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What causes Earthquakes?
Ans: An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. Stresses in the earth's
outer layer push the sides of the fault together. Stress builds up and the rocks
slips suddenly, releasing energy in waves that travel through the earth's crustand
cause the shaking that we feel during an earthquake.
SevenStepsto Earthquake Safety
When it comes to disaster, there are simple things you can do to make yourself safer. The
information on this page is designed as a step-by-step guide to give you details on what to do
before, during, and after an earthquake. Start with the simple tips within each step so that you
can build on your accomplishments.
An example of this in Step 1 is moving heavy, unsecured objects from top shelves onto lower
ones. This will only take minutes to complete and you are safer from that hazard!
The information in the steps linked below will help you learn how to better prepare to survive
and recover, wherever you live, work, or travel.
Prepare
Before the next big earthquake we recommend these four steps that will make you, your
family, or your workplace better prepared to survive and recover quickly:
Step 1:
Secure yourspace byidentifyinghazardsandsecuringmoveable
items.
Step 2:
Planto be safe by creatinga disasterplananddecidinghow youwill
communicate inanemergency.
Step 3:
Organize disastersupplies inconvenientlocations.
Step 4:
Minimize financial hardship byorganizingimportantdocuments,
strengtheningyourproperty,andconsideringinsurance.
Surviveand Recover
During the next big earthquake, and immediately after, is when your level of preparedness
will make a difference in how you and others survive and can respond to emergencies:
Step 5:
Drop, Cover,andHoldOn whenthe earthshakes.
Step 6:
Improve safety afterearthquakesbyevacuatingif necessary,helping
the injured,andpreventingfurtherinjuriesordamage.
After the immediate threat of the earthquake has passed, your level of preparedness will
determine your quality of life in the weeks and months that follow:
Step 7:
ReconnectandRestore
Restore dailylife byreconnectingwithothers,repairingdamage,
and rebuildingcommunity.
Earthquake Safety Tips to Follow
Emergency Kit and DisasterPlanareImportant
Earthquakes are not a frequent occurrence. However, they can be very disruptive because they
occur suddenly and tend to affect large areas. Earthquakes can be a one-time event of a few
seconds shaking or a series of events of varying duration.
Because earthquakes happen without warning, being prepared in advance is critical to minimize
damages and loss. Consider these earthquake safety tips:
Before an Earthquake
 Knowyourrisk.Researchthe area and findoutif you live nearan active faultline andwhether
or not the groundaround youismore susceptible tothe effectsof anearthquake.
 Retrofitandreinforce yourhouse.If you're ina highriskarea,take stepsto reinforce your
house.Boltyourhouse to the foundationandreinforce supportbeamsasneeded.Secure any
furniture suchas bookshelvesandcabinetstothe wallstominimize riskof fallingoverduringa
quake.Secure cabinetdoorstohelpkeepdishesandothercontentsfromfallingout.
 Create a disasterplantoprotect yourself andyourfamily.Earthquake preparednesscanhelp
reduce anxietyandminimize injury.Know where totake coverinyourhouse and how to
communicate withotherfamilymembersafterthe earthquake if you're nottogether.Designate
a safe place to meetoutside of the house afterthe shakingstops.
 Put togetheranemergencykit.Yourkitshouldinclude non-perishable food,water,firstaid
supplies,flashlights,campingsupplies(stove,battery-poweredlantern,etc.),extrabatteries,
blanketsandanypersonal itemsyoumayneed(medications,toiletries,clothing).If youhave
pets,make sure theyalsohave adequate supplies.Planforaweek'sworthof suppliesforeach
person.You'll needatleastfourgallonsof drinkingwaterperpersonfora week.
During an Earthquake
 Stay awayfrom windowsandfurniture thatcouldpotentiallyfallover.One of the biggest
hazardsduringan earthquake isfallingdebrisandfurniture.Avoidareasinyourhouse where
youmightbe exposedtothese hazards.
 Take cover ina safe place inyourhouse.Getundera sturdy table ordeskto avoidbeinghitby
anything.If youcan't take safe cover,protectyourheadand neckwithyourarms.
 Do not try and gooutside until afterthe shakingstops.If youare alreadyindoors, youare safer
takingcoverinside thanattemptingtoleave yourhouse duringanearthquake youcouldbe hit
by fallingdebrisasyou're tryingto getout.
After an Earthquake
 Be preparedforaftershocks.Earthquakesare oftenfollowedbyaftershocksadditionalquakes
that followthe mainevent.Thesecanlastfordays or evenweeksafteramajorearthquake.
