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Diversity in living organisms.

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DIGITAL LIBRARY OF GLT SARASWATI BAL MANDIR, NEHRU NAGAR.

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Diversity in living organisms.

  1. 1. DIVERSITY IN LIVINGDIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMSORGANISMS SCIENCE
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Every organism whether plant or animal is unique in itself. There is a wide diversity in the flora (plants) and fauna (animals) in the world. The diversity we see today is the result of 3.5 billion years of organic evolution. During the course of this evolution several species vanished from the surface of the Earth and became extinct. It is estimated that more than fifty times the existing species have become extinct. With such a vast number of organisms - both living and extinct, it becomes impossible to study every one of them at individual level. This task of studying the diversity of living organisms can be made easier and more effective if the various organisms are arranged in an orderly manner.
  3. 3. PLANT KINGDOM PLANT KINGDOM CRYPTOGAMAE PHANEROGAMAE THALOPHYTA BRYOPHYTA PTERIDOPHYTA ALGAE FUNGI LICHENS GYMNOSPERMAE ANGIOSPERMAE MONOCOT DICOT
  4. 4. • INTRODUCTION • Eichler in 1883 suggested a system to classify the plant kingdom which is well accepted. He said that the plant kingdom is subdivided into two subkingdoms: Cryptogamae and Phanerogamae. sub kingdom cryptogamae are lower plants that do not bear flowers or seeds. They form three divisions.
  5. 5. THALLOPHYTATHALLOPHYTA The plant body is not differentiated into stem, rootThe plant body is not differentiated into stem, root and leaves but is in the form of an undividedand leaves but is in the form of an undivided thallus.thallus. Vascular tissues are absent.Vascular tissues are absent. The reproductive organs are single-celled andThe reproductive organs are single-celled and there is no embryo formation after fertilization.there is no embryo formation after fertilization. This division includes three sub-divisions: algae,This division includes three sub-divisions: algae, fungi and lichens.fungi and lichens.
  6. 6. BRIOPHYTA • Moss and Liverwort belong to this variety of plants. There are the simplest form of land plants. The plant body is flat and lack true leaves and roots. The upper surface of the plant body produces a stalk which bears a capsule. The capsule contains spores.
  7. 7. PTERIDOPHYTAPTERIDOPHYTA The plant body is differentiated intoThe plant body is differentiated into stem, leaves and roots.stem, leaves and roots. Vascular system is present.Vascular system is present. Leaves usually have leaflets.Leaves usually have leaflets. Spores are borne on theSpores are borne on the undersurface of the leaf.undersurface of the leaf. They grow in damp cool shadyThey grow in damp cool shady places.places.
  8. 8. Example
  9. 9. ALGAEALGAE ► Occur in ponds, lakes and fresh waterOccur in ponds, lakes and fresh water bodies. Sea weeds are found in marinebodies. Sea weeds are found in marine waters.waters. ► May be single celled, colonial orMay be single celled, colonial or filamentous.filamentous. ► Are autotropic i.e., they can prepare theirAre autotropic i.e., they can prepare their own food with the help of the green pigmentown food with the help of the green pigment i.e., chlorophyll present in the plant.i.e., chlorophyll present in the plant. Sometimes red, blue, yellow and brownSometimes red, blue, yellow and brown pigments are found.pigments are found. ► Blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria) areBlue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria) are included in this group of plants.included in this group of plants.
  10. 10. Examples
  11. 11. FUNGIFUNGI  These do not contain chlorophyll and hence areThese do not contain chlorophyll and hence are heterotropic and have diverse modes ofheterotropic and have diverse modes of nutrition. They may be saprophytic i.e.,nutrition. They may be saprophytic i.e., depending on dead or decaying organic matterdepending on dead or decaying organic matter for their food, or may be parasitic i.e.,for their food, or may be parasitic i.e., depending on living organisms for their fooddepending on living organisms for their food
  12. 12. ExampleExample
  13. 13. LICHENSLICHENS 1.1. This is a group which has twoThis is a group which has two varieties of plants, an algae andvarieties of plants, an algae and a fungus living in perfecta fungus living in perfect harmony. They co-exist forharmony. They co-exist for mutual benefit. This relationshipmutual benefit. This relationship is known as symbiosis. Theis known as symbiosis. The fungus absorbs water andfungus absorbs water and mineral salts and supplies it tomineral salts and supplies it to the alga. The alga prepares foodthe alga. The alga prepares food and supplies it to the fungus.and supplies it to the fungus.
