The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0888-045X.htm Maximizing an Maximizing an economic economic recession through strategic recession organizational repositioning 13 Adam Murray University Libraries, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, USA Received 16 June 2010 Accepted 20 July 2010AbstractPurpose – The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities for strategically andpolitically repositioning a library, despite economic hardships, for stronger relations withadministration, local government, and user communities.Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a case study of Murray State UniversityLibraries’ efforts to seize the current recession to conduct capital construction planning, donordevelopment, and political positioning for a new library facility. Additionally, the case study detailssome of the activities undertaken during the recession to implement a pay-per-view journal articleprocess and value-added reference services.Findings – This case study ﬁnds that strategically repositioning a library with administration, localgovernment, or the user community can be undertaken on either larger or smaller scales, depending onthe particular circumstances in which a library operates.Originality/value – While the literature is rife with papers urging libraries and librarians toundertake strategic and political repositioning efforts during economic recessions, this paper providesa holistic case study of a library successfully doing just that.Keywords Academic libraries, Public libraries, Information services, Value added,Organizational planning, PartnershipPaper type Case study To be completely subservient to the budget [. . .] has been compared to driving down the road by looking at the rear view mirror. It is difﬁcult to make progress and virtually impossible to take a new road. Accounting rules and ﬁnancial methods have their own logic and purpose, and innovation is normally welcomed only when cost savings can be realized. Budgets are historical, specialized, incremental, non-programmatic, sequential, and repetitive (Marcum, 2007).1. IntroductionWhile the quote above is an excellent way to launch an article on making the best ofdifﬁcult economic conditions, perhaps Dickens said it best in his oft-repeated phrase “Itwas the best of times; it was the worst of times”. It is certainly no secret that libraries,along with many other types of institutions, are currently facing difﬁcult budgets, staff The Bottom Line: Managing Libraryshortages, layoffs, hiring freezes, and reductions in services. At the same time, libraries Finances Vol. 24 No. 1, 2011typically experience surges in use during difﬁcult ﬁnancial times. These surges serve pp. 13-23as an indicator of the possibilities for libraries that arise during a troubled economy. q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0888-045XSuch possibilities include improving the library’s position (politically, ﬁnancially, and DOI 10.1108/08880451111142006
BL otherwise), building partnerships, and investigating new or altered services to best24,1 meet user needs. Success is often rewarded with opportunities for more success, and while a turbulent economy may prove difﬁcult to navigate, it certainly should not hamper the innovations and services that make libraries a critical part of their user communities. This case study takes just such a perspective. While the literature is full of articles14 and editorials urging libraries to think strategically and creatively during economic downturns, holistic case studies of libraries that are successful do not predominate. This case study examines the efforts, initiatives, and services undertaken by the Murray State University Libraries during the current economic situation to reposition itself politically through capital construction planning, piloting a pay-per-view program for journal article acquisition, and implementing value-added reference services. Readers should see practical evidence for making the best of the times, in spite of the economic climate. 2. Literature review A review of library literature reveals three major trends concerning the economy and libraries. Perhaps the most prevalent are editorials on the current state of the economy, its impact on libraries, and the opportunities presented during such times. Fialkoff (2008, 2010) pointed out the greater need for libraries in times of economic recession, as people return to libraries as a source of information, programming, and learning. In another editorial, Kenney (2009) discussed the shared impact of economic recessions, as cuts in services at some libraries may result in increased demand at others. Arising out of this interconnectivity, Kenney urged public advocacy with a single voice and message: that of the importance of library services, particularly in times of economic instability. Just such uniﬁcation is examined by Keresztury (2009), who described the advocacy planning and efforts put into place by various library agencies and consortia in New Jersey as a result of state budget cuts, particularly a task force comprised of representatives from the various types of libraries in the state. Marcum (2007) discussed the ways in which a politically saavy library director may use political capital and the creation of an organizational image of change or value to attract additional operating funds from the parent institution. Much like the current article, Marcum (2007) suggested that those initiatives that are truly important ﬁnd funding somehow, and that a stance against improving library services because of a lack of funding increases is misplaced and unproductive. In another viewpoint article, Marcum (2008) pointed out that innovation is central for libraries if they hope to do more than simply survive, and that partnerships can help libraries accomplish signiﬁcant projects that otherwise would have been unattainable alone. A second trend, moving beyond editorials, describes the impact of the economy on libraries through various historical or economic perspectives. Examples of this trend include Bullington and Lee (2009), Dougherty (2009), and Stearns (2009). Bullington and Lee (2009) described the economic hardships facing educational institutions in Wyoming and Colorado, demonstrating that these issues are common across the USA. Decreasing state tax revenues, limited access to federal ﬁnancial stimulus funds, and restrictions on tuition increases combine with what Bullington and Lee (2009) describe as a “perfect storm” of educational reform requirements arising from the decreasing