 Checkyour gas linesandmake sure there are no leaks.If yousmell gasleaking,turnoff the gasif
possible andcall the gascompany.Do not use an openflame inyourhouse until youare sure it
issafe.Wait forthe gas companyto turnthe gas back on.
 Checkfor damagedelectrical wiring.Shutoff the powerif yousee damagedwiringinyour
house.
 Keepyourshoeson.You mayhave brokenglassor spilledchemicalsonthe floorof yourhouse
as a resultof the earthquake.Don'twalkaroundbarefootuntil you're sure the flooriscleanand
safe.
 Documentthe damage.If your insurance policycoversearthquake damage,make sure youtake
photosor videoof the damage to use inthe claimprocess.
Water rocket
From Wikipedia,the free encyclopedia
Notto be confusedwith bottle rockets poweredbyblackpowder.
Water rocketlaunch
A water rocket is a type of model rocket using water as its reaction mass. The pressure vessel—
the engine of the rocket—is usually a used plastic soft drink bottle. The water is forced out by a
pressurized gas, typically compressed air. It is an example of Newton's third law of motion.
Homemade Water Rocket Launcher
This water rocket launcher is quick and easy to make and you probably already have all the
materials at home. It does not require working with PVC pipe at all and can be adjusted to fit any
size bottle.
Be safe. Undertake this project at your own risk.
Step 1: Materials
You will need:
Wood - 1x4 or 1x8 or 1xwhatever.
Nails- will need5,I used6d finishing.
Either2 8d finishingnailsorsomethingelse longandthin.
Drill
String- I usedkite string.
Cork - from wine bottle orsomething,coulduse arubberbungif youhave one.
Pump- preferablywithpressure gauge.
Inflatingneedle -
Bottle - 2L soda bottle workswell andcanhandle alot of pressure (definitely70 psi).
Tentstakes(optional)
Step 2: Putting together the base
The base ismade up of a woodenplatformwithtwouprightpieces.Uprightsshouldbe at least6" long.
Standthemup lengthwiseandparallel toeachotherandnail theminposition.Forextrastability,drill
holesinthe fourcornersof the platformto puttentpegsin whenlaunching.
Step 3: The release mechanism
Thisis the hard part.
Take your cork and jaman inflatingneedle throughit,lengthwise.
Then,take the platformandput a nail throughone of the uprights,butnot all the way sothat it goes
intothe one across from it.Take the cork/needle andshove itoverthe protrudingnail,pointingthe
needle up.
The nextthingto do isdrill holesinthe uprights.These holeswill holdnails/bentwire/whateveryoucan
getyour handson that islongand thinand made of metal,that preventthe rocketfromtakingoff
before youwantitto.
Usingyour bottle forreference,carefullymeasurewhere youwill drill4holesinthe uprightsasshown.
Thendrill them.
Fityour bottle overthe cork andput the metal piecesthroughthe holesandsee if itlooksright.
Next,attachstringto the metal piecessothat whenyoupull the string,theycome outof the holes.This
ishow youwill launchthe rocket.
Step 4: Launch
To launch:
Take launcheroutside,preferablyawayfromhouses.
Attach launchertogroundusingtentstakes.
Attach bike pumptoinflatingneedle/cork.
Fill a bottle abouta thirdof the way withwater,maybe a little more toaccountfor spillage.
Flipbottle overandquicklyputitoverthe cork.
Put metal piecesintopositiontorestrainthe bottle duringpumping.
PUT ON YOUR EYE PROTECTION.
Pumpair intothe bottle.30 psi will give youa decentlaunch,thoughsodabottlescantake a lot more
than that.
Pull stringattachedto metal piecesto launch.
DO NOT POINTAT PEOPLE.
Landing systems
Stabilizing fins cause the rocket to fly nose-first which will give significantly higher speed, but
they will also cause it to fall with a significantly higher velocity than it would if it tumbled to the
ground, and this may damage the rocket or whomever or whatever it strikes upon landing.
Some water rockets have parachute or other recovery system to help prevent problems. However
these systems can suffer from malfunctions. This is often taken into account when designing
rockets. Rubber bumpers, Crumple zones, and safe launch practices can be utilized to minimize
damage or injury caused by a falling rocket.
Another possible recovery system involves simply using the rocket's fins to slow its descent and
is sometimes called backward sliding. By increasing fin size, more drag is generated. If the
centre of mass is placed forward of the fins, the rocket will nose dive. In the case of super-roc or
back-gliding rockets, the rocket is designed such that the relationship between centre of gravity
and the centre of pressure of the empty rocket causes the fin-induced tendency of the rocket to
tip nose down to be counteracted by the air resistance of the long body which would cause it to
fall tail down, and resulting in the rocket falling sideways, slowly.