  14. 14. Examples
  15. 15. KINGDOM PHANEROGAMAEKINGDOM PHANEROGAMAE This division is made up of plants that bear flowersThis division is made up of plants that bear flowers and seeds and make up the majority of the largerand seeds and make up the majority of the larger plants. The body is differentiated into true stem,plants. The body is differentiated into true stem, leaves and roots. Propagation of the plant takes placeleaves and roots. Propagation of the plant takes place with the help of seeds. Seeds are formed as a result ofwith the help of seeds. Seeds are formed as a result of sexual reproduction. The male and female gametessexual reproduction. The male and female gametes (sex cells) fuse together inside the ovary (female part(sex cells) fuse together inside the ovary (female part of the flower) and develop into the seed. In someof the flower) and develop into the seed. In some plants seed is not produced inside an ovary.plants seed is not produced inside an ovary. Phanerogamae is made into two further divisions.Phanerogamae is made into two further divisions. Gymnosperms (naked seeded plants)Gymnosperms (naked seeded plants) Angiosperms (Seed borne within a fruit)Angiosperms (Seed borne within a fruit)
  16. 16. DIVISION GYMNOSPERMAE • Gymnosperms are intermediate between cryptogams and angiosperms. The male flower is a cone which produces pollen. The female flower is much larger and consists of a rosette of carpels which bear ovules along the two margins.
  17. 17. DIVISION ANGIOSPERME • This group constitutes the largest group of plants. Seeds are produced inside an ovary which later becomes the fruit. These are highly evolved group of plants. The plant body is distinctly differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. • Based on the number of cotyledons (seed-leaves) that form the seed this group is divided into: • Monocotyledons (One seed leaf) Example: Rice, Wheat Dicotyledons (two seed leaves) Example: Beans, Mango
  18. 18. Animal Kingdom:- The following classification “telescope” clearly indicates the mechanism behind the classification of the Animal Kingdom
  19. 19. The chart given below briefly outlines the classification of the Animal Kingdom. ANIMALIA PORIFERA COELENTERATA PLATYHELMINTHES NEMATODA ANNELIDA ARTHROPODA MOLLUSCA PROTOCHORDATA VERTEBRATA PISCES AMPHIBIA REPTILA AVES MAMMALIA
  20. 20. PORIFERAPORIFERA The simplest multicellularThe simplest multicellular animals. The cells are looselyanimals. The cells are loosely held together and do not formheld together and do not form tissuestissues Aquatic in habitat (mostlyAquatic in habitat (mostly marine)marine) Ostia (pores) are present allOstia (pores) are present all over the body, with a singleover the body, with a single large opening on top calledlarge opening on top called osculumosculum Food and oxygen enter theFood and oxygen enter the organism along with water into aorganism along with water into a canal systemcanal system Support system made up of tinySupport system made up of tiny needle-like formations. Theyneedle-like formations. They may be made of silica, calciummay be made of silica, calcium or spongin fibresor spongin fibres Reproduction may be sexual,Reproduction may be sexual, asexual or buddingasexual or budding Example: Sycon, Spongilla,Example: Sycon, Spongilla, EuptectellaEuptectella
  21. 21. COLLENTERATACOLLENTERATA Two layered body which is radiallyTwo layered body which is radially symmetricalsymmetrical Aquatic in habitat which includes both freshAquatic in habitat which includes both fresh water and marinewater and marine The outer layer has tentacles armed withThe outer layer has tentacles armed with stinging cells cnidoblasts which can releasestinging cells cnidoblasts which can release venom into the victim. The inner layervenom into the victim. The inner layer encloses a body cavity called gastroencloses a body cavity called gastro vascular cavityvascular cavity Animals in this group exist in two types ofAnimals in this group exist in two types of individuals called zooids - polyps andindividuals called zooids - polyps and medusae. Polyps are fixed and lead solitarymedusae. Polyps are fixed and lead solitary or colonial life, while medusae are freeor colonial life, while medusae are free swimmingswimming Alternation of generation takes place inAlternation of generation takes place in colonial forms. Polyps and medusaecolonial forms. Polyps and medusae alternate with each other during the life cyclealternate with each other during the life cycle Reproduction is usually asexual i.e., byReproduction is usually asexual i.e., by budding in the polyp form and sexual inbudding in the polyp form and sexual in medusa formmedusa form Exoskeleton made of lime is found in coralsExoskeleton made of lime is found in corals Example: Hydra, Obelia, Aurelia, MetridiumExample: Hydra, Obelia, Aurelia, Metridium
  22. 22. PLATYHELMINTHESPLATYHELMINTHES Simplest triploblasticSimplest triploblastic organisms showing bilateralorganisms showing bilateral symmetrysymmetry Mostly parasites in otherMostly parasites in other animalsanimals Body in dorsoventrally flatBody in dorsoventrally flat and leaf-like or ribbon-likeand leaf-like or ribbon-like with bilateral symmetrywith bilateral symmetry The body cavity has only oneThe body cavity has only one opening which serves asopening which serves as both the mouth and the anusboth the mouth and the anus Hermaphrodites i.e, maleHermaphrodites i.e, male and female sex organsand female sex organs present in one individualpresent in one individual Example: Planaria, LiverExample: Planaria, Liver Fluke, Tape WormFluke, Tape Worm
