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Inservice - Teaching with Primary Sources


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using primary sources in the K-12 classroom; inservice included activities in analyzing primary sources, using the PDFs available from the Library of Congress

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Inservice - Teaching with Primary Sources

  1. 1. Teaching with Primary Sources
  2. 2. What are primary sources? What’s a secondary source?
  3. 3. Why should I use primary sources?
  4. 4. Engage students <ul><li>Help students relate in a personal way </li></ul><ul><li>Promote deeper understanding of history as series of human events </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to seek additional evidence </li></ul><ul><li>First-person accounts bring history to life </li></ul>
  5. 5. Develop critical thinking skills <ul><li>Require critical and analytical reading </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of context and incomplete nature requires prior knowledge or pattern finding </li></ul><ul><li>move from concrete observations and facts to questioning and inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Questions bias, purpose, point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges assumptions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Construct knowledge <ul><li>Encourage students to confront contradictions </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing multiple sources: different points of view, shows complexity of past </li></ul><ul><li>Form conclusions based on evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize information from multiple sources </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate existing and new information to deepen understanding </li></ul>
  7. 7. How do I use primary sources?
  8. 8. Engage students <ul><li>Draw on prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage close observation </li></ul><ul><li>Help point out key details </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage them to think about personal response </li></ul>
  9. 9. Promote student inquiry <ul><li>Encourage speculation about source, creator and context </li></ul><ul><li>Does source agree with other sources? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it agree with prior knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Have them find other sources that support or contradict </li></ul>
  10. 10. Assess critical thinking & analysis <ul><li>Summarize what they’ve learned </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for reasons and evidence to support conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify questions for further investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop strategies for finding answers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Where can I use primary sources? <ul><li>Social studies </li></ul><ul><li>Language arts </li></ul><ul><li>Math </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Arts: music, art, drama </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Motion pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers/cartoons/advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul><ul><li>Printed ephemera </li></ul><ul><li>Sound recordings </li></ul>
  12. 12. Language Arts
  13. 13. Social Studies: Geography
  14. 14. Social Studies
  15. 15. Math
  16. 16. Science
  17. 17. Science
  18. 18. Arts: Music
  19. 19. Arts: Art
  20. 20. Where do I find primary sources? <ul><li>Archives </li></ul><ul><li>Museums </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul>
  21. 21. Evaluating primary source websites <ul><li>What domain is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s the author? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the site there? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did the documents come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information well organized and easy to use? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Volunteer Voices <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Tennessee's first statewide digital collection </li></ul><ul><li>A statewide network of primary resources accessible to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes materials from the state's archives, libraries, repositories, historic homes and museums. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Volunteer Voices <ul><li>Materials are organized by Tennessee’s K-12 Socials Studies Eras in American History, by subject, and are keyword searchable </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson plans, hints for teaching with primary sources and student handouts are also available in the Educators section ( ) </li></ul>
  24. 24. American Memory <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Provides free and open access through the Internet to written and spoken words, sound recordings, still and moving images, prints, maps, and sheet music </li></ul>
  25. 25. American Memory <ul><li>A Teachers Page provides classroom materials, including lesson plans, themed resources, primary source sets, presentations & activities and professional development materials </li></ul><ul><li>Collection can be browsed by topic, time period, format (map, photo, etc) and place </li></ul>
  26. 26. World Digital Library <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>cooperative project of the Library of Congress, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and partner libraries, archives, and educational and cultural institutions from the United States and around the world </li></ul>
  27. 27. World Digital Library <ul><li>Include rare and unique documents – books, journals, manuscripts, maps, prints and photographs, films, and sound recordings – that tell the story of the world’s cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Can be browsed by the map, by time, topic, or institution </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, more limited collection </li></ul>
  28. 28. Smithsonian’s History Explorer <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Very interactive site, provides presentations on various topics </li></ul><ul><li>Can be browsed by era, grade level or resource type </li></ul><ul><li>Provides lesson plans and other materials for teachers </li></ul>
  29. 29. National Archives <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>contains reproducible copies of primary documents from the holdings of the National Archives of the United States, teaching activities correlated to the National History Standards and National Standards for Civics and Government, and cross-curricular connections. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Further Resources <ul><li>Presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>Links: </li></ul>