Launch tubes
Some water rocket launchers use launch tubes. A launch tube fits inside the nozzle of the rocket
and extends upward toward the nose. The launch tube is anchored to the ground. As the rocket
begins accelerating upward, the launch tube blocks the nozzle, and very little water is ejected
until the rocket leaves the launch tube. This allows almost perfectly efficient conversion of the
potential energy in the compressed air to kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy of the
rocket and water. The high efficiency during the initial phase of the launch is important, because
rocket engines are least efficient at low speeds. A launch tube therefore significantly increases
the speed and height attained by the rocket. Launch tubes are most effective when used with long
rockets, which can accommodate long launch tubes.
Safety
Water rockets employ considerable amounts of energy and can be dangerous if handled
improperly or in cases of faulty construction or material failure. Certain safety procedures are
observed by experienced water rocket enthusiasts:
 Whena rocket isbuilt,itispressure tested.Thisisdone byfillingthe rocketcompletelywith
water,and thenpressurizingittoat least50% greaterthananticipatedpressures.If the bottle
ruptures,the amountof compressedairinside it(andthusthe potential energy) will be very
small,andthe bottle will notexplode.
 Usingmetal parts on the pressurizedportionof the rocketisstronglydiscouragedbecause inthe
eventof a rupture,theycan become harmful projectiles.Metal partscanalso shortout power
lines.
 While pressurizingandlaunchingthe rocket,bystandersare keptata safe distance.Typically,
mechanismsforreleasing the rocketata distance (withapiece of string,forexample) are used.
Thisensuresthatif the rocketveersoff inan unexpecteddirection,itislesslikelytohitthe
operatoror bystanders.
 Water rocketsshouldonlybe launchedinlarge openareas,awayfromstructuresorother
people,inordertopreventdamage topropertyandpeople.
 As waterrocketsare capable of breakingbonesuponimpact,theyshould neverbe firedat
people,property,oranimals.
 Safetygogglesora face shieldare typically used.
 A typical two-litresodabottle cangenerallyreachthe pressure of 100 psi (690 kPa) safely,but
preparationsmustbe made forthe eventualitythatthe bottle unexpectedlyruptures.
 Glue usedto puttogetherpartsof waterrocketsmust be suitable touse onplastics,orelse the
glue will chemically"eat"awaythe bottle,whichmaythenfail catastrophicallyandcanharm
bystanderswhenthe rocketislaunched.

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  • 1. What causes Earthquakes? Ans: An earthquake is caused by a sudden slip on a fault. Stresses in the earth's outer layer push the sides of the fault together. Stress builds up and the rocks slips suddenly, releasing energy in waves that travel through the earth's crustand cause the shaking that we feel during an earthquake. SevenStepsto Earthquake Safety When it comes to disaster, there are simple things you can do to make yourself safer. The information on this page is designed as a step-by-step guide to give you details on what to do before, during, and after an earthquake. Start with the simple tips within each step so that you can build on your accomplishments. An example of this in Step 1 is moving heavy, unsecured objects from top shelves onto lower ones. This will only take minutes to complete and you are safer from that hazard! The information in the steps linked below will help you learn how to better prepare to survive and recover, wherever you live, work, or travel. Prepare Before the next big earthquake we recommend these four steps that will make you, your family, or your workplace better prepared to survive and recover quickly:
  • 2. Step 1: Secure yourspace byidentifyinghazardsandsecuringmoveable items. Step 2: Planto be safe by creatinga disasterplananddecidinghow youwill communicate inanemergency. Step 3: Organize disastersupplies inconvenientlocations. Step 4: Minimize financial hardship byorganizingimportantdocuments, strengtheningyourproperty,andconsideringinsurance. Surviveand Recover During the next big earthquake, and immediately after, is when your level of preparedness will make a difference in how you and others survive and can respond to emergencies: Step 5: Drop, Cover,andHoldOn whenthe earthshakes.