  23. 23. ANNELIDAANNELIDA Occur in moist soil, fresh waterOccur in moist soil, fresh water and seaand sea Body is soft and segmented,Body is soft and segmented, triploblastic with bilateraltriploblastic with bilateral symmetrysymmetry First animal with the coelomFirst animal with the coelom (body cavity)(body cavity) Body is covered by a non-Body is covered by a non- chintinous cuticle which maychintinous cuticle which may have chitinous setae, orhave chitinous setae, or parapodiaparapodia Reproduction is generallyReproduction is generally sexual, but some may reproducesexual, but some may reproduce asexually by rejuvination i.e, byasexually by rejuvination i.e, by regrowing broken segmentsregrowing broken segments Example: Nereis (sand worm),Example: Nereis (sand worm), Aphrodite (sea mouse),Aphrodite (sea mouse), Pheretima (earthworm),Pheretima (earthworm), Hirudinaria (leech)Hirudinaria (leech)
  24. 24. ARTHROPODAARTHROPODA ► This is the largest phylum withThis is the largest phylum with almost 80% of the animalalmost 80% of the animal kingdom kingdom  ► Body is bilaterally symmetricalBody is bilaterally symmetrical and segmented. It is dividedand segmented. It is divided into head, thorax andinto head, thorax and abdomen abdomen  ► Possess jointed legs whichPossess jointed legs which may be modified for walking,may be modified for walking, swimming feeding and feeling swimming feeding and feeling  ► Exoskeleton is chitinous whichExoskeleton is chitinous which is shed periodically by moultingis shed periodically by moulting ► Body cavity is reduced andBody cavity is reduced and filled with blood (haemocoel) filled with blood (haemocoel)  ► Respiration is by lungs, bookRespiration is by lungs, book lung and trachealung and trachea ► Example: Apis (honey bee),Example: Apis (honey bee), Araneae (Spider), PalaemonAraneae (Spider), Palaemon (prawn), Scolopendra(prawn), Scolopendra (Centipede) (Centipede) 
  25. 25. MOLLUSCA  Aquatic in habitat but some land forms are also seen  Body is soft and divided into three regions (head, dorsal visceral mass and ventral foot)  Body enclosed in a hard calcareous she  Breathe through gills, land molluscs have lungs  Sexes are separate  Example: Chiton, Pila (snail), unio (fresh water mussel), octopus 
  26. 26. ECHINODERMATAECHINODERMATA Marine in habitatMarine in habitat Body is radiallyBody is radially symmetrical, starsymmetrical, star shaped, spherical orshaped, spherical or elongate, Exoskeleton iselongate, Exoskeleton is spinyspiny Head is absent and fiveHead is absent and five radially arranged armsradially arranged arms presentpresent Locomotion is with theLocomotion is with the help of tube feethelp of tube feet Sexes are separateSexes are separate Example: Asterias (starExample: Asterias (star fish), Echinus (seafish), Echinus (sea urchin), Holothuria (seaurchin), Holothuria (sea cucumber), Antedoncucumber), Antedon
  27. 27. REPTILEREPTILE Mostly terrestrialMostly terrestrial Heart is 3 chambered,Heart is 3 chambered, is cold bloodedis cold blooded Breathe through lungsBreathe through lungs Body covered withBody covered with scalesscales Have two pairs ofHave two pairs of pentadactyl (five digit)pentadactyl (five digit) limbs which are absent inlimbs which are absent in snakessnakes Example:Example: HemidactylusHemidactylus (wall lizard), chameleon,(wall lizard), chameleon, Draco (flying lizard)Draco (flying lizard) BB oo dd yy cc oo vv ee rr ee dd ww ii tt hh ss cc aa ll ee ss
  28. 28. AMPHIBIAAMPHIBIA Live in both water and onLive in both water and on landland Respiration is by gills,Respiration is by gills, lungs or skinlungs or skin 3 chambered heart3 chambered heart Is cold bloodedIs cold blooded Have two pairs ofHave two pairs of pentadactyl (5 digit) limbspentadactyl (5 digit) limbs which may be absent inwhich may be absent in some casessome cases
  29. 29. AVESAVES Arboreal in habitat i.e, theArboreal in habitat i.e, they live on treeslive on trees Warm blooded. 4Warm blooded. 4 chambered heartchambered heart Body covered withBody covered with feathersfeathers Lungs have membranousLungs have membranous extensions called air sacsextensions called air sacs to make the body lightto make the body light Mouth is surrounded by aMouth is surrounded by a beak. Teeth are absentbeak. Teeth are absent Fore-limbs are modifiedFore-limbs are modified into wingsinto wings
  30. 30. MAMMALIAMAMMALIA Most intelligent of allMost intelligent of all organismsorganisms Warm blooded with 4Warm blooded with 4 chambered heartchambered heart Give birth to young onesGive birth to young ones The mother suckles herThe mother suckles her young ones on milkyoung ones on milk secreted by specialsecreted by special glands called mammaryglands called mammary glandsglands Body covered with hairBody covered with hair Have two pairs ofHave two pairs of pentadactyl limbspentadactyl limbs Breathe through lungsBreathe through lungs I AM I A MAMMAL?

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