educational attainment of younger generations and the impact of technology on Maximizing anpedagogy. These challenges lead libraries to strategic collaboration, taking the form of economiccollective purchasing and reference services. From the perspective of transparency, Dougherty (2009) gave an overview of the recessionmany steps taken in libraries, particularly academic libraries, in the face of budgetcuts. These include freezing vacant positions or professional development funding,closing branches or limiting hours, combining or eliminating service points, and 15reducing acquisitions budgets. Depending on the political climate in which the libraryoperates and the perception of its services, Dougherty recommended transparency andthe solicitation of user feedback when considering the reduction of services that affectthe public. Using an economic downturn as a vehicle for change is the subject of Stearns’ (2009)article on marketing a library during a recession. The article opened with the quote“never waste a crisis”, and outlined ways in which libraries can use targeted marketingpractices to strengthen existing services, build partnerships, and raise funds forsmaller projects while under tight budget scenarios. A ﬁnal major trend regarding the impact of the current economic downturn onlibraries relates to fundraising, with a particular focus on donor development. DiMattia(2008) outlined the different fundraising scenarios typical of public, academic, andschool libraries. DiMattia also bulleted the many “What’s in it for me?” questions thatmight come up during the process of seeking external support, and how libraries mightprepare for those questions. Miller (2010) reported on the Library Journal’s Directors’ Summit, held in November2009. A central topic of the summit was the state of library budgets in general, andspeciﬁcally on fundraising during the economic downturn. Key questions includedwhether private funds should be used to “turn on the lights” and other basic services,and how library budgets can be realigned to support core services so that private fundsmay be used for special projects. Whatever the process, Miller (2010) reported that atheme of the summit was the utilization of fundraising efforts to build long-termrelationships, rather than for just the immediate support of library services. Goldberg (2008) described the impact of the economic crisis on the endowments thatsupport many libraries and library initiatives, ranging from acquisitions budgets toendowed chair or director positions. Even as interest rates plummet, donors areproving less likely to give as their ability to fund philanthropic endeavors becomesmore restricted. Despite these overwhelming troubles Goldberg (2008) suggested, likemany others, that the economic downturn gives libraries the perfect opportunity tocement their importance to the community that turns to them in their need. Silverman (2009a, b) highlighted the ways in which inexpensive or free resourcescan be used to efﬁciently and effectively spread information about library initiatives inorder to cultivate donors or as stewardship of existing donors. These include mailings,the use of social networking tools to virally distribute information, and revisiting thetraditional newsletter. Likewise, using these media to broadcast a message ofdesperation in difﬁcult ﬁnancial times has a tendency to drive away potential donors.To quote Silverman, “library donors, like sports fans, want to back a winning team”(Silverman, 2009b). Telling success stories, and showing a responsiveness to user
BL needs, creates opportunities to match donors’ desire to help with the needs of the24,1 library. Not all articles in this trend deal with donor development; an example of those that focus on external funding through grant opportunities is provided by Gerding (2008). Gerding (2008) provides deﬁnitions of the six primary sources of grants funding (federal, state, local, foundation, corporate, professional/trade association), URLs of16 websites that distribute information about library grant opportunities, and tips for how to search for grants. The article concludes with the “eight essential ps” that those applying for grant funds should keep in mind during the grant application process. These essentials are: (1) planning; (2) passion; (3) persuasion; (4) purpose; (5) precision; (6) partnerships; (7) positivity; and (8) people. A review of relevant professional literature ﬁnds the ﬁeld of librarianship dominated by three large trends related to the current economic climate. The ﬁrst trend is comprised of editorial-type articles urging action and uniﬁcation in the face of budget cuts, branch closings, hiring freezes, and layoffs. A second trend describes these impacts and library reactions in a more analytical light. The ﬁnal large trend focuses on fundraising, particularly through the cultivation of donors in spite of the economy. While articles in each of these trends posit the notion of using an economic downturn to a strategic advantage, this review of the literature reveals that there is little reported by libraries that do just that. This perceived void in reporting (not necessarily due to a lack of action) can be ﬁlled by case studies of libraries that have successfully repositioned themselves on either a large or small scale. 