  • 3. Step 6: Improve safety afterearthquakesbyevacuatingif necessary,helping the injured,andpreventingfurtherinjuriesordamage. After the immediate threat of the earthquake has passed, your level of preparedness will determine your quality of life in the weeks and months that follow: Step 7: ReconnectandRestore Restore dailylife byreconnectingwithothers,repairingdamage, and rebuildingcommunity. Earthquake Safety Tips to Follow Emergency Kit and DisasterPlanareImportant Earthquakes are not a frequent occurrence. However, they can be very disruptive because they occur suddenly and tend to affect large areas. Earthquakes can be a one-time event of a few seconds shaking or a series of events of varying duration. Because earthquakes happen without warning, being prepared in advance is critical to minimize damages and loss. Consider these earthquake safety tips: Before an Earthquake  Knowyourrisk.Researchthe area and findoutif you live nearan active faultline andwhether or not the groundaround youismore susceptible tothe effectsof anearthquake.  Retrofitandreinforce yourhouse.If you're ina highriskarea,take stepsto reinforce your house.Boltyourhouse to the foundationandreinforce supportbeamsasneeded.Secure any furniture suchas bookshelvesandcabinetstothe wallstominimize riskof fallingoverduringa quake.Secure cabinetdoorstohelpkeepdishesandothercontentsfromfallingout.  Create a disasterplantoprotect yourself andyourfamily.Earthquake preparednesscanhelp reduce anxietyandminimize injury.Know where totake coverinyourhouse and how to communicate withotherfamilymembersafterthe earthquake if you're nottogether.Designate a safe place to meetoutside of the house afterthe shakingstops.
  • 4.  Put togetheranemergencykit.Yourkitshouldinclude non-perishable food,water,firstaid supplies,flashlights,campingsupplies(stove,battery-poweredlantern,etc.),extrabatteries, blanketsandanypersonal itemsyoumayneed(medications,toiletries,clothing).If youhave pets,make sure theyalsohave adequate supplies.Planforaweek'sworthof suppliesforeach person.You'll needatleastfourgallonsof drinkingwaterperpersonfora week. During an Earthquake  Stay awayfrom windowsandfurniture thatcouldpotentiallyfallover.One of the biggest hazardsduringan earthquake isfallingdebrisandfurniture.Avoidareasinyourhouse where youmightbe exposedtothese hazards.  Take cover ina safe place inyourhouse.Getundera sturdy table ordeskto avoidbeinghitby anything.If youcan't take safe cover,protectyourheadand neckwithyourarms.  Do not try and gooutside until afterthe shakingstops.If youare alreadyindoors, youare safer takingcoverinside thanattemptingtoleave yourhouse duringanearthquake youcouldbe hit by fallingdebrisasyou're tryingto getout. After an Earthquake  Be preparedforaftershocks.Earthquakesare oftenfollowedbyaftershocksadditionalquakes that followthe mainevent.Thesecanlastfordays or evenweeksafteramajorearthquake.  Checkyour gas linesandmake sure there are no leaks.If yousmell gasleaking,turnoff the gasif possible andcall the gascompany.Do not use an openflame inyourhouse until youare sure it issafe.Wait forthe gas companyto turnthe gas back on.  Checkfor damagedelectrical wiring.Shutoff the powerif yousee damagedwiringinyour house.  Keepyourshoeson.You mayhave brokenglassor spilledchemicalsonthe floorof yourhouse as a resultof the earthquake.Don'twalkaroundbarefootuntil you're sure the flooriscleanand safe.  Documentthe damage.If your insurance policycoversearthquake damage,make sure youtake photosor videoof the damage to use inthe claimprocess. Water rocket From Wikipedia,the free encyclopedia Notto be confusedwith bottle rockets poweredbyblackpowder.
  • 5. Water rocketlaunch A water rocket is a type of model rocket using water as its reaction mass. The pressure vessel— the engine of the rocket—is usually a used plastic soft drink bottle. The water is forced out by a pressurized gas, typically compressed air. It is an example of Newton's third law of motion. Homemade Water Rocket Launcher
  • 6. This water rocket launcher is quick and easy to make and you probably already have all the materials at home. It does not require working with PVC pipe at all and can be adjusted to fit any size bottle. Be safe. Undertake this project at your own risk. Step 1: Materials You will need: Wood - 1x4 or 1x8 or 1xwhatever. Nails- will need5,I used6d finishing. Either2 8d finishingnailsorsomethingelse longandthin. Drill String- I usedkite string. Cork - from wine bottle orsomething,coulduse arubberbungif youhave one. Pump- preferablywithpressure gauge. Inflatingneedle - Bottle - 2L soda bottle workswell andcanhandle alot of pressure (definitely70 psi). Tentstakes(optional)
  • 7. Step 2: Putting together the base The base ismade up of a woodenplatformwithtwouprightpieces.Uprightsshouldbe at least6" long. Standthemup lengthwiseandparallel toeachotherandnail theminposition.Forextrastability,drill holesinthe fourcornersof the platformto puttentpegsin whenlaunching. Step 3: The release mechanism
  • 8. Thisis the hard part. Take your cork and jaman inflatingneedle throughit,lengthwise. Then,take the platformandput a nail throughone of the uprights,butnot all the way sothat it goes intothe one across from it.Take the cork/needle andshove itoverthe protrudingnail,pointingthe needle up. The nextthingto do isdrill holesinthe uprights.These holeswill holdnails/bentwire/whateveryoucan getyour handson that islongand thinand made of metal,that preventthe rocketfromtakingoff before youwantitto. Usingyour bottle forreference,carefullymeasurewhere youwill drill4holesinthe uprightsasshown. Thendrill them. Fityour bottle overthe cork andput the metal piecesthroughthe holesandsee if itlooksright. Next,attachstringto the metal piecessothat whenyoupull the string,theycome outof the holes.This ishow youwill launchthe rocket.
