I.R.P.C.SThe International Regulations forthe Prevention of Collisions at Sea - Collision Regs(Rules of the Road)
LOOK-OUT• It is the duty of everybody on board to maintain a properlook-out at all times to avoid the risk of collision.• By Sight, Sound and all available means (VHF, Radar,AIS etc).
RISK OF COLLISSION• Use all means to determine if a risk of collision exists. If you’rein any doubt, a risk is deemed to exist.When is there a risk of collision?- If the direction (compass bearing) of the approaching vesseldoes not change signiﬁcantly.
AVOIDING A COLLISSION• Any action to avoid a collision should be made in ample timeand with regard to good seamanship.• Any change of course and / or speed to avoid a collisionshould be large enough to be apparent to another vessel.• Actions should be positive, obvious and made in good time.
NARROW CHANNELS• A vessel proceeding or traveling along a narrow channel mustkeep to starboard (to the right).• Small vessels or Sailing vessels must not impede larger vessels.• A vessel must not cross the channel if doing so will impedeanother vessel traveling in the channel.• Overtaking should only take place if the two vessels are inagreement of the overtaking.• Strictly no anchoring in a narrow channel.
OVERTAKING• The overtaking vessel must keep clear of the stand-on vessel.• The overtaking vessel must not impede the stand-on vessel.• A vessel is deemed to be overtaking if abaft her beam or if, atnight, only the stern light or steaming light of that vessel can beseen and not the side lights (nav lights).
HEAD-ON SITUATION• If two vessels are in a head-on situation which has any risk ofcollision both vessels must make a clear turn to starboard sothat each passes port to port.• If in any doubt assume that there is a risk of collision and turnto starboard. Remember to make your intentions clear.• Remember go right and you can’t go wrong.
CROSSING• When two vessels are crossing and there is a risk of collisionthe vessel which has the other on her starboard side shouldgive way and avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel.
GIVE WAYVESSEL• Every vessel which is directed to keep clear of another vesselwill take early action to keep well clear.
STAND-ONVESSEL• The stand-on vessel must keep a constant course and speed.• The stand-on vessel may take action to avoid a collision if theother vessel is not taking the necessary actions.
RESPONSIBILITY• A power-driven vessel shall keep out of the way of :- A vessel not under command.- A vessel restricted in ability to manoeuvre.- A vessel engaged in ﬁshing.- A sailing vessel.• Remember N.U.C - R.A.M - FISH - SAIL.
SUMMARY• Narrow Channel : Do not impede any vessel which requiresthe depth of water available in the narrow channel.• SailingVessels : Be aware of the Rules for Sailing vessels.• Overtaking : Do not impede any vessel you are overtaking.• Head-On Situation : Both vessels turn to starboard.• Crossing Situation : Give way to trafﬁc on the right.• Give WayVessel : Take early action. Stand-On : Keep yourcourse and speed constant.