3. Case study and background This case study is holistic in nature and examines the efforts, large and small, undertaken at Murray State University during an economic downturn to reposition itself strategically and politically. These efforts include capital construction planning/marketing, developing and nurturing partnerships/donors to expand services, and the strategic utilization of technology for targeted acquisitions and value-added reference services. As was found in the review above, such holistic case studies of maximizing economic recessions are rare in the professional literature. Murray State University (MSU) is a mid-major regional comprehensive university located in Western Kentucky. Enrollment at the university is approximately 10,000 students. These are mostly traditional residential undergraduates. MSU is, however, placing a growing emphasis on recruiting international students and non-traditional students through distance education options. Murray State University has received
continual recognition by US News & World Report and Kiplinger’s for the quality and Maximizing anaffordability of its education. As a regional comprehensive university, it has a focus on economicliberal arts education, but also provides degrees in agriculture, nursing,telecommunications (a noted program of distinction), and is the only university in recessionthe nation to offer both undergraduate and graduate accredited degrees in occupationalsafety and health. The University Libraries are comprised of three locations housedwithin two buildings. They employ ten faculty and approximately 25 staff. As the 17university utilizes “block budgeting” (vacant positions are allowed to stay within thebudget unit, allowing the Dean to determine the use of funds within those vacant lines;unexpended funds from one ﬁscal year are allowed to carry forward into the next), theDean of University Libraries is afforded the freedom to budget for projects with largercosts. Starting in the 2007-2008 ﬁscal year, Murray State University was subjected to aseries of budget cuts in state appropriations, accompanied by mid-year rescissions inpreviously allocated state funds. Starting with a mid-year rescission in 2007-2008 of$1.6m, followed by an additional cut of $1.4m, the university’s state appropriationswere reduced by 5.6 percent. This was followed by another mid-year rescission ofroughly 2 percent, or just over $1m. Overall, Murray State University lost just over 7.5percent of its state appropriations in two years, with the strong probability ofcontinued cuts in future years. The state of Kentucky operates on a biennial budgetsystem, and projections for the ﬁscal years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 call foradditional cuts to institutions of higher education, particularly as federal stimulusfunding is exhausted. The ﬁnancial freedom traditionally given to budget units such as the library beganto change in 2007 as the result of the reductions in state appropriations. While notimplementing a hiring freeze, the university became much more selective in whichfaculty and professional staff positions to advertise. The university budget wasscrubbed of “low hanging fruit” – budget items that simply did not make sense tomaintain in a faltering economy. Carry-forward funds were held in abeyance in order tocounter mid-year rescissions without damaging core university operations. TheUniversity Libraries’ acquisitions budget was cut by 8.4 percent. Despite thesesituations, the University Libraries identiﬁed several keys ways to repositionthemselves and their services during the down economy. These steps includedplanning efforts for a new library facility, the nurturing of partnerships withnon-library units across campus, and the utilization of technology to bolsteracquisitions ﬂexibility and reference service delivery.3.1 History of the new library projectIn the midst of rescissions and budget reductions, Murray State University begansigniﬁcant planning work for a new library facility. First mentioned by incomingPresident Randy Dunn during his inaugural speech in early 2007, a new library for theuniversity would be intended to replace the existing building, which was originally astudent center renovated in 1977 to become a library. Starting in October 2008, a taskforce of representatives from various academic units, student life ofﬁces, studentgovernment/student volunteers, facilities, and development began conceptualizing alibrary building with a learning commons at its center. These meetings began with a
