Gilded age politics


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Gilded age politics

  1. 1. B y: M s . S u s a n M . P o je rH o r a c e G r e e le y H S
  2. 2. 1. A T w o - P a r t y S t a le m a t e
  3. 3. T w o -P a r t y“ B a la n c e ”
  4. 4. 2.In t e n s e Vo te rL o y a lt y to the Tw o M a jo r
  5. 5. 3 . W e ll-D e f in e d V o t i n g B l oRepublican Democratic c s Bloc Bloc White southerners  Northern whites (preservation of (pro-business) white supremacy)  African Americans Catholics  Northern Recent immigrants Protestants (esp. Jews)  Old WASPs (support Urban working for anti-immigrant poor (pro-labor) laws) Most farmers  Most of the middle class
  6. 6. 4 . V e r y L a is s e zF a From 1870-1900  a l G overy .  i r e F e d e r Govt. did v t little domestically.  Main duties of the federal govt.:  Deliver the mail.  Maintain a national military.  Collect taxes & tariffs.  Conduct a foreign policy.  Exception  administer the annual Civil War veterans’ pension.
  7. 7. 5 . T h e P r e s id e n c y a s a S y m b o lic Party bosses ruled. O f f ic e Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party. The President just Senator Roscoe Conkling doled out federal jobs.  1865  53,000 people worked for the federal govt.  1890  166,000 “ “ “ “ “ “
  8. 8. 18 8 0 P r e s i d e n t i a l E le c t io n : R e p u b lic a n s Half Breeds StalwartsSen. James G. Blaine Sen. Roscoe Conkling (Maine) (New York) compromise James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP)
  9. 9. 18 8 0 P r e s i d e n t i a lE le c t io n : D e m o c r a t s
  10. 10. I n s p e c t in g t h eDe mo c r a t ic C u r io s it y Shop
  11. 11. 18 8 0P r e s id e n t ia l E le c t io n
  12. 12. 18 8 1: G a r f ie ldAs s as s in a t e d ! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!
  13. 13. C he s te r A . A rthur: T h e F o x in t h e C h ic k e n C o o p ?
  14. 14. P e n d le t o n A c t ( 18 8 3 ) Civil Service Act. The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform. 1883  14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions. 1900  100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs.
  15. 15. R e p u b lic a n Reformers who w u m p s ” “ M u g wouldn’t re-nominate Chester A. Arthur. Reform to them  create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves. Social Darwinists. Laissez faire government to them:  Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society.  Their target was political corruption,
  16. 16. Th eMugw u mpsMen may comeand men may go,but the work ofreform shall goon forever. Will support Cleveland in the 1884 election.
  17. 17. 18 8 4 P r e s id e n t ia l E le c t io nGrover Cleveland James Blaine * (DEM) (REP)
  18. 18. A D ir t y C a m p a ig nMa, Ma…where’s my pa?He’s going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!
  19. 19. L it t l e L o s t M u g wu mp Blaine in 1884
  20. 20. R u m, R o ma n is m & R e b e  Led a delegation of l l io n ! ministers to Blaine in NYC.  Reference to the Democratic Party.  Blaine was slow to repudiate the remark.  Narrow victory forDr. Samuel Burchard Cleveland [he wins NY by only 1149 votes!].
  21. 21. 18 8 4P r e s id e n t ia l E le c t io n
  22. 22. C le v e la n d ’ s F ir s t Te r m  The “Veto Governor” from New York.  First Democratic elected since 1856.  A public office is a public trust!  His laissez-faire presidency:  Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich.  Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil War veterans!
  23. 23. Br a v o , S e ñ o rCl e v e l a n d o !
  24. 24. T h e T a r if f Is s u e After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries. Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not. 1885  tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! Mugwumps opposed it  WHY??? President Cleveland’s view on tariffs???? Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888 presidential election.
  25. 25. F il in g t h eRo u g h E d g e s Tariff of 1888
  26. 26. 18 8 8 P r e s i d e n t i a l E le c t io nGrover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison (DEM) * (REP)
  27. 27. C o min g Ou t f o r Ha r r is o n
  28. 28. T h e S m a lle s tS p e c im e n Ye t
  29. 29. 18 8 8P r e s id e n t ia l E le c t io n
  30. 30. Dis p o s in g t h e S ur pl us
  31. 31. C h a n g in g Americans wantedu b l i c govt. to deal P the federal with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb the power of the trusts:i o n O p in  Interstate Commerce Act – 1887  Sherman Antitrust Act – 1890  McKinley Tariff – 1890  Based on the theory that prosperity flowed directly from protectionism.  Increased already high rates another 4%!  Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 (even McKinley lost his House seat!).
  32. 32. 18 9 2 P r e s i d e n t i a l E le c t io nGrover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison again! * (DEM) (REP)
  33. 33. 18 9 2P r e s id e n t ia l E le c t io n
  34. 34. C le v e la n d L o s e s S up p o rt F a s t! The only President to serve two non- consecutive terms. Blamed for the 1893 Panic. Defended the gold standard. Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike. Refused to sign the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894. Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.