This shows our implementation model for rapidly identifying the company’s needs, and developing and delivering solutions. Our methodology recognized that transforming HR to the internet is a big change for most organizations. A common cause for failure is not making changes “stick” – people go back to their old ways. Our methodology focuses on implementing new functionality in short cycles – 60 to 90 days.
Periodic Systems Assessments Database systems are constantly being improved as computer technology and the software that drives it are changed to incorporate innovations. The result of these macro trends is that installed systems such as the ABCM system need to be reassessed annually to determine if they are still the best fit for the organization. Periodic assessments consider a number of factors, including: level of satisfaction of users with current system capabilities; degree of utilization of existing system; likelihood that the new system will give nonusers more incentive to incorporate ABCM information into their decision processes; effectiveness and efficiency of new systems compared to the existing one; and cost to install the new system versus updating the existing system.
Capability assessment encompasses a number of tools designed to focus a client on specific skills that the client or competitor’s company may have or lack, and that therefore may act as a basis for a sustained source of competitive advantage. Capability assessment is an important activity for isolating and ranking capabilities in a particular company, business unit or department. It can be used either to rank capabilities as seen within a company, or as perceived by customers or clients externally. By using tools such as the spider chart in displaying the results, characteristic patterns can be isolated, and the cumulative impact of over- or underperformance in a number of fields can be highlighted. See also: Value disciplines Determine the key capabilities you wish to assess the company by. These may be the three core capabilities from the ‘value disciplines’ model, or other categories (agreed with the client in advance), indeed almost anything that can be broadly termed a ‘capability’. This might include: - superior skills in producing high quality products; - superior system for delivering customer orders accurately and swiftly; - better after-sale service capability; - more skill in achieving low operating costs; - unique formula for selecting good retail locations; - unusual innovativeness in developing new products; - better merchandising and product display skills; and - superior mastery of an important technology Conduct a comprehensive survey of a predetermined target audience (customers, employees, etc.) based on ranking each capability. Average the results for each category to get a single score for each capability. Plot the results of the survey on a spider chart so that each capability runs along its own axis. Join the points on each axis together to form a complete shape. You may wish to shade the area enclosed by the lines to indicate a rough ‘overall’ performance. Annotate your results carefully so as to highlight the conclusions you have drawn.
The key to operating successfully in a competitive market is understanding customers needs, values and behaviours and being able to take action. Segmentation identifies groups of customers with homogeneous needs, who can be served by a tailored proposition. From what you know about the client’s customer database, industry analysis, client or expert interviews, and focus groups, begin by developing a number of hypotheses about likely segmentation schema. Segmentation seeks to group customers according to similar purchase behaviours, attitudes and profiles. The outputs of a segmentation schema must be: - identifiable/recognisable: you must be able to identify which segment a customer is likely to be in so that marketing programmes can be actioned; - actionable: you must present strategic options for each segment which are achievable; - measurable: it must be possible to measure segments by key dimensions and assess them for market potential; and - stable: there must be an assessment of a segments short, medium and long term viability. Segments rarely remain the same over time When you are happy with your hypotheses develop a questionnaire to test them/validate them. Keep the questioning as short as possible and only focus on the things you really need to know. “Pilot” the questionnaire with a small group of customers to test that it works. The sample size for the actual programme should be a minimum of 50 to be useful, or 30 per customer segment identified. This can be a large task and it may be more economical to subcontract the work out. Analyse your results. Perform factor analysis to group customers and identify trends and similar responses, and be prepared to re-formulate your hypotheses if necessary. Look at the groups to identify the characteristics that can be used to describe them and their purchasing criteria, remembering the objective is to identify a MINIMAL number of groupings. Draw out the implications of your findings as they may require the client to readdress its marketing strategy and/or business model.