BL very abstract focus, simply observing student behavior in the existing building,24,1 making observations about the strengths and ﬂaws of the existing facilities, and brainstorming services or methods of access. Members of the task force were told to “think pie in the sky” while developing notions for services to be included in a learning commons. As these services were identiﬁed, the author (who served as the chair of the task force) contacted units on campus responsible for the services being envisioned in18 the library to solicit further feedback. As the envisioning process became more concrete, the task force decided to conduct student surveys and interviews, and to visit facilities similar to what was being proposed for Murray State. At this point, it was determined to hire an architectural ﬁrm to consult on the development of a “conceptual rendering” of the facility. This rendering would help determine adjacencies within the building and convey to the campus the philosophy underlying a learning commons. Both of these actions required funding. The author put together a proposal for site visit locations and worked with the Director of Facilities to identify a suitable consultant available on state contract (and therefore not requiring a bid process). This proposal was submitted to the President of MSU, who after approving, forwarded to the University’s foundation for funding. After a short defense of the proposal to the Foundation Director, the actions proposed were funded. With funding available, the task force completed the site visits with the consultants present. These site visits allowed the task force to begin determining a more concrete vision for Murray State, identifying which services and facilities should be located near each other for the most efﬁciency. After several debrieﬁng sessions, the architects visited Murray for an all-day consultation and information gathering meeting, to which all members of the task force, as well as representatives from various campus units, were invited. From this meeting, which occurred in May 2009, the architects were able to put together a conceptual rendering and preliminary ﬂoor plan of a new library building. 3.2 Marketing, faculty response, and board approval In September 2009, the MSU Board of Regents met to approve the capital construction priorities for the university. Prior to this meeting, the members of the New Library Task Force had engaged in a campus-wide marketing campaign to spread information about the philosophy and vision of a new library. This marketing push had three main objectives: to inform students/faculty of the vision for a new library; to counter negative faculty response from a minority within faculty senate; and to bolster support for the new library plans leading up to the Board’s vote on its ranking within the capital construction priorities. Input from faculty about a new library was gathered through a faculty survey conducted by the faculty regent; the survey found a negative response to the possibility of a new library was a minority, although a larger percentage of faculty expressed ambivalence about the construction of a “book warehouse”, The marketing campaign put into place by the task force included: . the production of brochures containing frequently asked questions and the results of the student survey;
. the creation of a website linked off of the main Murray State website for Maximizing an distributing information about the task force, including images of the proposed economic building and photos from site visits; recession . an article on the new library within an MSU alumni/community publication; . special appearances and reports in local radio and news venues and the campus newspaper; 19 . the distribution of a glossy annual report containing the conceptual renderings; and . hosting faculty events to showcase problems in the existing building.The FAQ and survey results were distributed across a broad range of campus groups,including a packet at each place-setting during the faculty and staff luncheons inAugust 2009. The annual report highlighting the libraries’ many successes and therendering of the proposed building was distributed to the Board of Regents, andindividual conversations took place with several of the regents seeking moreinformation from the author. Presentations on the philosophy and preliminary ﬂoorplan were made by the author at a campus-wide administrators meeting, studentgovernment meetings, with the heads of the residential colleges, staff congress, facultysenate, and others. A high-proﬁle campus visit was arranged for the State Librarianand Commissioner of the Department of Libraries and Archives, including a receptionat the President’s house for strategic leaders on campus who remained on the fenceabout the project. A faculty-only “coffee with the President” event was hosted in thelobby of the existing building to give faculty face-time with the President and toshowcase problems with the facility. While each of these events and initiatives took considerable amount of planning andeffort (but not a lot of funding) to make a reality, the pay-off was readily apparent.Faculty response to a new library changed from “why” to “when”. The minority withinthe Faculty Senate reduced their attacks, and the Board of Regents voted the newlibrary as the campus’s number two capital construction priority.3.3 Partnerships nurtured Done right, however, [fundraising] can do so much more than mitigate current budget woes; it can foster the relationships that will anchor the library well into the future (Miller, 2010).Extending beyond fundraising, times of economic trouble can be used to nurturepartnerships that (re)deﬁne library services and the library’s political and socialposition on campus or in the community. As units or potential partners struggle tomaintain budgets or services, a library represents a burgeoning place of business,particularly as library use spikes during economic turbulence. The UniversityLibraries at Murray State University have done just that over the range of yearsstarting with 2007. The nurturing of partnerships with the MSU Libraries started with MSU’s Centerfor Teaching Learning, and Technology (CTLT). This unit, which has a missionsimilar to the University Libraries’, hosts a number of events targeted towards faculty,pedagogy, and the use of technology in the classroom. Starting in 2007, the UniversityLibraries began partnering with CTLT to co-host these events within the main library.
