Open Access and Beyond


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Open Access and Beyond by Dr. Paul Ayris

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Open Access and Beyond

  1. 1. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Open Access and Beyond Dr Paul Ayris Director of UCL Library Services and UCL Copyright Officer President of LIBER (Association of European Research Libraries) e-mail: LERU Doctoral Summer School 2012
  2. 2. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Contents 1. LERU Roadmap 2. Green Open Access 3. DART-Europe Professor Didac Ramirez, 4. Gold Open Access Rector of the Universitat de Barcelona 5. Research Data 6. LERU Doctoral Student’s Roadmap for Open Scholarship 2
  3. 3. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES 1. LERU Roadmap See 3
  4. 4. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES LERU Roadmap Ponte Vecchio, Florence  The purpose of the Roadmap is to offer guidance for LERU members, should they wish to use it, to help them steer their way to developing an approach to Open Access, Open Scholarship and Open Knowledge which is appropriate and sustainable  Full version of the history will appear in Festschrift to Professor Ulf Göranson, Chief Librarian at Uppsala University, in August 2012 4
  5. 5. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Why did LERU ask for the Roadmap?  A number of drivers  Open Access was receiving growing coverage in European Universities  LERU Rectors wanted to know why  Is Open Access, and all that flows from it, a hallmark of the University in the 21st century?  LERU has a leadership role for research Universities in Europe  What, if anything, should LERU Universities do? 5
  6. 6. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Benefits of Open Access Barcelona Cathedral  For researchers  Authors of academic works enjoy increased visibility, usage and impact for their research outputs when they are made in Open Access  It is sobering to note that the World Health Organisation found in a survey conducted at the start of the millennium that more than half of research-based institutions in lower- income countries had no current subscriptions to international research journals, nor had they had any for the previous five years 6
  7. 7. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Benefits of Open Access Las Ramblas, Barcelona  For Society  The free diffusion of knowledge into Society in general from Europe’s universities aids the building of a knowledge economy and the raising of scientific and cultural literacy  Professor John Houghton of Victoria University, Melbourne, has shown that in all the countries modelled so far (Australia, UK, Netherlands, Denmark and the US) Open Access works out as the most cost-effective option for disseminating research 7
  8. 8. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Benefits of Open Access Barcelona Cathedral  For others  Economic benefits can accrue across Society, outside the research sector. Businesses, such as biotechnology companies, that innovate using basic research as their raw material – creating wealth in Society in the process – benefit from Open Access to the information they need  Particularly important when national Governments are trying to stimulate national economies during the current economic crisis 8
  9. 9. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES 2. Green Open Access  Green Open Access uses repositories, i nstitutional or subject-based where – copyright permissions allowing – copies of published outputs are deposited 9
  10. 10. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES  Analysis of repositories by country 10
  11. 11. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Green Open Access and Publishers… Casa Batlló, Barcelona, Antoni Gaudi  Many journal publishers do allow deposition after embargo periods (e.g. 12 months) and these embargo periods are maintained to ensure the continued value of subscriptions and therefore ensure sustainable business models for commercially-published journals.  Many book publishers do not allow full deposition (of the full work) into institutional repositories. It should be noted, however, that advocates of Open Access would wish to keep embargo periods as short as possible. 11
  12. 12. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES  Analysis of repositories by content 12
  13. 13. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES PEER project  PEER project  See  Investigated the potential effects of the large- scale, systematic depositing of authors’ final peer- reviewed manuscripts (so called Green Open Access or stage-two research output) on reader access, author visibility, and journal viability, as well as on the broader ecology of European research  The project ran from 1 September 2008 – 31 May 2012 13
  14. 14. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES PEER – main findings  Author self-archiving alone is unlikely to generate a critical mass of Green OA content The author deposit rate in the PEER Project was exceptionally low  The acceptance and utility of open access publishing has increased rapidly Open access publishing is increasingly important for publishers, repositories and the research community 14
  15. 15. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES PEER – main findings  Overall, PEER is associated with a significant, if relatively modest, increase in publisher downloads, in the confidence range 7.5% to 15.5%  Publisher downloads are growing at a faster rate the repository downloads  The likely mechanism is that PEER offers high quality metadata, allows a wider range of search engine robots to index its content than the typical publisher, and thus helps to raise the digital visibility of scholarly content 15
  16. 16. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES 3. DART-Europe and UCL Discovery  Doctoral research theses very popular  UCL Discovery download statistics (April 2012) 16
  17. 17. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES DART-Europe  DART-Europe E-Theses portal   303,232 Open Access theses (as of 22.6.12)  24 European countries  427 Universities  A LIBER service for members (Association of European Research Libraries) 17
  19. 19. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES 4. Gold Open Access Palau de Les Heures, Universitat de Barcelona  The Gold route has been defined as journal publishing operating with a business model not based on subscription, but rather on either publication charges (where the author or an organization on behalf of the author funds the publishing costs) or on subsidy  Gold Open Access journals do not charge readers and grant extensive usage rights 19
