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Chapter 3


High point of Greek civilization
 “Golden Age” of Greece



Greek city-states dominated by Athens


Wealth



Military success



Political leadership



Advances in democracy
 demos = people + kratos = rule


After Persian Wars



Athens launched
program to rebuild
city
 Music, literature, theate

r, art
 Philosophy, scienc...


Sparta not interested in leading the Greeks
 Long-term commitment

 Helot uprisings
 Naval action



Attention shif...
Athenian Leadership
Delian League
Formed soon after
Persian Wars ended
Greeks met on Delos
Sacred island

Centrally located

How was the allia...
A THEATER AT DELOS


Athens + allies promise to
provide ships, money



Protect Greeks from
Persian invasion



Obtain ...
A SACRED TEMPLE AT DELOS


Experience



Size



Navy



Wealth



Political leadership
Leader of the Delian League


Son of Miltiades + Thracian
princess
 Athenian general, led Greeks

at Marathon



Bold, ambitious aristocrat



Ele...
Athens against Sparta
Thasos

•Rocky island off the

coast of Thrace
•Wealth from gold mines
•Joined Delian League
THASOS TODAY


Thasos wanted to leaveDelian
League
 Athens besieged Thasos for

over two years

 Thasos finally defeate...


Thasians ask Sparta to invade Athens



Sparta said “yes”



However:
 Spartan earthquake + Helot rebellion = NO

Sp...


Spartans asked Athens: “Help with Helot
uprising”
 Cimon said “ok” (enemies outraged, plotted

overthrow)


Sparta se...


While Cimon in Sparta



Ephialtes “attacked” Areopagus
 Stripped away most of its power
 Goal = reduce Cimon’s infl...
CIMON’S OSTRAKON


Pericles = new leader of
democratic faction



Ostracized Cimon: 461 B.C.



Alliance with Argos
 S...


Megara withdrew from
Peloponnesian League



Athenians accept
Megara as an ally



Angered Sparta



Led to First
Pe...
THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE


Athens gained more
land, power:
 Conquered Aegina, gained

control of Boeotia
 Conquered border s...


Athenians helped Egyptians rebel against
Persians



Terrible defeat
 Lost ships, men, prestige
 Led to rebellions i...


Pericles agreed to treaty



Supposed to guaranteethirty years of peace



Terms:
 Athens: Abandon possessions on ma...


Persians no longer a threat



Poleis wanted to:
 Reduce contributions to the League, or
 Withdraw from the League

...
The Athenian Empire


After Egyptian defeat:
 League’s treasury moved to Athens
 Athens kept 1/60 of annual revenues



Justification for ...


2 Goals:
 Rebuild temples
 Find way to maintain freedom of seas



Sparta refused to participate
 Prevents congress...


“Athens’ welfare matters most”



Allies = “colonies”



Athens = “mother city” (metropolis)



Alliance based on “g...


Athens treated allies as subjects
 Only three allies sent ships
 Allies unwilling to defend themselves



Athenian r...


Approved every decision of state



Comprised of citizens, not representatives


Judicial decisions subject to appeal



51 - 1,501 citizens on this court (no more, no
less)



Chosen from annual pa...


Most selected by lot, not class



Usually nobles, almost always rich



People could choose others, like:
 The “ten...


Accountability
 Officials could be removed

from office
 Compulsory

examination, accounting at
term’s end


No way ...


Elected to generalship 15
years in a row



Elected to generalship 30
times in all



Persuasive speaker, skillful
po...
WOMEN AT A FESTIVAL


Male-dominated society



Women excluded from
public life
 No voting
 Not part of political

ass...


Pericles divorced wife



Lived with Aspasia
 Foreigner
 Lively intellect; Socrates

talked to her
 Plato joked tha...


Loved, treated her as
wife, equal



Included in conversations
with men



Discussed important
matters with
her, resp...


Scandalous relationship



Openly mocked
 Aristophanes blamed her

for Peloponnesian War



Enemies said Pericles
en...


Began as bank clerk



Earned freedom, became Athens’ richest
banker



Awarded Athenian citizenship



Rare; yet, m...
THE SCHOOL OF HELLAS


Athens collected
“tribute” from allies



Helped support
artists, writers, actors, ph
ilosophers
...


More fluid



Not just gods
 Women
 Children
 Average men

 Foreigners


5th century art
celebrated man’s
achievements



Not just focused on
religious themes


Athenians still honored
Greek deities through
sculpture



Garments, movement
more fluid, realistic
THE PARTHENON


Buildings emphasize glory
of man



“Perfection,” using optical
illusions



New buildings that feature...
Erectheum

The portico features
six draped female figures


Innovative column
design
 Ionic
 Doric
 Corinthian
THE BEST WAY TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT ORDERS
IS TO LOOK AT THE CAPITAL (TOP PART OF THE COLUMN).
THIS IS NOT AN ANCIENT GREEK COLUMN.
CAN YOU TELL WHERE IT IS FROM?
Colonies begin to resent the “Mother City”


Resentment; loss of independence



Non-members denied Athenian citizenship
 Treated as inferiors, no political repre...