BL For CTLT, this partnership brought additional personnel to work the event and a24,1 larger space in which to operate. For the University Libraries, it associated the organization with highly-attended technology and pedagogy expos, bringing faculty that never use the library into the building – for the ﬁrst time in years in many cases. It also gives library faculty ﬁrst pick at presentation slots for library-related services or technology, increasing the libraries’ visibility with a segment of the population that20 may have previously viewed the library as antiquated. Beginning in Spring 2008, the author became aware of a series of relocations on campus as the result of a push for donor funding of a “trading room” (a classroom modeled on stock exchange trading rooms) to be housed in the College of Business. The intended location for the trading room meant the relocation of several other services, including MSU’s printing and publication service, called Copy Express. Copy Express was previously housed in a building far from most of the academic facilities on campus, with no easy access to parking. The services offered by Copy Express include the preparation and sale of course packs, special printing jobs, passport photos, faxes, and various other ofﬁce services. In preparation for leading the New Library Task Force, it became apparent that housing such a service within a new library would be ideal. As part of a revitalization of poorly used space within the main library, the author determined that the existing building could be renovated to serve the needs of Copy Express, thereby building a relationship with a unit intended for the new library building. Upon approaching the various individuals associated with cultivating donors for the trading room with a possible solution, and upon receiving an expression of interest from the manager of Copy Express, planning for the renovation and relocation began in the summer of 2009. The author worked as a liaison with Facilities and Copy Express to help design the new location and to provide supervision of the construction; the cost of the renovation was born by the budget unit responsible for Copy Express (not the library). Construction began in late fall of 2009, with Copy Express opening its doors in a new location in January 2010. Student and faculty feedback to the move has been very positive, with many indicating that it “only made sense” to house Copy Express in a heavily visited library building at the center of campus. The poorly used space that was renovated to house Copy Express had previously been used as storage for the library’s media collection. Before Copy Express could move into the main library building, the media collection had to be stored elsewhere. The summer before the Copy Express renovation, the library undertook a compact shelving renovation on the main ﬂoor, making the media collection much more accessible to library users. This compact shelving project also freed up a signiﬁcant amount of space on the main ﬂoor, opening up the possibility of another partnership that had been discussed in association with a new library building – a Writing Center. Following the identiﬁcation of a need for writing assistance in a new facility, the author approached the chair of the English Department to determine whether there was an interest in collaborating on such an initiative. While the discussion was initially oriented at space needs in a new facility, the possibility of a “start-up” writing center in the existing building quickly gained momentum. As the author and the chair discussed possible sizes, locations, and available services for such a start-up center, it was decided to bring a development ofﬁcer (who happened to serve both the University Libraries as well as the College of Humanities and Fine Arts, where the English
Department is housed) into the conversation. The development ofﬁcer was able to Maximizing anquickly match the vision for a writing center with the desires of a potential donor, economicbringing in the funding for the renovations, equipment, and stafﬁng necessary for sucha service. As of this writing, an oversight committee comprised of Reference recessionLibrarians, library staff, English Department faculty, and the development ofﬁcer isdeveloping policies for the operation of the Writing Center. Housing such a centerwithin the library will not only provide students with a valuable service through the 21creation of a partnership, it positions the library as a key player in MSU’s QualityEnhancement Plan (QEP) for the upcoming accreditation by the Southern Associationof Colleges and Schools (SACS) agency, particularly since writing skills was chosen bya university vote as the focus of ongoing QEP efforts. These descriptions of library partnerships in tight economic times are notexhaustive, nor are partnerships limited to space allocations or uses within an existingbuilding. For example, the Murray State University Libraries partnered with ﬁve otherofﬁces on campus, including the Institute for International Studies and the President’sOfﬁce to acquire a web-based subscription to Rosetta Stone. The University Librarieshave forged or strengthened relations with other units on campus such as DiningServices and the Honors Program. These partnerships allow for the expansion orimprovement of services, despite rescissions and budget cuts.3.4 Value-added servicesThus far, this case study on how one university library system used economichardships as an opportunity to reposition itself strategically has focused on largeprojects such as capital construction planning, the creation or strengthening oflong-term partnerships, and the cultivation of donors. In this section, the author shiftsdirection to focus instead on three value-added services which Murray State UniversityLibraries put together to enhance service or access, without having to rely on“permanent” additional funding. The ﬁrst such value-added service is a pay-per-view (user-driven acquisition)program offered to MSU’s College of Science, Engineering, and Technology.User-driven acquisition is a topic of much discussion in the realm of serialsacquisition and management, and in order to serve a lack of content created by a largejournal cancellation, the University Libraries diverted