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European Universities and their Libraries are moving to a position where Open Access dissemination addresses a number of key agendas. This paper will review the economic framework for Open Access, based on detailed costing studies from the UK, and then present case studies where Open Access has been used to deliver on key institutional challenges. Work being undertaken by LERU (League of European Research Universities) in the area of Open Scholarship and Open Knowledge will be explored and case studies presented which describe the successful implementation of Open Access approaches in the fields of research publication and research theses. The paper will suggest a road map which all European Universities and their Libraries can follow to adopt Open Access approaches to the dissemination of teaching, learning and research outputs.