As a result, many disgruntled Greeks turned
to Sparta for help.
The Demise of the Athenian Empire
Greece during
the Great
Peloponnesian War

Athens, Sparta, and their allies


Peloponnesian War sparked by minor dispute



War lasted from 431-404 B.C.



Sparta angered:
 Blamed Athens for thr...


Corcyra (Corfu): island
west of Greece



Inhabitants called
Phaiakians



Corinthians settled
there, but considered
...
TODAY, CORCYRA IS CALLED CORFU



Quarrel erupted between
Corcyra and Corinth



Corcyra = second biggest navy



Corin...


Provided for arbitration



“Arbitration” = In a dispute, both parties
agree to let objective person/group hear
grieva...


Summer 432 B.C. = Sparta met with allies



Corinthians argued that Athens:
 “continues to be aggressive”
 “wants to...


Athens had intervened in a
civil war



Athens had created an
alliance with Corcyra



This could upset the balance
o...


Sparta said “No”, refused any Athenian
arbitration



Sparta’s army marched into Attica


Traditional approach



Threaten crops; starve into submission



Force enemy to defend land in hoplite battle



Be...


Wait it out



Large, powerful navy



Annual income from the empire



Allow Sparta to devastate land



Launch se...


Impregnable



4 meters thick, 20
meters tall



Connected Athens to
fortified port (Piraeus)



Fleet could bring
s...


Believed Spartan alliance
would crumble



War would end in 1-2 years



Athens could last 4-5 years
behind Long Wall...


Sparta couldn’t penetrate the walls



Spartans ravaged Attic countryside
 Ineffective!
 Athenians not be drawn out ...


Terrible disease struck Athens



Cause? Kind of disease?



Ships?



Population trapped behind the walls


Plague struck Sparta, much of eastern
Mediterranean



Plague returned twice more
 429 B.C.
 Winter of 427-426 B.C.


History of the Peloponnesian War



Survived the plague himself



Described point of origin:
 Ethiopia to Egypt and...


Athens lost one third of its population



Sight of burning funeral pyres in Athens
caused the Spartan army to withdra...


Thousands of Athenians died



Infantry, naval
commanders, sailors died



Pericles died during
secondary outbreak 42...


No dominant leader emerged after Pericles



Two factions:
 Nicias: “Continue Pericles’ defensive policy”
 Cleon: “M...


Cleon’s leadership
 Militant democratic +

imperialistic leader



Led Athenian armies
outside of Attica
 Wanted to ...


Successful at first
 400 Spartans surrendered
 Sparta offered peace to get them back



Restored Athenian prestige

...


Athens tried to
conquer
Megara, Boeotia
 Failed
 Defeat discredited

Athens
 Led to a truce with

Sparta in 423 B.C.


Brasidas sent to Thrace
and Macedonia



Encouraged revolt
among Athens’ subject
cities



Captured Amphipolis
(impor...


In charge of Athenian
fleet fighting Brasidas



Held responsible for
loss of Amphipolis



Exiled, wrote history of
...


Cleon fought Brasidas at Amphipolis.



BOTH Cleon and Brasidas died in battle.


Some Athenians +
Spartans wanted to end
war



Fifty-year truce, named
for chief negotiator



Restored political
con...


Neither side honored all commitments



Several of Sparta’s allies refused ratification



415 B.C. = Alcibiades conv...


Wealthy



Handsome



Educated by Pericles



Friend of Socrates;
potential “philosopherking”



Brilliant militar...


Expected political
promotion
 Experience, intelligence,

noble upbringing


Leaders said he needed
time to mature
 A...


Festival



Alcibiades accused of vandalizing religious
statues (Hermae)



Ordered to stand before the court



Fle...


Later, wanted to return
to Athens



Athens said, “Yes.”



Described Sparta’s
military plans, offered
advice



Con...


Sicily fought to maintain
freedom



Persia provided ships +
money; allied with Sparta



Devastating loss for Athens...


Athens won battles, but
finances + support
dwindled



Lysander = Spartan
commander; obtained
Persian support



Cut ...


Long walls torn down



Navy destroyed – except
for 12 ships



Democratic government
dissolved



Forced to be Spar...
Hegemony


Hegemony = “leadership”



Vacuum of power after Athenian Empire
collapsed



Rivalry among Greek cities for leadersh...


Returned Greek cities in
Asia Minor to Persians



Installed board of ten
oligarchs in each:
 City along European coa...


