POLITICAL PARTIES Political Party A group of persons who seek to control government through winning elections and holding public office Made up of people who are committed to the adoption of certain public policies and programs
POLITICAL PARTIES: PURPOSES Main Purpose of Political Parties The Nominating Function Select candidates and present them to voters One activity that sets political parties apart from all other groups in politics ―Package” candidates— sell them to the public
Our Old Friend, The Political SpectrumLiberal Conservative ModerateDemocrat Republican
Where do you think you stand? Liberal Moderate Conservative
UNITED STATES POLITICAL PARTIES What are the main political parties in the United States?
U.S. POLITICAL PARTIES The Two-Party System Two-party system—a political spectrum in which two parties dominate the electoral process and control the government Makes it hard for 3rd party candidates to be successful Members within the party do not necessarily agree on all issues
U.S. POLITICAL PARTIES Democrats Republicans (GOP) Minorities White Female Male Less affluent Relatively affluent
U.S. REPUBLICANS ANDDEMOCRATS IN THE 21ST CENTURY
U.S. REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN THE21ST CENTURY Size of National Government Democrats Republicans Support strong Favor a small national national government government, giving and look to it solve a more power to states wide variety of to solve problems at problems local level
U.S. REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN THE21ST CENTURY Taxes Democrats Republicans Favor tax cuts for the Favor broad-based tax poor cuts to encourage More willing to raise taxes for affluent economic growth and Americans in order to to allow people to support programs they keep what they earn see as beneficial to society
U.S. REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN THE21ST CENTURY Regulation of Business Democrats Republicans Support regulation of ―Hands off ‖ when it business as a way to comes to business protect consumers, workers or the environment
U.S. REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN THE21ST CENTURY Social Issues Democrats Republicans More likely to Tend to favor prayer support abortion in public schools, rights and gun control while opposing laws abortion and gun Generally oppose control laws school prayer
U.S. REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN THE21ST CENTURY Minimum Wage Democrats Republicans Favor regular Tend to oppose increases on minimum wage laws minimum wage to support poor families
SUMMARY:U.S. REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN THE 21ST CENTURY Republicans Believe in: Personal responsibility Limited government Free markets Individual liberty Traditional American values Strong national defense Believe the role of government should be to provide people the freedom necessary to pursue their goals
SUMMARY:U.S. REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN THE 21ST CENTURY Democrats Believe in: Governmental action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all It is the duty of the government to alleviate social ills and to protect civil liberties Individual and human rights Liberal policies generally emphasize the need for the government to solve people’s problems
GOVERNMENT SHOULD NOT CENSORSPEECH, PRESS, MEDIA, OR THE INTERNET
REPEAL LAWS PROHIBITINGADULT POSSESSION AND USE OFDRUGS.
LET PEOPLE CONTROL THEIROWN RETIREMENT; PRIVATIZESOCIAL SECURITY.
REPLACE GOVERNMENTWELFARE WITH PRIVATECHARITY.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION OFBUSINESS IS NECESSARY TOPROTECT THE PUBLIC INTEREST.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION OFBUSINESS USUALLY DOES MOREHARM THAN GOOD.
TOO MUCH POWER ISCONCENTRATED IN THE HANDSOF A FEW LARGE COMPANIES.
STRICTER ENVIRONMENTALLAWS AND REGULATIONS COSTTOO MANY JOBS.
THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD HELPTHOSE IN NEED EVEN IF IT HASTO RAISE TAXES.
GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS LIKEWELFARE DISCOURAGE PEOPLEFROM WORKING.
MINOR (3RD) PARTIES Source of new political ideas and ideas for change
BIG IDEAThere are currently over 100 minorparties in the United States. Whilechanges of a minor party winning electedoffice are slim, they play an importantrole in the American Political System.They provide an outlet for manycontroversial issues and provide citizenswith the opportunity to have their voicesheard!
MINOR PARTIES Definition Parties not part of the two-party system Do not possess widespread support Have little real impact on national politics because of ―winner-take-all‖ elections Winner-take-all: the winning candidate is the one who receives the largest number of votes for the office (not always the majority of votes). Major and Minor Parties Democrats and Republicans discourage minor parties Debate on to what extent they should be involved in elections
MINOR PARTIES Purpose of Minor Parties “Spoiler Role” –pull votes away from one of the major parties, weakening that party’s ability to win an election Ex- Green Party & 2000 Election Your ThoughtsWhy do they run if most agree they have no chance of winning?
THE MINOR PARTIESFour Types of Minor Parties Ideologies Ideological Parties • Based on certain social, economic, or political ideas • Not powerful but long-lasting Economic Protest Parties • Appear during tough financial times • Criticize the economic actions and plans of the major parties Single-Issue Parties • Focus on one public policy matter • Fade away once issue has been resolved Splinter Parties • Break away from a major party • Usually have a strong leader who lost a major parties nomination
PresidentialElection ProcessA snapshot of the events…
EXAMINING THE ELECTION PROCESS…What do you remember from the 2008 Presidential Election?
Your Task:Write down 3 observationsyou made based onthese maps.
Election of 1988 George Bush (R) Michael S. Dukakis (D)Election of 2008 John McCain (R)Barack Obama (D)
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGEWhat would happen if Presidential Candidate A wins 45% of thepopular vote in PA, Candidate B wins 35% of the popular vote, and Candidate C wins 20% of the popular vote? “Winner-take-all” processCandidate A (majority of the popular vote) wouldreceive ALL of the electoral votes for Pennsylvania.
Candidates need money to run their campaigns,but too much money from too few people is notdemocratic!
1. How do candidates get money for campaigning?2. Why is money a necessary campaign resource?3. How is the use of money regulated in elections today?