  20. 20. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Issues to note  There are two types of OA journal:  full Open Access journals and hybrid journals  While Gold Open Access has been shown to increase usage, there is no decisive evidence to date that it increases Lucas Cranach the Elder citations Adam and Eve  Some publishers ‘double dip’ – i.e. charge full subscription prices as well as charging authors publication fees in hybrid journals.  Researchers should not to pay Open Access fees in such publishers’ journals 20
  21. 21. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Finch Report  See  Report to Department of Business, Innovation and Skills  UCL responses  See open-access.html and price-responds.html 21
  22. 22. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Finch Recommendations King’ Cross Station, London 2012  Gold Open Access is the future  UK produces 6% of world’s global research output  For an extra £38 million to UK HE, UK research outputs could be published as Gold OA research outputs  Green OA would be for grey literature, theses 22
  23. 23. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Finch Recommendations Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona  National licensing solutions could extend access to the National Health Service, SMEs (Small + Medium sized Enterprises)  £6 million - £12 million extra a year for equality of access across HE  £1 million - £2 million a year for access by the NHS 23
  24. 24. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES New work by Houghton and Swan For an individual institutional policy, as things stand, Green is the only affordable and practical option JISC Report appearing imminently - Going for Gold? – see http://ie- 24
  25. 25. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Debate in the UK  Debate in the UK is polarised between the benefits of Green or Gold  2 solutions not mutually exclusive  Finch talks about a Gold OA future, not set in a timeframe  Also relies on the whole world going Gold OA  Houghton and Swan look at transition issues and the position NOW  World will not go Gold OA overnight  For the short to medium term, Green route is more cost effective 25
  26. 26. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES LERU Universities Going for Gold Professor Kurt Deketelaere Secretary General of LERU  One of the recommendations of the Finch Report is that experiments in Gold Open Access monograph publishing should continue  Debate to date has been largely about Gold Open Access journals, not monographs  Some LERU universities, with others, bidding for EU funding for pan-European Gold Open Access publishing infrastructure for monographs 26
  27. 27. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Library Other plugin? services Catalogues plugin Public Orders Orders Ordering DOAB Catalogue plugin? plugin? APIs OAI-PMH Requests Paid-for OA Book Orders etc versions PDF Secure plugin? payment Metadata Fulfilment Order management Book Master Secure delivery Master XML Repository Finance Other e- Hard Kindle versions copy DP support BPCs Subs On Technical demand Publication Format transformer University Management Admin Suite OA Book Editorial PDF Orders plugin? Editorial boards Authors Institutional repository 27
  28. 28. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES 5. Research Data  Data-drive science is replacing hypothesis-driven science as a methodology for scientific enquiry  Riding the Wave (2010) sets the scene for data-driven science  See report.pdf 28
  29. 29. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES UK developments  EPSRC – Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council has taken the initiative in the UK  See aspx  Policy founded in 7 core principles  No. 1: EPSRC-funded research data is a public good produced in the public interest and should be made freely and openly available with as few restrictions as possible in a timely and responsible manner 29
  30. 30. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES EPSRC expectations 1. All institutions will promote awareness of the EPSRC policy 2. Published papers will explain how data can be accessed 3. Each institution will have relevant policies and procedures, and researchers and students will comply with them 4. Research data not in digital form must still be made available for sharing 30
  31. 31. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES EPSRC expectations 5. Appropriate metadata describing the data will be available within 12 months of the data being generated 6. If data is restricted, the metadata must explain why and indicate how access would be possible 7. EPSRC-funded research data must be digitally curated for at least 10 years from the time it is public 8. Effective digital curation will be provided throughout the whole lifecycle 9. Organisations will pay for the infrastructure for data curation via existing funding streams 31
  32. 32. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES 6. LERU Doctoral Student’s Roadmap for Open Scholarship OA Data Copyright publication management 32
  33. 33. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Copyright  Manage your copyright  Your institutional copyright and IPR policies determine who owns copyright in your research outputs. Typically it will be you  Try not to sign copyright over to a publisher as a condition of being published. Grant the publisher a non-exclusive licence instead See Scholar’s Copyright Addendum can be added to a publisher’s licence, which will ensure that you retain certain rights 33
  34. 34. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES OA publication UCL, London  Open Access publication  If possible, choose an Open Access Journal in which to publish  PLoS suite of journals and new e-Life journal are major routes to high visibility Open Access publication  Monograph publication in Open Access is more difficult  Amsterdam University Press is a leading OA publisher  If you publish with a commercial publisher, make sure your research output is available in Green Open Access in a repository 34
  35. 35. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES Data Management  Data Management  Ensure that you have a Data Management plan, which covers the management of your research data throughout its lifecycle  Assign a Creative Commons CC0 licence to your data, to facilitate sharing and re-use by others  Creative Commons licences are available for many jurisdictions  Ensure that you have access to a trusted digital repository which will curate your data  Institutional or subject based repository  How much will it cost? 35
  36. 36. UCL LIBRARY SERVICES If you have been…  Thanks for listening  Happy to answer questions UCL, London 36