Limited population, Helot
uprisings, conservatism



Corinth and Thebes resented Spartan abuses



Installed oligarch...


405 B.C. = Death of Persian
ruler, Darius II



Succeeded by Artaxerxes
II (king who married
Esther?)



Younger
brot...


Greeksin Asia Minor had supported Cyrus
 Feared Artaxerxes’ revenge, asked Sparta for help



Sparta sent army to Asi...


Persians promised Greeks
support if they fought
Sparta
 Thebes said ok, organized

alliance

 Alliance included

Argo...


Persian fleet destroyed Sparta’s naval empire



Athenians took advantage of this:
 Rebuilt walls, enlarged navy
 Re...
A SPARTAN SHIELD


Persians worried about Athens



Told Sparta manage Greece
 All alliances dissolved, except

Pelopon...


Sparta seized Thebes
 During peacetime, without

warning or cause



Similar attempt on Athens
 Athens joined with T...


Thebans urged central Peloponnesus to make
changes:
 Form league, free Helots, establish own city



Accomplished at ...


Power based on:
 Democratic constitution

 Control over Boeotia
 Leadership of two

popular generals


Most popular Theban
general



Thebes dominated Greece
 North of Athens + Corinthian

Gulf


Challenged new Athenian...


Many poleis resisted
Theban control.



Battle of Mantinea
 Epaminondas led Boeotian

army into Peloponnesus
 Army s...


Organized in 378 B.C.



Goal: Resist Spartan aggression
in Aegean



Hoped to avoid past mistakes
and abuses



Ath...


After 200 years of almost continuous
warfare, the Greeks returned to the chaotic
disorganization that characterized the...
For Better…Or, For Worse


Poverty in the cities



Stronger class divisions



Professionalism in the army



Changes in demographics
 Popula...


People responded in various ways:
 Look to the past for explanation and direction
 Despair, then look for new answers...


Reflected “tension”
 Friction, conflict
 Victory
 Pride in man’s achievements



Despair, frustration



Cynicism


Major form of Greek
poetry



“Attic” = from Attica



Aeschylus= most famous
poet of this period



Other famous
pl...


Part of religious
festival, honored
Dionysus



Poets submitted plays to
archon:
 Three tragedies and one

satyr play...


Given to the three best
competitors



Prizes: three actors and
a chorus
 Actors paid by state
 Chorus provided by

...


Most tragedies
performed in Athens’
Theater of Dionysus
 Natural amphitheater
 Superior acoustics
 Audience of 30,00...


Focused on important
issues



Usually from mythology



Sometimes from history
or contemporary event



Dealt with ...


Introduced early in 5th
century B.C.



Main playwright =
Aristophanes
 Scathing satire against

political, public fi...


4th century B.C.



Few political subjects



New kind of story line
 Humorous, realistic

depiction of daily life
...


Role of chorus
diminished



Menander
 Abandoned

mythological subjects
altogether
 Wrote about domestic

tragi-come...


No tragedies from 4th
century B.C. survived



Euripides’ tragedies
resurfaced, became
increasingly popular
 Few refe...


Emphasis on stories
about everyday life



Plot moves toward
simpler comedies



Fewer stories about epic
heroes, lof...
The Search for Answers


Originated in Ionia



6th century B.C.



Movement away from
religious myths



Celebrated man’s
reason, ability to...


Do gods cause everything?



Are the gods real? What is real?



Can man affect change?



How to live well =
 Righ...
Seeking Answers about the Universe


Questioned nature of the cosmos (universe)



“Single, eternal, imperishable substance =
basis for reality”



Wanted...


Contemporary of Solon



“Water= basic element for
everything in nature”



Omitted gods from origin
of nature



Be...


Rejected Thales belief
about water



“Indefinite substance
(Boundless) = source of all”



“Boundless” contains
powe...


“Airis primary
substance”



Believed world was
orderly



“Rainbow made of
sun’s rays falling on
dense air”
What is the soul?


Soul more important than body



Immortality



Transmigration of the soul (reincarnation)
 Ate no meat
 Influenced...


Taught transmigration of
souls (reincarnation)



“Order in universe based on
numbers”



Mathematical, geometrical,
...


“You can never step into
same stream twice”



“Material world is in
state of flux”
 Matter itself is constantly

cha...


Disagreed with Heraclitus



“Change is an illusion of
the senses”



“Reality is
fixed, unchanging”



Founder of f...


Identified four basic
elements:Fire,Water, Earth
,Air



“Reality is permanent but
mobile”



Four elements move by
t...


Called the “laughing
philosopher”



“World made of
innumerable
tiny, solid, indivisible, un
changeable particles:
ato...


