensive research review and report. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. Case, Donald O. 2012. Looking For Information: A Survey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs, and Behavior. Bingley: Emerald. Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research. 2008. Information behaviour of the researcher of the future: A CIBER briefing paper. London: CIBER. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni. 1996. Focus group interviews: A data collection methodology for decision making. Library Administration and Management 10, no. 4: 231-239. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Timothy J. Dickey. 2010. The digital information seeker: Report of the findings from selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC user behaviour projects. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/reports/2010/digitalinformationseekerreport.pdf. Connaway, Lynn Silipini, Timothy J. Dickey. 2010. Towards a profile of the researcher of today: What can we learn from JISC projects? Common themes identified in an analysis of JISC Virtual Research Environment and Digital Repository Projects. http://ie-repository.jisc.ac.uk/418/2/VirtualScholar_themesFromProjects_revised.pdf Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Timothy J. Dickey, and Marie L. Radford. 2011. “’If it is too inconvenient I’m not going after it: Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research 33, no. 3: 179-190. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Donna Lanclos, and Erin M. Hood. 2013. “I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google…” Where people go for information, what they use, and why. Accepted for publication, EDUCAUSE Review Online. The world’s libraries. Connected.
  43. 43. References Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Donna Lanclos, and Erin M. Hood. 2013. “I find Google a lot easier than going to the library website.” Imagine ways to innovate and inspire students to use the academic library. Proceedings of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) 2013 conference, April 10-13, 2013, Indianapolis, IN. http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/conferences/confsandpreconfs/2013/papers/Connaway_Google.pdf. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Donna Lanclos, David White, Alison Le Cornu, and Erin M. Hood. 2013. User-centered decision making: A new model for developing academic library services and systems. IFLA Journal 39, no. 1: 30-36. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Ronald R. Powell. 2010. Basic research methods for librarians. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Simon Wakeling. 2012. To use or not to use Worldcat.org: An international perspective from different user groups. OCLC internal report. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, David White, Donna Lanclos, and Alison Le Cornu. 2013. Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment? Information Research 18, no. 1. http://informationr.net/ir/181/infres181.html. Consortium of University Research Libraries, and Research Information Network. 2007. Researchers’ use of academic libraries and their services: A report. London: Research Information Network and Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL). Copeland, Larry. 2013. Driven by social media, Millennials do less driving. USA Today, October 2. De Rosa, Cathy, Joanne Cantrell, Diane Cellentani, Janet Hawk, Lillie Jenkins, and Alane Wilson. 2005. Perceptions of libraries and information resources. Dublin, OH: OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. De Rosa, Cathy, Joanne Cantrell, Matthew Carlson, Peggy Gallagher, Janet Hawk, and Charlotte Sturtz. 2010. Perceptions of libraries, 2010: Context and community. Dublin, OH: OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Dempsey, Lorcan. 2008. Always on: Libraries in a world of permanent connectivity. First Monday 14, no. 1, http://www.firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2291/207. The world’s libraries. Connected.
  44. 44. References Dempsey, Lorcan. 2012. Thirteen ways of looking at libraries, discovery, and the catalog: Scale, workflow, attention. Educause Review Online, http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/thirteen-ways-looking-libraries-discovery-and-catalog-scale-workflowattention. Dervin, Brenda, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, and Chandra Prabha. 2003-2005. Sense-making the information confluence: The hows and the whys of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Funded by the Institute for Museums and Library Services (IMLS). http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/past/orprojects/imls/default.htm. DeSantis, Nick. 2012. On Facebook, librarian brings 2 students from the early 1900s to life, The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 6, 2012, http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/on-facebook-librarian-brings-two-students-from-the-early1900s-to-life/34845. Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books. Hanft, Lila. 2008. "Creepy treehouse" effect: Twitter & Facebook suck when they’re required by your professor. Li'laTov'Cock'tail, August 18, http://lilatovcocktail.blogspot.com/2008/08/mandating-social-media-use-on-campus.html. Hernon, Peter, and Ellen Altman. 1998. Assessing service quality: Satisfying the expectations of library customers. Chicago: American Library Association. Janes, Joseph. 1999. Survey construction. Library Hi Tech 17, no. 3: 321-325. Kesselman, Martin A., and Sarah Barbara Watstein. 2009. Creating opportunities: Embedded librarians. Journal of Library Administration 49, no. 4: 383-400. Mathews, Brian. 2012. Think like a startup: A white paper to inspire library entrepreneurialism. http://chronicle.com/blognetwork/theubiquitouslibrarian/2012/04/04/think-like-a-startup-a-white-paper/. Nicholas, David, and Ian Rowlands. 2009. E-journals: Their use, value and impact. London: Research Information Network. The world’s libraries. Connected.
  45. 45. References OCLC Research. 2012. Max Klein named OCLC Research Wikipedian in Residence. May 22, http://oclc.org/research/news/2012/05-22.html. Radford, Marie L., and Lynn Silipigni Connaway. 2005-2008. Seeking synchronicity: Evaluating virtual reference services from user, non-user, and librarian perspectives. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity.html. Research Information Network. 2006. Researchers and discovery services: Behaviour, perceptions and needs. London: Research Information Network. Saunders, Laura. 2012. Faculty perspectives on information literacy as a student learning outcome. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 38, no. 4 (2012): 231. Smart Google searching—new tools and old standby’s. Success by Design News & Resources, October 4, 2010, http://www.successbydesigns.net/blog/smart-google-searching-new-tools-and-old-standbys/. White, David. 2008. Not “natives’”& “immigrants” but “visitors’ & “residents.” TALL Blog: Online Education with the University of Oxford, April 23, http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2008/07/23/not-natives-immigrants-but-visitors-residents/. White, David, and Lynn Silipigni Connaway. 2011. Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/. White, David S., and Alison Le Cornu. 2011. Visitors and residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday 16, no. 9, http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049. Wolcott, Harry R. 2011. Writing up qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Wong, William, Hanna Stelmaszewska, Nazlin Bhimani, Sukhbinder Barn, and Balbir Barn. 2009. User behaviour in resource discovery: Final report, http://www.ubird.mdx.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/ubird-report-final.pdf. The world’s libraries. Connected.
  46. 46. References WorldCat iPhone app offers “smart prefix” search. Library Journal 134, no. 8 (2009): 17. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts with Full Text. Zabel, Diane. 2011. Reference reborn: Breathing new life into public services librarianship. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. Zickuhr, Kathryn, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell. 2013. Library services in the digital age. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. The world’s libraries. Connected.
  47. 47. Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. connawal@oclc.org @LConnaway Questions? The world’s libraries. Connected.

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