  • 9. Step 4: Launch To launch: Take launcheroutside,preferablyawayfromhouses. Attach launchertogroundusingtentstakes. Attach bike pumptoinflatingneedle/cork. Fill a bottle abouta thirdof the way withwater,maybe a little more toaccountfor spillage. Flipbottle overandquicklyputitoverthe cork. Put metal piecesintopositiontorestrainthe bottle duringpumping. PUT ON YOUR EYE PROTECTION. Pumpair intothe bottle.30 psi will give youa decentlaunch,thoughsodabottlescantake a lot more than that. Pull stringattachedto metal piecesto launch. DO NOT POINTAT PEOPLE. Landing systems Stabilizing fins cause the rocket to fly nose-first which will give significantly higher speed, but they will also cause it to fall with a significantly higher velocity than it would if it tumbled to the ground, and this may damage the rocket or whomever or whatever it strikes upon landing. Some water rockets have parachute or other recovery system to help prevent problems. However these systems can suffer from malfunctions. This is often taken into account when designing rockets. Rubber bumpers, Crumple zones, and safe launch practices can be utilized to minimize damage or injury caused by a falling rocket. Another possible recovery system involves simply using the rocket's fins to slow its descent and is sometimes called backward sliding. By increasing fin size, more drag is generated. If the centre of mass is placed forward of the fins, the rocket will nose dive. In the case of super-roc or back-gliding rockets, the rocket is designed such that the relationship between centre of gravity and the centre of pressure of the empty rocket causes the fin-induced tendency of the rocket to tip nose down to be counteracted by the air resistance of the long body which would cause it to fall tail down, and resulting in the rocket falling sideways, slowly. Launch tubes Some water rocket launchers use launch tubes. A launch tube fits inside the nozzle of the rocket and extends upward toward the nose. The launch tube is anchored to the ground. As the rocket begins accelerating upward, the launch tube blocks the nozzle, and very little water is ejected until the rocket leaves the launch tube. This allows almost perfectly efficient conversion of the potential energy in the compressed air to kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy of the rocket and water. The high efficiency during the initial phase of the launch is important, because rocket engines are least efficient at low speeds. A launch tube therefore significantly increases
  • 10. the speed and height attained by the rocket. Launch tubes are most effective when used with long rockets, which can accommodate long launch tubes. Safety Water rockets employ considerable amounts of energy and can be dangerous if handled improperly or in cases of faulty construction or material failure. Certain safety procedures are observed by experienced water rocket enthusiasts:  Whena rocket isbuilt,itispressure tested.Thisisdone byfillingthe rocketcompletelywith water,and thenpressurizingittoat least50% greaterthananticipatedpressures.If the bottle ruptures,the amountof compressedairinside it(andthusthe potential energy) will be very small,andthe bottle will notexplode.  Usingmetal parts on the pressurizedportionof the rocketisstronglydiscouragedbecause inthe eventof a rupture,theycan become harmful projectiles.Metal partscanalso shortout power lines.  While pressurizingandlaunchingthe rocket,bystandersare keptata safe distance.Typically, mechanismsforreleasing the rocketata distance (withapiece of string,forexample) are used. Thisensuresthatif the rocketveersoff inan unexpecteddirection,itislesslikelytohitthe operatoror bystanders.  Water rocketsshouldonlybe launchedinlarge openareas,awayfromstructuresorother people,inordertopreventdamage topropertyandpeople.  As waterrocketsare capable of breakingbonesuponimpact,theyshould neverbe firedat people,property,oranimals.  Safetygogglesora face shieldare typically used.  A typical two-litresodabottle cangenerallyreachthe pressure of 100 psi (690 kPa) safely,but preparationsmustbe made forthe eventualitythatthe bottle unexpectedlyruptures.  Glue usedto puttogetherpartsof waterrocketsmust be suitable touse onplastics,orelse the glue will chemically"eat"awaythe bottle,whichmaythenfail catastrophicallyandcanharm bystanderswhenthe rocketislaunched.