Friend of Pericles



“World made of tiny
fundamental particles:
seeds”



“Seeds unite on rational
basis by nous, or...
Searching for Answers through Observation


Started a school



Observed ill
patients, classified
symptoms



Predicted future
course of an illness



Rejected ...
Traveling teachers


Paid, traveling teachers of
rhetoric, dialectic, argumentation
 Taught students how to win arguments
 Some claimed to...


Sophist



“Law is contrary to nature”



“Law man-made, so weak
controls strong”



Extremist



“Gods invented, k...


Never wrote anything
 Plato wrote “dialogues,”

Socrates was a character

 Xenophon also wrote about

Socrates



Di...


Socrates walked around Athens, barefooted



Odd looking: Bulging eyes, large nose
 Successfully argued that he was s...


Leading questions get people to think (“Aha!”)



Believed people do wrong because of ignorance
 Don’t know what is v...


Angry Athenians accused him of:
 Corrupting the youth

 Bringing new gods into the city



Stood trial



Choice: e...


Extremists



Based philosophy on Socratic teaching



Disdained worldly pleasure and wealth



Withdrew from politi...


Founded the Cynics



Follower of Socrates


Wore rags, lived in a tub



Performed shameful acts
in public



Made living by begging



“Happiness found in
sati...


Ridiculed all religious
observances



Plato said Diogenes
was Socrates gone
mad.


“Virtue = wisdom and happiness”



“Virtue comes from proper style of life”
 Can’t be taught, does not come from phil...


Abandoned concept of polis altogether



Diogenes said he was kosmopolites, “citizen
of the world”


Socrates’ most
important student



Became greater than
Socrates



First systematic
philosopher



Applied philosop...


Wrote 26philosophical
discussions
 Almost all were

dialogues
 “Conversations”

between Socrates and
various people


Noble Athenian family



Wanted to participate in politics but didn’t
 Socrates’ execution
 Reign of Thirty Tyrants


Influential school



Purpose: train
statesmen, citizens



Closed by Justinian in
6th century A.D.


“Truth can be discovered by REASON”



Disliked democracy because power given to
“amateurs”
 Philosopher = “lover of ...


“Polis is based on virtues:
order, harmony, justice”



Goal of the polis: Produce good people



“Man was meant to l...


“Knowledge” (episteme)
 True, unchanging wisdom
 Only for a few philosophers



Philosophers need training (helps ph...


Only philosophers
qualified to rule



Prefer “life of
contemplation”



Will accept
responsibility from
sense of dut...


Tried to define justice
and holiness



These are inherent in
the Good



Discovery possible
only through
philosophy


“Preserve polis through moral + political
reform”



Alleviate causes of strife:
 Private property, family
 Anything...


Man must have
knowledge of the
Good



Understand
philosophical
principles first



Right action follows


Plato’s student



Son of court doctor in
Macedon



Studied at the Academy



Joined Platonic colony in
Asia Minor
...


Founded Athenian
school: the Lyceum



Goal:
Gather, order, analyz
e all human
knowledge


Wrote dialogueson
Platonic philosophy;
none survive



158 collections of
information
 Served as basis for

scientifi...


Philosophy led to
scientific studies:
 Logic, rhetoric
 Physics, astronomy, biolog

y (including marine biology

 Et...


Observe evidence
 Physical evidence OR

opinion


Applyreason; discover
patterns/inconsistencies
 Compare + contrast...


Emphasized balanced life
 Moderation in all things



Goal: “The Good Life”
 Contemplative but enough wealth to live...


Sophists: “Polis is a manmade convention”



Aristotle said no:
 Polis is natural, necessary
 Polis will change over...


Everything evolves to final, perfected form



Institutions serve human needs, helps
continue species



Marriage + h...


Best polis combines justice and stability



Good constitution stresses moderation


“Power should rest with
middle class”
 Most numerous and stable
 Not arrogant from wealth

or malicious from poverty
...


Alexander died; Athenians rebelled from
Macedonian rule



Aristotle fled
 Died in Calcis (in Euboea) the next year


Contemporary of Plato
and Aristotle



Headed important
rhetorical/
philosophical school
in Athens


Supported Philip of Macedon
 Sought unity and leadership



Urged imperial conquest
 Plato said, “No – problem is mo...
The Fourth Century B.C.


“300 years when Greek culture spread from
Greece to Egypt, into Asia”



Hellenistic culture:
 Mixture of Greek + Nea...
Conquering the Greeks


4th century B.C.



North of Thessaly



“Protect Greece” from
invading tribes to the
north


Ruled loosely by a king
 Family line, army support, quarrels over throne
▪ People pretended to be rightful heir; murde...


Spoke Greek dialect; nobles considered
themselves Greek



Kings claimed descent from Heracles



Royal house claimed...


Gradually drove
Athenians from
Thermaic Gulf
 (near Thessaloniki)
 Built fleet to confront

Athenian navy
 Used ship...