a portion of end-of-year“one-time” money to the creation of an account with Science Direct. This accountallowed the University Libraries to put into place a pay-per-view program to serve thefaculty of the College of Science with instant access to the content of many journalsthey otherwise would have to wait on interlibrary loan to provide. The program isintended to run as a trial for three years, at which point usage will be examined forfurther decisions on funding or the extension of the service to other subject areas. Two other value-added services relate to Reference and the delivery ofsubject-speciﬁc research assistance to library users. In collaboration with CTLT, thelibraries obtained a permanent link in each Blackboard course-shell (Blackboard is theLearning Management System used by Murray State) to a service called “Library onBb”. Unlike many library links embedded within Blackboard, this link did not simplydirect students to the library’s website. Instead, students were presented with a subjectindex, which allowed them to navigate to in-depth subject guides while remaining
BL within Blackboard. The university is in the process of aligning all authentication24,1 systems so that eventually, anyone off campus logged into Blackboard will also automatically be logged in to library resources. This simple project has grown into one of the University Libraries’ most powerful tools, as subject-speciﬁc federated search engines were embedded within each subject guide. More recently, LibGuides was purchased as a means to transform the subject guide pages from static web pages to a22 more dynamic model, with control and placement of the content resting with the reference librarians. Finally, the Murray State University Libraries recently added texting services as a method of receiving reference questions from library users. Available through Mosio’s “Text-a-Librarian” program for a very modest price, this service does not require the University Libraries to maintain a cell phone plan, but instead allows reference librarians to send answers to reference questions by computer to library users’ cell phones. In place beginning in January 2010, this value-added service has seen steady use since its inception. These and other value-added services allow the Murray State University Libraries to continually improve the quality or accessibility of services without waiting for new funding to do so. 4. Conclusion Difﬁcult economic conditions result in a set of challenges and uncertainties that while unfortunate, present libraries with opportunities to re-position themselves strategically and politically within their user communities. As this case study demonstrates, such efforts can be large or small in nature, depending on the particular circumstances in which the library operates. Large capital projects, planning, or donor cultivation do not have to be put on hold because of tight ﬁnancial constraints; in fact, the success generated by increased library use during periods of economic recession can help prove the need for such large activities. Likewise, value-added services can be investigated and implemented without overly straining ﬂat budgets or jeopardizing staff positions. As the quote at the beginning of this article indicates, letting the historical budget drive current and ongoing initiatives and services ignores the possibilities that turbulent ﬁnancial times present to libraries for reinventing themselves. For the saavy librarian, the worst of times can sometimes be transformed into the best of times. References Bullington, J. and Lee, J. (2009), “Tough economic times call for more library cooperation: report on a Wyoming and Colorado Alliance Conference”, Collaborative Librarianship, Vol. 1 No. 4, pp. 151-5. DiMattia, S. (2008), “Getting the money you need: relationships and fundraising”, Online, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp. 22-6. Dougherty, R. (2009), “Prescription for ﬁnancial recovery”, American Libraries, Vol. 40 No. 6, pp. 50-3. Fialkoff, F. (2008), “Serving in tough times”, Library Journal, Vol. 133 No. 17, p. 8. Fialkoff, F. (2010), “Editorial: Recession-buster”, Library Journal, Vol. 135 No. 1, p. 8. Gerding, S. (2008), “Tips and resources for ﬁnding grants”, Online, Vol. 32 No. 6, pp. 16-21. Goldberg, B. (2008), “Economic uncertainty spreads to library endowments”, American Libraries, Vol. 39 No. 10, pp. 20-1.
Kenney, B. (2009), “United we stand”, School Library Journal, Vol. 55 No. 6, p. 11. Maximizing anKeresztury, T. (2009), “The library crisis in New Jersey: a statewide strategy for survival”, economic The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, Vol. 22 No. 4, pp. 101-5.Marcum, J. (2007), “It’s not the dollars, it’s the politics”, The Bottom Line: Managing Library recession Finances, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 161-4.Marcum, J. (2008), “Partnering for innovation and sustainability”, The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 82-4. 23Miller, R. (2010), “Fundraising in the downturn”, Library Journal, Vol. 135, pp. 48-50.Silverman, E. (2009a), “Staying positive in a down economy”, The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 27-9.Silverman, E. (2009b), “Inviting the donor to give”, The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, Vol. 22 No. 4, pp. 139-41.Stearns, E. (2009), “Top ten marketing tips for ﬁnancial strength and sustainability”, Illinois Library Association Reporter, Vol. 27 No. 5, pp. 8-9.About the authorAdam Murray completed his Master’s in Library and Information Studies from the University ofNorth Carolina at Greensboro in 2006. At the age of 27, he became Interim Dean of UniversityLibraries, a position he held for two years before his appointment as Dean in 2010. He has beenrecognized by the American Library Association as an Emerging Leader in the class of 2009, adistinguished alumnus (early career category) of UNCG, and is an alumnus of VanderbiltUniversity’s Academic Library Leadership Institute. He is currently pursuing a doctoral degreein Educational Leadership from Western Kentucky University. Adam Murray can be contactedat: email@example.comTo purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgOr visit our web site for further details: www.emeraldinsight.com/reprints