Customer segmentation is the subdivision of a market into discrete customer groups that share similar characteristics. Any product or service potentially appeals to a universal audience. In reality, a company will sell to only a small segment of the population, and may derive value from a sub-segment of that. Customer segmentation can be a powerful means to identify unmet customer needs. It allows you determine a client’s customer base and its characteristics in a meaningful way, splitting customers up into groups and ultimately making operational decisions about the allocation of resources for such activities as product development, marketing, selling methods, distribution strategies and pricing. This allows a company to compete only where it is strong and likely to prosper. For example, companies that identify underserved segments can achieve a leadership position by being the first to serve them. Customer segmentation is most effective when a company tailors offerings to segments that are the most profitable and targets them where the company has a distinct competitive advantage. Divide the market into meaningful and measurable segments according to customers’ needs, their past behaviours or their demographic profiles. In many ways, this is the most difficult part of the process. Determining the most insightful segmentation variables can be done through research, customer surveys, or focus groups (see customer segmentation section for details). Determine the attractiveness of each segment by analyzing, for example, the revenue and cost impacts of serving each segment or client retention rates. Use shading and annotation to draw out the key market segments the company should be targeting. Try and identify ways the client can invest resources to tailor the product, service or its marketing or distribution programmes to match the needs of the key target segments.
The growth spread matrix plots a company or division’s ability to create value, relative to its growth. The resulting chart can be split into four quadrants: - destroying value and growing quickly (top left); - destroying value and growing slowly/shrinking (bottom left); - creating value and growing slowly/shrinking (bottom right); and - creating value and growing (top right) The ideal position for a business unit, sector or companies is in the top right corner. Companies classically tend to move around in an anti-clockwise direction from top left to top right. A business unit which is performing badly will have its underperforming parts cut out or sold, leaving a healthy base which can grow and create value. A growth spread matrix is used to show the relative performance of a portfolio of business units or companies within a sector. Define the context for your assessment - it could be an industry, sector, market or company - and the sub-elements which comprise it. Obtain the last three to five years’ financial results for each element. Define the net assets of each. In the case of comparing companies across an industry or market, you would take this information from the balance sheet. Inside a company, the information can be derived from the management accounts. Calculate the growth of net assets for each element over the period of examination. Calculate the “spread”, or value generated by each element, typically as the cashflow return on investment less the cost of capital. Plot a bubble for each element in a matrix with growth on the vertical and “spread” on the horizontal axis. The size of the bubble is indicative of the size of the business unit. Use annotation and shading to draw out the key conclusions indicated by the matrix.
Partnering maps are a very quick tool for business planning, negotiations or business restructuring exercises, that allows you to focus on which elements of a particular business are crucial to the company, and which are less important or damaging to overall performance. As an exercise, it is most effective if it takes place in discussion with a group of representatives, where the Andersen personnel facilitate a discussion of relative performance. This way, the exercise reinforces the critical elements of a discussion that would have to take place anyway. Well in advance, decide as a team what the critical value driver is. Typically, this might be ‘potential to generate customer intimacy’; an alternative axis may be ‘relative capacity to differentiate’, or something quantitative such as NPV. Ensure you have a complete list of relevant activites. Try to have a ‘dry-run’ of the exercise with the project team at least once before the actual client meeting. List all the key challenges that are likely to arrive when the exercise is repeated with the client. In discussion with the client, place each activity on the map - with relative capability on the horizontal axis, and the key criteria on the vertical. Remember, this is a rough and ready exercise, designed to separate activities into three broad categories. The exact position isn’t crucial. Challenge the client vigorously, but not dogmatically. Partnering maps can be used for: - planning for strategic acquisitions or divestments; - preparing for negotiations over mergers, alliances, partnerships or outsourcing agreements; - realigning corporate structure; - planning future strategic direction; and - build vs. buy decisions
Portfolio matrices enable businesses to underpin their choices with a clear, data-based framework. Businesses can choose which projects to undertake now, which projects to undertake in the medium term and which projects to put on hold because of insurmountable barriers. They also help businesses quantify the expected benefits from the projects they plan to undertake. Explicitly define each opportunity. Then identify criteria which provide insight into the ease of implementation of each, based on the business context. Standard criteria might include project scale, systems requirements, skills availability and structural obstacles. Review each of the options either through detailed market research or through brainstorming sessions, and score them against pre-agreed criteria. Meanwhile, isolate the NPV impact of each option. If it is not possible to use NPV for this, you can use cash flow or profit, but accounting techniques and lack of market risk premium mean that these measures will not be as reliable. Remember to use a standard NPV format, for example a five year timescale with nil terminal value. Create the chart and annotate it with key assumptions and a scale bubble; and let the area of each bubble reflect the size of the NPV. Research and brainstorm any softer issues that the options may present (such as the impact on employee’s morale of working away from home). Document the major impacts and present these near the chart.
