Educational Objective Students will understand how latitude and season affect duration of insolation.
Purpose The purpose of this long term investigation is for 8 th grade science students to use the internet to collect and organize latitude, date and duration of insolation data to help generalize the relationship between latitude, season and duration of insolation.
Procedure Google Earth will be used to identify locations with similar longitude and widely different latitudes. Students will then use internet resources to find and record sunrise and sunset times for each location during 4 seasons. A minimum of 2 class periods in the lab is required.
Procedure Students will then analyze their collected data to generalize how duration of insolation changes with changing latitude and season. Students will work in their assigned PBL groups of 4 - 5 students to complete, write up, and present the investigation.
Procedure The data chart that follows is included for student use: Although students must include a minimum of 4 data entries for each season, students may wish to include more for more challenging analysis if they are capable.
Materials Computer Lab – this long term investigation should be introduced in a computer lab so that students can see how to initialize and use Google Earth, Google Docs and cnn.com to gather and record the necessary data.
Materials Computers with Excel or some comparable spreadsheet program, Google Earth, and internet access.
Data Duration Latitude Duration Latitude Duration Latitude Duration Latitude Spring Winter Fall Summer Season
Resources Latitude and Longitude for Selected Cities: http:// www.bcca.org/misc/qiblih/latlong_oc.html Sunrise and Sunset Data: http:// aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneYear.php Spreadsheet Latitude Lookup: http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/prep10/csf/support/sampleunits/SolarHouseDaylight.xls Earth and Sun Viewer: http://www.fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin/Earth/action?opt =-p
Questions <ul><li>What is the relationship between latitude </li></ul><ul><li>and duration of insolation? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Compare and contrast seasons in the </li></ul><ul><li>northern and southern hemispheres. </li></ul><ul><li>3. How are the Arctic and Antarctic Circles </li></ul><ul><li>significant in studying duration of insolation? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How are the Tropics significant? </li></ul><ul><li>5. How does duration of insolation change at </li></ul><ul><li>the Equator over the course of the year? </li></ul><ul><li>6. What resource(s) proved to be most helpful </li></ul><ul><li>and why? </li></ul>
Standards Addressed <ul><li>STANDARD 1 Analysis, Inquiry, and Design </li></ul><ul><li>Key Idea 2: Mathematical Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deductive and inductive reasoning are used to reach mathematical conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STANDARD 1 Analysis, Inquiry, and Design </li></ul><ul><li>Key Idea 1: Scientific Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>• The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Idea 2: Scientific Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>• Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity </li></ul>
Standards Addressed STANDARD 2 Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information, using appropriate technologies. Key Idea 1: Information Systems • Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information as a tool to enhance learning. Key Idea 2: Information Systems • Knowledge of the impacts and limitations of information systems is essential to its effective and ethical use. STANDARD 6 Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning. Key Idea 2: Interconnectedness: Common Themes • Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.
Standards Addressed Key Idea 5: Interconnectedness: Common Themes • Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions. STANDARD 7 Interdisciplinary Problem Solving Key Idea 1: Interdisciplinary Problem Solving • The knowledge and skills of mathematics, science, and technology are used together to make informed decisions and solve problems, especially those relating to issues of science/ technology/society, consumer decision making, design, and inquiry into phenomena.
Standards Addressed Key Idea 2: Interdisciplinary Problem Solving • Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results. STANDARD 4 Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science. Key Idea 1: The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.
Standards Addressed PERFORMANCE INDICATOR 1.1 Explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent motion of the planets, and annual traverse of the constellations. Major Understandings: 1.1a Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides. 1.1c Earth’s coordinate system of latitude and longitude, with the equator and prime meridian as reference lines, is based upon Earth’s rotation and our observation of the Sun and stars.
Standards Addressed 1.1d Earth rotates on an imaginary axis at a rate of 15 degrees per hour. To people on Earth, this turning of the planet makes it seem as though the Sun, the moon, and the stars are moving around Earth once a day. Rotation provides a basis for our system of local time; meridians of longitude are the basis for time zones. 1.1h The Sun’s apparent path through the sky varies with latitude and season. This lesson is the beginning of a long-term investigation in Regents Earth Science for accelerated 8th grade students. The lesson should be introduced in a computer lab so that students can learn how to navigate to websites that will be used to collect, analyze and share data.
ISTE Standards <ul><li>ISTE Technology Standards addressed by this long term investigation include: </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity and Innovation Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Students: </li></ul><ul><li>a. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes. </li></ul><ul><li>b. create original works as a means of personal or group expression. </li></ul><ul><li>c. use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues. </li></ul><ul><li>d. identify trends and forecast possibilities. </li></ul>
ISTE Standards ISTE Technology Standards addressed by this long term investigation include: 2. Communication and Collaboration Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students: a. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts or others employing a variety of digital environments and media. b. communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats. c. develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures. d. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.
ISTE Standards ISTE Technology Standards addressed by this long term investigation include: 3. Research and Information Fluency Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students: plan strategies to guide inquiry. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks. process data and report results.
ISTE Standards ISTE Technology Standards addressed by this long term investigation include: 4. Critical Thinking, Problem-Solving & Decision-Making Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources. Students: plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project. collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions. use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.
ISTE Standards ISTE Technology Standards addressed by this long term investigation include: 5. Digital Citizenship Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior. Students: advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity. demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning. exhibit leadership for digital citizenship.
ISTE Standards ISTE Technology Standards addressed by this long term investigation include: 6. Technology Operations and Concepts Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems and operations. Students: understand and use technology systems. select and use applications effectively and productively. troubleshoot systems and applications. transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies.
Higher Order Thinking Higher Order Thinking Skills Addressed: Old Bloom New Bloom Comprehension Understanding Application Applying Analysis Analyzing Synthesis Evaluating Evaluation Creating
Higher Order Thinking Higher Order Thinking Skills Addressed: Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing. Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing.
Teacher Notes • Degrees north latitude can be represented with positive numbers and degrees south latitude with negative numbers. This is especially important if students are constructing graphs with a spreadsheet program. • www.cnn.com can find locations with zip code or with city/town name. • This long term investigation should be introduced in a computer lab so the teacher can show students how to initialize Google Earth and how to toggle back and forth between cnn.com, Google Earth, and a spreadsheet program. • The ideal time to start this investigation is the second week in September, before the Autumnal Equinox.