Reigned as regent for infant
nephew
 Overthrow nephew; made

himself king



Admired Greek culture
 Had been hostage...


Talent for war



Diplomatic



Ambitious



Pacified tribes on his frontiers


Gold + silver mines enabled him to:
 Found new cities
 Bribe politicians in foreign towns
 Reorganize + strengthen h...
Philip’s Improvements


Versatile, powerful army;
national, professional



Infantry drawn from:
 Macedonian farmers
 Macedonian hill people...


13-foot pikes, not 9-foot
pikes



Stressed accuracy with
pikes, swords



Heavier fighting clothes



Open phalanx ...


Made up of Macedonian nobles, clan leaders



Called the Companions



Lived closely with the king, loyal to him


Unitedbarbarians, unhap
py Macedonians



Job of mercenaries:
 Military secrets
 Get info: new

weapons, tactics, si...
Philip on the March


Asked Philip to lead war against Phocis



Philip agreed, then took over Thessaly



Turned against Thrace, Greek cit...


Athenian statesman and
orator



Philip’s chief opponent



Issued series of
speeches, called The
Philippics
 Said P...


Most Athenians agreed with Demosthenes



BUT, most were unwilling to move against
Philip



Preferred the “path of p...


Athenian philosopher



Thought Philip would
bring unity + leadership
Governing Greece


Not as harsh as feared



Demosthenes could still engage in politics



Athens spared from attack IF:
 It gives up r...


Supposed to:
 Provide autonomy, freedom from tribute & garrisons
 Suppress piracy & civil war
 Members to make indep...


Corinthbecame seat of Philip’s confederacy



Philip announced plans to invade Persia.


Named pre-existing city
“Philippi” after himself



Probably city where Paul
was imprisoned
 Philippian jailer



Ph...


Philip had several wives



Yet, only one
queen, Olympias
 Mother of his

heir, Alexander


Assassinated– just before he attacked Persians



Who was responsible?
 Persians?
 Olympias?
 Egyptian consort, Cle...
Philip’s Tomb

A golden chest with the star of
Macedon imprinted on it
CROWN

ARMOR
Philip’s empire

The Macedonian Conquest
Conquering King
A Thessalian, named
Philoneicus, brought a
wild horse to Philip II.
Philip was angry
because the horse
seemed unstable, bu...
Although Alexander was only
12 years old, he had noticed
that Bucephalus was shying
away from his own shadow.

Alexander g...
Philip said, "Look thee
out a kingdom equal to
and worthy of
thyself, for Macedonia
is too little for thee.”
Alexander named the
horse Bucephalus
because the horse's
head seemed "as broad
as a bull’s.”
Bucephalus died of battle
wounds in 326B.C. in
Alexander's last battle.
Alexander founded the
city of Bucephala in
memory ...


Tutored by Aristotle
 Gave Alexander copy of

Homer’s Iliad



Learned military science in
father’s school



Fought...


Inherited throne at age
20



Created greatest empire
the world had ever seen



Earned title “Alexander
the Great”

...


Highly efficient army



Royal Army mostly from
Macedonia



Some soldiers from
League of Corinth



Professional so...


Persia was stronger:
more
troops, ships, wealth



BUT Persia lacked
efficient
leadership, military
science


Led 35,000 soldiers into
Asia Minor



Defeated Darius III



Darius fled



Darius’s
mother, wife, children
were ca...


Marched into Egypt;
captured with little trouble



Called:
 “Liberator”
 “Pharaoh”
 “Son of Re”


In Egypt, ordered new
capital city built
 Died before he could see it



Alexandria’s population:
at least half a mil...


Famous for achievements
in science + scholarship



Ptolemy II founded the
first “Museum”
 A temple to the Muses
 Hu...


Housed half a million
works



Helped preserve
knowledge of Classical
Greece


Marble lighthouse for
ships



One of the “Seven
Wonders of the World”



Destroyed by earthquakes
in 14th century A....


Marched into Gordium



Wagon tied to pole with
complicated knot



Prophecy about “cutting
the Gordian knot”



Now...


Destroyed Persian army



Again, Darius escaped



Greeks pursued him



Darius murdered by his
own troops



Alexa...


Married Roxana, daughter of
Sogdian chief



Received Persian noblemen
into his confidence



Adopted dress, customs ...


Carried copy of Iliad on
campaigns
 Housed in casket taken from

Darius’ spoils



Drunken rages; killed
friend



E...


Never planned to build
an empire



Mainly wanted to get
rid of Persian threat


Crossed Hindu Kush
mountains



Engaged fierce tribes of
the hills



Defeated Porus
 Porus commanded large

army + ...


By the time he reached India, many of his
soldiers refused to march any further.



Turned and started for home



Wi...