How much money is spent? Radio Ads, TV 2008:More than $ 1 Ads, Campaign $620,000 for abillion is spent Staff, Posters, Bu 30 second per election mper Primetime cycle. stickers, Office- commercial! space, Travel
INTERESTING FACTS $2 billion was spent during the 2004 Presidential election Ross Perot holds record for most money donated by an individual to a single campaign ($65 million)
Finding the Dough: Sources of Campaign Funding Multi-Candidate PACs Private Givers PACs• “Political Arm” • PACs that give • Small donors of Interest money to 5+ (MN Students!) Groups candidates • Wealthy people • Candidates• Organization themselves that raises and distributes funds to candidates running for office
Hard Dough vs. Soft DoughHard Soft $ Given to $ Given to political parties for things campaigns like Voter directly Registration Drives Regulated by Federal Not regulated! Election Commission
Campaign Finance Reform• Limits have been placed on how much can be spent by individuals and PACs• See the next slides for an example…
FEDERAL CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAW - Contribution Limits On Nov. 6, 2002, the day after the 2002 midterm elections, a new set of campaign finance laws went into effect. Known as the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA), the law increased the contribution limits for individuals giving to federal candidates and political parties (details below). To any PAC, To any To any national state/local party, candidate party committee or other political Aggregate total committee (per year) committee (per (per election1) year) Pre-BCRA: $15,000 $5,000 No limitMulticandidate $5,000committee can BCRA:give5: Same Same Same Same Pre-BCRA: $20,000 $5,000 No limitOther political $1,000committee can BCRA:give: Same Same Same Same
To any PAC, To any To any national state/local party, candidate party committee or other political Aggregate total committee (per (per year) committee (per election1) year) Pre-BCRA $25,000 $20,000 $5,000 $1,000 per year $101,400 per two- year election cycle $10,000 to each as follows: state or local party committee (Levin $2,100, subject $26,700 per party $40,000 per cycleIndividual funds) to aggregate committee, to candidates; andcan give limit subject to $5,000 to each PAC aggregate limit $61,400 per cycle or other political to all national party committee, subject committees and to aggregate limit PACs (of which no more than $40,000 per cycle can go to PACs)
So, where did the money from this past election come from?You will complete a web quest tomorrow to find out…
Big IdeaIn a democracy, public opinion serves as a guide toelected officials, a guard against costly mistakes, and akind of glue that holds us together despite ourdifferences. While the mass media may shape publicopinion, they are also shaped by it.
Public Opinion Definition Phrase used to describe where all or most of American people hold the same view on some public issue Complex collection of the opinions of many different people
Factors that shape public opinion… Gender and Ethnicity Peer News Groups Media Religion Family School
How Do We Know What People Want? Understanding what the public thinks about a given issue is the job of Pollsters. Professional statisticians who collect data and analyze it to provide useful information to political groups.
Pubic Opinion Polls Pollsters make use of polls to collect data Best way of gathering public opinion … Help candidates know their constituents feelings Help the news media see how informed the public is Help predict who will win the election S0, to measure Public Opinion we can analyze… Interest Group Members, Election Results, Media, Personal Contacts Let’s see an example…
Public Opinion Polls Basic elements of an Gallup Poll opinion poll include (1) name of the polling Regardless of which candidate you support, who did a better organization or job in the debate? sponsor, 1st: 46% Obama, 34% McCain (2) question asked, 2nd: 56% Obama, 23% McCain 3rd: 56% Obama, 30% McCain (3) an analysis of the Date: Oct. 16th, 2008 data gathered, Sample: 1,015 national adults, (4) the date, aged 18 and older (5) sample and size, Margin of Error: +/- 3 (6) margin of error
Mass Media Mass Media Means of communication that reaches a large audience Mass media includes: Newspapers Magazines Radio Television Internet
Role of the Media in Elections Informs the public Thisinformation helps shape people’s opinions on issues that are key to the election.
Where do Americans get their news? 60 million copies of daily newspapers 10, 000 copies of weekly and monthly magazines 9,000 radio stations Average 6 hours of television/day Countless hours on Internet
The News vs. “New” Media News media relies on small armies of reporters, fact- checkers, and editors to research and report stories in an accurate, unbiased manner “New” Media include talk radio, television talk shows, television news magazines, cable comedy shows spoofing news
Interest Groups Interest Groups (Special Interests) ◦ Any organized group whose members share a common goal and try to promote their interests by influencing government policy making and decision making ◦ Examples: National Rifle Association (NRA)—protect rights of gun owners Wilderness Society— preserving wild lands
• Interested in controlling & • Nominate candidates for influencing the policies of public office government • Interested in winning• Focus on issues that directly elections and controlling affect the interests of their government members • Concerned with a wide variety of issues
Positives Representation based on attitudes, not geography Provide specializedinformation to government Are a way for average voterto participate in government
Negatives Some have influence that is disproportionate to their size ($$$)Misrepresent their membership History of illegal tactics: bribery, revenge
How They influence Government Lobbying ◦ Organized effort to influence the government to favor or oppose action on an issue that would most affect their members. ◦ Lobbyists Speak to members of Congress and their staffs, testify before congressional committees and offer comments at hearings held by executive agencies Goal: persuade legislators to share their point of view
Most interest groups are formed based on economic interest, but groups have been formed for other reasons including; groups that promote causes, promote welfare, and promote religion. Business and Trade Labor Unions AgriculturalNational Association United Mine Workers Associated Milk of Retail Grocers of America Producers Professional Promote Causes PromoteWelfare American Bar The League of American Association Association Women Voters of Retired Persons Religious Christian Coalition