Libraries at the centre of the debate on copyright and
text and data mining:
the LIBER experience
Susan Reilly
19th
August...
Text & Data Mining is the future
“Text and data mining (TDM) is the process of deriving
information from machine-read mate...
Alternative to literature review
• Over 50 million articles online
• 1.5 million articles published annually
• Advanced di...
Malhotra A, Younesi E, Gurulingappa H, Hofmann-Apitius M (2013) ‘HypothesisFinder:’ A Strategy for the
Detection of Specul...
“TDM saves lives”
http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.7094
• Tools in the armoury of every biologist and
biotecnician
• Discover new...
Cultural Insight
http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.7094
Anyone can use TDM tools!
E.G. Sentiment analysis of IFLA open letter to European Union
Economics (Europe)
• TDM potentially worth 5.3 billion euro a year to European
research budget (2%)
• Knock-on effect woul...
Copyright v TDM
• Because it involves the copying of content in
order to convert into machine readable format
TDM may infr...
The debate in Europe
• Licences for Europe, Feb 2013
– “The Commission's objective is to promote the efficient use of text...
The problem with licences
• Permission culture: Why relicence? Can’t licence
everything!
• Not scalable or cost effective
...
So, we walked away…..
• We want to be free to mine content to which we
have legal access
• Copyright reform required
• Rea...
The Perfect Swell: ideal conditions
for growth of TDM in Europe
• Stakeholder workshop (60 attendees)
• Views from industr...
So, what do we want?
• Legal clarity
– A specific exception in EU law to allow TDM
– A reinterpretation of EU law
• Legal ...
What do we not want?
• Licences for subscriptions which explicitly forbid
machine crawling
• A licence with every single p...
Elsevier TDM Policy
• Access through API only
• Text only- no images, tables
• Research must register details
• Click-thro...
By MsSaraKelly (Back to the Future by Graffiti Life) [CC-BY-2.0
LIBER will:
•Advocate for copyright reform
in Europe
•Supp...
Thank You!
Any questions?
@skreilly
www.libereurope.eu
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Libraries at the centre of the debate on copyright and text and data mining: the LIBER experience by S K Reilly

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LIBER advocacy work on TDM and copyright reform presented at IFLA WLIC 2014, Lyon.

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Libraries at the centre of the debate on copyright and text and data mining: the LIBER experience by S K Reilly

  1. 1. Libraries at the centre of the debate on copyright and text and data mining: the LIBER experience Susan Reilly 19th August 2014 IFLA, Lyon
  2. 2. Text & Data Mining is the future “Text and data mining (TDM) is the process of deriving information from machine-read material. It works by copying large quantities of material, extracting the data, and recombining it to identify patterns.” JISC
  3. 3. Alternative to literature review • Over 50 million articles online • 1.5 million articles published annually • Advanced discovery and visualisation • “Undiscovered public knowledge” (Swanson)
  4. 4. Malhotra A, Younesi E, Gurulingappa H, Hofmann-Apitius M (2013) ‘HypothesisFinder:’ A Strategy for the Detection of Speculative Statements in Scientific Text. PLoS Comput Biol 9(7): e1003117. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003117
  5. 5. “TDM saves lives” http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.7094 • Tools in the armoury of every biologist and biotecnician • Discover new treatments for diseases e.g. fish oil for Raynaud’s Syndrome • Controlling malaria outbreaks • Links between gene mutation and cancers
  6. 6. Cultural Insight http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.7094
  7. 7. Anyone can use TDM tools! E.G. Sentiment analysis of IFLA open letter to European Union
  8. 8. Economics (Europe) • TDM potentially worth 5.3 billion euro a year to European research budget (2%) • Knock-on effect would be a minimum of 32.5 billion euro increase in GDP • US responsible for over half the articles and patents on TDM - 1100 US patents compared to 39 EU by 2013
  9. 9. Copyright v TDM • Because it involves the copying of content in order to convert into machine readable format TDM may infringe copyright • European Database Directive prohibits copying of substantial parts of databases • In US TDM is covered by fair use, other parts of the world have a specific exception e.g. Japan, UK https://www.flickr.com/photos/apelad/304195427/
  10. 10. The debate in Europe • Licences for Europe, Feb 2013 – “The Commission's objective is to promote the efficient use of text and data mining (TDM) for scientific research purposes. ……The Group should explore solutions such as standard licensing models as well as technology platforms to facilitate TDM access.” • No discussion of copyright e.g. does TDM infringe copyright law? • Engaging the wrong stakeholders • An attempt to systematise a problem/not a solution
  11. 11. The problem with licences • Permission culture: Why relicence? Can’t licence everything! • Not scalable or cost effective • Will licence reflect how the researcher actually performs TDM? ME 442 Permission" by Nina Paley - http://mimiandeunice.com/2011/08/30/permission-2/. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ME_442_Permission.png#mediaviewer/File:ME_442_Permission.png
  12. 12. So, we walked away….. • We want to be free to mine content to which we have legal access • Copyright reform required • Real stakeholder engagement
  13. 13. The Perfect Swell: ideal conditions for growth of TDM in Europe • Stakeholder workshop (60 attendees) • Views from industry, researchers, infrastructure, OA publishers, legal experts • Main findings: – Licencing not scalable – Need to address lack of legal clarity (does TDM infringe copyright?) – Need for harmonisation of copyright law – Lack of awareness amongst researchers – Publisher infrastructure not threatened by TDM http://blogs.plos.org/opens/2014/03/09/best-practice- enabling-content-mining/
  14. 14. So, what do we want? • Legal clarity – A specific exception in EU law to allow TDM – A reinterpretation of EU law • Legal interoperability – A solution at WIPO • Open licences – CC-by and CC0
  15. 15. What do we not want? • Licences for subscriptions which explicitly forbid machine crawling • A licence with every single publisher for every single research project • Publishers placing conditions on how TDM results are disseminated • Click-through licences • “Open access” licences that are NOT interoperable (STM model licences)
  16. 16. Elsevier TDM Policy • Access through API only • Text only- no images, tables • Research must register details • Click-through licence • Terms can change any time • Reproducibility of results
  17. 17. By MsSaraKelly (Back to the Future by Graffiti Life) [CC-BY-2.0 LIBER will: •Advocate for copyright reform in Europe •Support international efforts for harmonisation •Continue to engage research stakeholders •Promote open access
  18. 18. Thank You! Any questions? @skreilly www.libereurope.eu

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