His army reached
Babylon



There, Alexander
caught fever — and
died



32 or 33 years old


Alexander’s army marched
over 5,000 miles



Empire stretched as far as
northern India



Consolidated Persia in 3 ye...


Under Alexander’s
leadership, nature of
polis changed



More like a city in a
nationalized state



Creative + polit...


The Hellenistic Age came into being – mostly
because Alexander helped to spread Greek
culture throughout the eastern pa...
Dividing the Empire


Alexander’s succession was weak
 Son and mother = executed or murdered

 Weak-minded half-brother = either executed o...


Kingdom divided between
Alexander’s generals



Three successors helped
preserve, spread
Hellenistic culture:
 Ptolem...


One of Alexander’s most
trusted generals
 One of seven bodyguards
 Only a few years older

than Alexander; childhood
...


Ruthlessly expanded his
territory



Founded Seleucid
Dynasty in Mesopotamia



Ruled Babylonia



Ruled eastern par...


26 years older than
Alexander



Alexander appointed
him satrap of Phrygia



Held territory with
greater power than
...


Tall warrior



Fought Persians and lost
an eye



Gave him a ferocious
appearance



Nicknamed “The One-Eyed”


Founded Antigonid
Dynastyin Asia
Minor, Macedon



Governed his kingdom
well



Appreciated Greek
culture



Appreci...


First 75 years prosperous: money from Persian
battles



Greeks moved into new areas; increased
goods, markets



Hel...
Changes in the Fourth Century B.C.


Schools continued in Athens but changed:
 Academy adopted Skeptics’ philosophies
 Lyceum became center for literary, ...


Founder: Pyrrho



Pointed out philosophical
fallacies in rival schools



“Nothing can be known;
accept conventional...


Denounced morality and status quo



Advocated crude, “natural” life



Shocked and outraged public


Diogenes reportedly walked
around the streets of
Athens, in broad
daylight, carrying a lantern.



When asked why he w...


Alexander once had an
opportunity to meet
Diogenes, who was
reclining in the sunshine.



Thrilled to meet the
famous
...


Numerous reports:
 held his breath till he

died
 became ill from eating
raw octopus
 suffered an infected
dog bite


Someone once asked Diogenes how he wished to be
buried. He said he wanted to be thrown outside the city
wall so wild an...


Founded by Epicurus



“Happiness achieved through
reason”



“Nothing after death, so no
need to fear death”



“Go...


Wanted to liberatepeople from:
 Reliance on the gods
 Belief in supernatural
 Fear of death


Emphasis on pleasure, good life (hedonism)



Pleasure = “absence of pain, trouble or
responsibility”



Withdrew fro...


Founder: Zeno



Established a school



Combined
philosophies of
Socrates, Cynics, Easte
rn thought


“Live in harmony with yourself and with nature.”



“God and nature are the same.”



Logos = guiding principle in li...


“Pursue virtue; differentiate between
good, evil, indifferent”



Good: prudence, justice, courage, temperance



Evi...


Stoics fit into post-Alexandrian world
because of:
 Apathy
 Willingness to maintain status quo
 Docile submission


Hellenized Greeks preserved manuscripts, made
copies



Museum at Alexandria; supported
scientists, scholars



Liter...


Hellenistic monarchies had
money for building projects



Needed new cities;
introduced grids



Improved existing ci...


Wealthy people wanted art



More uniform style
 Exceptions in

Alexandria, Rhodes


Moved away from balanced
tensio...


Inspired by Plato’s, Aristotle’s works



Alexander interested in science
 Took scientists with him on expeditions
 ...


Wrote Elements



Textbook on plane and
solid geometry


Invented theory of
lever in mechanics



Invented hydrostatics



“Eureka!” (bathtub
discovery)


Astronomy based on
Babylonian
astronomical tables



“Mercury, Venus
circulate around
sun, not earth”


“Sun, other fixed
stars, do not move”



“Earth revolves around
sun in circular orbit”



“Earth rotates on axis”