The risk matrix is a simple structure for identifying the key risks associated with an opportunity, and prioritising the actions necessary to mitigate those risks. There are many possible structures that could be used to achieve this end, however all share the common property of defining both scale and controllability of each risk. The risk matrix is useful for clarifying decisions around complex, non-independent risks which arise from almost every business decision. Typically, any individual investment project or portfolio decision would benefit from such an analysis. A very common situation in which this tool is used is when deciding whether to take part in an alliance venture. In this instance it helps answer the questions like: what is my greatest risk? how costly will it be if I cannot mitigate it? what shape of alliance would minimise my risk exposure. for those risks outside my control (e.g. market risk), what is the potential downside? etc. Throughout any financial modeling exercise, identify those variables which most heavily effect the desired outcome (e.g. which elements have most influence on NPV). Determine the monetary value of the loss if the key variables change by (say) 5%. This is a hard measure of risk. Additionally, identify non-financial risks, typically in the following classes: operational risk; brand risk; human capital risk; technology risk; and timing risk. Attempt to scale these risks comparatively. Many of these can only be scaled in discussion with your colleagues and the client. These are soft risks, but are equally real. Use a two-by-two to plot all the risks by Significance (high, medium, low) and degree of controllability (manageable, mitigatable, non-controllable) Use bubble size to accentuate the scale of risk (making area proportional to monetary impact). Additionally, shade bubbles where it adds clarity. This exercise is best performed 2/3 of the way through a modelling exercise. Test your findings with your team and share it with the client – ensuring consistency of logic (especially for soft risks).
Scenario development is a methodology to help “manage the future”. Where traditional analysis predicts the near future in terms of historic and current trends scenario planning considers large-scale forces that will push the future in different directions. The process is as much a part of the benefit as the outcome, allowing managers to generate and share ideas in a positive environment, leaving a company better placed to react to changing future events. Scenario development suggests a number of distinctively different alternative futures, each of which are possible. These scenarios of the future focus less on predicting outcomes and more on understanding the forces that would eventually compel an outcome; less on figures and more on insight. They are more concerned with understanding the discontinuities in creating alternative futures by recognising that the structure of the environment may change. Scenario planning can be applied to any changing environment, but is generally most successful in industries which face major change to underlying fundamentals of environment and competition. Most famously it has been adopted by Shell (oil), the NHS (health service), and ICL (telco supply). There are many variants on how to run a full scenario planning engagement, but all begin with gaining an understanding of the industry via client interviews, industry experts, and micro and macro environment analysis A “ decision focused scenario” process will take the following form: clarify strategic decisions the scenarios seek to address (ie. what would you like to know about the future to improve your decisions?) agree key decision factors determine environmental forces at two levels :market/industry level (micro) and an economic/political/technical level (macro) develop 3-6 scenarios - often called logics . (e.g. global giants will dominate, industry will fragment, boundaries will blur, etc.) describe the scenarios in enough detail to identify implications on the strategic decisions Identify strategic implications feed back into the original strategic decisions This process is done in teams and workshops with the client.
The sector chart is a fairly simple, visually arresting demonstration of relative positions of competitors in a sector or industry. The sector chart tool is similar to a BCG matrix, however the BCG matrix is from the point of view of a particular company rather than the market as a whole. By contrast, sector charts are calculated in reference to the largest market player at the end of a particular period. This tool should be used to uncover the competitive dynamics with a market or industry. By understanding the relative performance of players by changing market share we can construct a number of strategic implications for the client. (See also: Share Gain Line tool.) As usual, begin by carefully defining the market you are looking at. Identify the main players in the market and, through the usual research methods, calculate their size in relation to the market. Now calculate the growth rates for each player. Typically, the values for growth are calculated over a period of three to five years. Simply calculate the size at period start and end, and divide by the number of years. Plot the different companies as bubbles on the graph with the relative market share at the end of the period as the horizontal axis and growth on the vertical. The area (note: not the radius) of the bubbles can be used to represent the absolute size of each of the companies at the end of the period of examination. Always make sure to add a key which shows the scale for the bubbles. Looking at the resulting values can tell you a great deal about the changing face of a particular market. For example, if the smaller players are grouped high up the chart, this suggests a process of market fragmentation is taking place, and by contrast if the growth is focused on the large players, the market is consolidating. If you wish to use an ‘others’ category for a fragmented market, separate the bubble - it is not a large market player.