Constructed model of
universe based on
geocentric theory



Explained movements
of sun, moon, planets


Wrote treatise on
geography



Calculated
circumference of Earth
to within about 200
miles


Life science: biology, zoology, medicine



During 3rd century B.C., almost a retreat
from science through astrology, ...
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  1. 1. Chapter 3
  2. 2.  High point of Greek civilization  “Golden Age” of Greece  Greek city-states dominated by Athens
  3. 3.  Wealth  Military success  Political leadership  Advances in democracy  demos = people + kratos = rule
  4. 4.  After Persian Wars  Athens launched program to rebuild city  Music, literature, theate r, art  Philosophy, science, ma thematics, history
  5. 5.  Sparta not interested in leading the Greeks  Long-term commitment  Helot uprisings  Naval action  Attention shifts to Athens
  6. 6. Athenian Leadership
  7. 7. Delian League Formed soon after Persian Wars ended Greeks met on Delos Sacred island Centrally located How was the alliance sealed?
  8. 8. A THEATER AT DELOS  Athens + allies promise to provide ships, money  Protect Greeks from Persian invasion  Obtain reparations  Raids + booty from war
  9. 9. A SACRED TEMPLE AT DELOS  Experience  Size  Navy  Wealth  Political leadership
  10. 10. Leader of the Delian League
  11. 11.  Son of Miltiades + Thracian princess  Athenian general, led Greeks at Marathon  Bold, ambitious aristocrat  Elected strategus  Strategus= military commander, part of archonship
  12. 12. Athens against Sparta
  13. 13. Thasos •Rocky island off the coast of Thrace •Wealth from gold mines •Joined Delian League
  14. 14. THASOS TODAY  Thasos wanted to leaveDelian League  Athens besieged Thasos for over two years  Thasos finally defeated  Athenian aggression for its own purposes  Delian League became Athenian Empire
  15. 15.  Thasians ask Sparta to invade Athens  Sparta said “yes”  However:  Spartan earthquake + Helot rebellion = NO Spartan invasion
  16. 16.  Spartans asked Athens: “Help with Helot uprising”  Cimon said “ok” (enemies outraged, plotted overthrow)  Sparta sent Athenians home  Feared Athenian “boldness & revolutionary spirit”
  17. 17.  While Cimon in Sparta  Ephialtes “attacked” Areopagus  Stripped away most of its power  Goal = reduce Cimon’s influence  But, Ephialtes was assassinated
  18. 18. CIMON’S OSTRAKON  Pericles = new leader of democratic faction  Ostracized Cimon: 461 B.C.  Alliance with Argos  Sparta’s traditional enemy
  19. 19.  Megara withdrew from Peloponnesian League  Athenians accept Megara as an ally  Angered Sparta  Led to First Peloponnesian War
  20. 20. THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE  Athens gained more land, power:  Conquered Aegina, gained control of Boeotia  Conquered border states  Dominated the seas  Then, the tide turned…
  21. 21.  Athenians helped Egyptians rebel against Persians  Terrible defeat  Lost ships, men, prestige  Led to rebellions in Athenian empire  449 B.C.: Athenians ended war with Persians
  22. 22.  Pericles agreed to treaty  Supposed to guaranteethirty years of peace  Terms:  Athens: Abandon possessions on mainland outside Attica  Sparta: Recognize Athenian Empire
  23. 23.  Persians no longer a threat  Poleis wanted to:  Reduce contributions to the League, or  Withdraw from the League  Athens said NO.
  24. 24. The Athenian Empire
  25. 25.  After Egyptian defeat:  League’s treasury moved to Athens  Athens kept 1/60 of annual revenues  Justification for empire?  No Persian threat, no pirates
  26. 26.  2 Goals:  Rebuild temples  Find way to maintain freedom of seas  Sparta refused to participate  Prevents congress from meeting
  27. 27.  “Athens’ welfare matters most”  Allies = “colonies”  Athens = “mother city” (metropolis)  Alliance based on “good feeling“ & religious observances
  28. 28.  Athens treated allies as subjects  Only three allies sent ships  Allies unwilling to defend themselves  Athenian rule = tyranny  Athens became dependent on empire
  29. 29.  Approved every decision of state  Comprised of citizens, not representatives
  30. 30.  Judicial decisions subject to appeal  51 - 1,501 citizens on this court (no more, no less)  Chosen from annual panel of jurors
  31. 31.  Most selected by lot, not class  Usually nobles, almost always rich  People could choose others, like:  The “ten generals” (military AND political power)  Imperial treasurers
  32. 32.  Accountability  Officials could be removed from office  Compulsory examination, accounting at term’s end  No way to coerce people  No standing army, no police
  33. 33.  Elected to generalship 15 years in a row  Elected to generalship 30 times in all  Persuasive speaker, skillful politician  Respected military leader and patriot  Incorruptible
  34. 34. WOMEN AT A FESTIVAL  Male-dominated society  Women excluded from public life  No voting  Not part of political assemblies, no public office  No direct part in politics
  35. 35.  Pericles divorced wife  Lived with Aspasia  Foreigner  Lively intellect; Socrates talked to her  Plato joked that she wrote funeral oration