Title Author Presented To Date Client Name or Logo Business and Systems Aligned. Business Empowered. TM
Research 9 Low Med High High Savings Opportunity Implementation Risk Low Med Excluded Due to Labor Costs and /or Labor Law Inflexibility No Savings; Current Operations Maintained; Not A Proposed SSE Location India added back in due to Financial Services Company strategy
Activity maps Voice Films/ Programming Music Video conference Rich Media News Interactive E-mail Information Transactions Games Media/ Publishing Corporate Communications Advertising Publishing Exhibition Browsers E-comm. tools Search engines App’n hosting tools User Applications Enterprise app’ns Content-specific apps Strm’g media Cach’g Netw’k mgmt Metr’g Middleware BIlling “ Walled Garden” Open Portal “ Walled Garden” Open Mobile Portal Fixed ASP ISP Fixed ISP Mobile Intern’l Backbone Bandw’th Trading National Backbone Coloc’n/ Hotelling Network Provision Switching/ routing Co-ax Copper Fibre Switches and Routers Network Equipment and Infrastructure Hosting Rights of Way Sat. PSTN/ ISDN Dial-up Cable Fixed Network Services Co-ax 2.5G Mobile 3G 2G Web sites Mobile Handsets PDAs Fixed Handsets TVs Devices Specialist Devices Operating Systems Specialist Local Apps Applications Local Middleware Set top box W-ASP ASP Multiplexers Fixed Netw’k Eqpm’t Infrastructure xDSL Radio Fibre Current area of activity M’wave HSI GPRS ASPE Data Traditional offline media Key areas of future activity - owned or as part of an alliance
Dupont Analysis(1) Margin (Marketing efficiency) PAT Sales X Sales Assets X Assets Debt + Equity X Debt + Equity Equity X PAT - dividend PAT Asset turnover (Production efficiency) Capital leverage Equity leverage Retention ratio ROA (operating efficiency) ROC (capital efficiency) ROE (equity efficiency) Equity growth rate (sustainable growth)
Dupont Analysis(2) ROC profit capital employed exceptional fixed assets revenue costs working capital volume debtors price creditors unit cost stock fixed costs fixed assets market share market size market growth industry competitors suppliers buyers substitutes potential entrants
Growth Share Matrix A B F D E G C = $30 million sales Business Units Product - Markets 25 20 15 10 5 0 10x 5x 3x 2x 1x 0.5x 0.3x 0.2x Relative Market Share Market Growth (%) Cash Cow Star Dog Question
Growth Spread Matrix Company A vs. Selected Peers Most Recent FYE CFROI - CoC Historical Real Asset Growth 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% Company C Company B Company D Company F Company A Company G Company H Company E = $1 Billion Inflation Adjusted Gross Assets
Market Definition 0 20 40 60 80 100% Levels of market - Demand side Percent UK population Total Population Penetrated market Qualified available market Available market Potential market Served market
Partnering Maps Current capability High Low “ Must have” “ Nice to have” “ Nice to have” “ Don’t want” High Low Potential for building customer intimacy
Portfolio Matrix Ease of implementation Financial attractiveness NPV 2002-2006 (£m) Attractiveness vs. ease of implementation Low Smart order routing Back-office outsourcing Trade cost analytics Corporate actions NPV 2002-2006 £20m 20 0 High 10 15 Overall proposition £56 million 5 OMS Basic proposition Inherently attractive Inherently unattractive
Risk Matrix Note: The bubble size represents the potential financial impact Key Risks falling under the following categories: Low High Medium Manageable risk Mitigation / Negotiation Outside OMFS control A O J Q D E F I M N P R S T U V X W Significance of risk B C D G H K L Internal risks Project risks Market risks
Sector Chart = $1 billion revenue, 2000 Company E Relative Market Share Real Annual Growth (%) 0.02X 0.03X 0.05X 0.1X 0.2X 0.3X 0.5X 1X 2X 0.01X 1.5X Company F Company C Company B Company K Company A Company G Company H Company I Company J Company D Sector CAGR = 8.6% ABC Sector, 1996 - 2000 -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%