  36. 36.  Loved, treated her as wife, equal  Included in conversations with men  Discussed important matters with her, respected opinions  Openly affectionate (unusual)
  37. 37.  Scandalous relationship  Openly mocked  Aristophanes blamed her for Peloponnesian War  Enemies said Pericles enslaved to foreign, manipulative woman
  38. 38.  Began as bank clerk  Earned freedom, became Athens’ richest banker  Awarded Athenian citizenship  Rare; yet, many Greek slaves gained freedom
  39. 39. THE SCHOOL OF HELLAS  Athens collected “tribute” from allies  Helped support artists, writers, actors, ph ilosophers  Pericles wanted Athens to be “school of Hellas”
  40. 40.  More fluid  Not just gods  Women  Children  Average men  Foreigners
  41. 41.  5th century art celebrated man’s achievements  Not just focused on religious themes
  42. 42.  Athenians still honored Greek deities through sculpture  Garments, movement more fluid, realistic
  43. 43. THE PARTHENON  Buildings emphasize glory of man  “Perfection,” using optical illusions  New buildings that feature powerful images:  Battle scenes, celebrations
  44. 44. Erectheum The portico features six draped female figures
  45. 45.  Innovative column design  Ionic  Doric  Corinthian
  46. 46. THE BEST WAY TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT ORDERS IS TO LOOK AT THE CAPITAL (TOP PART OF THE COLUMN).
  47. 47. THIS IS NOT AN ANCIENT GREEK COLUMN. CAN YOU TELL WHERE IT IS FROM?
  48. 48. Colonies begin to resent the “Mother City”
  49. 49.  Resentment; loss of independence  Non-members denied Athenian citizenship  Treated as inferiors, no political representation  Athens prospered while they floundered:  Funded Athenian projects; their needs ignored
  50. 50.  As a result, many disgruntled Greeks turned to Sparta for help.
  51. 51. The Demise of the Athenian Empire
  52. 52. Greece during the Great Peloponnesian War Athens, Sparta, and their allies
  53. 53.  Peloponnesian War sparked by minor dispute  War lasted from 431-404 B.C.  Sparta angered:  Blamed Athens for threatening Greek independence  “This day will be the beginning of great evil for the Greeks.”
  54. 54.  Corcyra (Corfu): island west of Greece  Inhabitants called Phaiakians  Corinthians settled there, but considered itself neutral  Independent, hostile attitude toward Corinth (metropolis)  Corinth = Sparta’s ally
  55. 55. TODAY, CORCYRA IS CALLED CORFU  Quarrel erupted between Corcyra and Corinth  Corcyra = second biggest navy  Corinth might capture neutral Corcyra  Corcyra would then allied with Sparta  Change balance of power? Threaten Athenian security?
  56. 56.  Provided for arbitration  “Arbitration” = In a dispute, both parties agree to let objective person/group hear grievances, settle argument  Athens offered to arbitrate any question
  57. 57.  Summer 432 B.C. = Sparta met with allies  Corinthians argued that Athens:  “continues to be aggressive”  “wants to enslave all Greeks”  Voted for war
  58. 58.  Athens had intervened in a civil war  Athens had created an alliance with Corcyra  This could upset the balance of power:  Athenian Empire vs. Peloponnesian League
  59. 59.  Sparta said “No”, refused any Athenian arbitration  Sparta’s army marched into Attica
  60. 60.  Traditional approach  Threaten crops; starve into submission  Force enemy to defend land in hoplite battle  Better army  Outnumbered Athenians two to one
  61. 61.  Wait it out  Large, powerful navy  Annual income from the empire  Allow Sparta to devastate land  Launch seaborne raids, hurt Sparta’s allies
  62. 62.  Impregnable  4 meters thick, 20 meters tall  Connected Athens to fortified port (Piraeus)  Fleet could bring supplies to Athens
  63. 63.  Believed Spartan alliance would crumble  War would end in 1-2 years  Athens could last 4-5 years behind Long Walls  Then, raise tribute in the empire  Risk: Athenian allies rebelling
  64. 64.  Sparta couldn’t penetrate the walls  Spartans ravaged Attic countryside  Ineffective!  Athenians not be drawn out to battle  Remained safe behind walls
  65. 65.  Terrible disease struck Athens  Cause? Kind of disease?  Ships?  Population trapped behind the walls
  66. 66.  Plague struck Sparta, much of eastern Mediterranean  Plague returned twice more  429 B.C.  Winter of 427-426 B.C.
  67. 67.  History of the Peloponnesian War  Survived the plague himself  Described point of origin:  Ethiopia to Egypt and Libya, then Greece  Broke out in Athens, an overcrowded city
  68. 68.  Athens lost one third of its population  Sight of burning funeral pyres in Athens caused the Spartan army to withdraw for fear of the disease
  69. 69.  Thousands of Athenians died  Infantry, naval commanders, sailors died  Pericles died during secondary outbreak 429 BC.
  70. 70.  No dominant leader emerged after Pericles  Two factions:  Nicias: “Continue Pericles’ defensive policy”  Cleon: “More aggressive strategy”  Cleon gained control of Athens
  71. 71.  Cleon’s leadership  Militant democratic + imperialistic leader  Led Athenian armies outside of Attica  Wanted to draw away crucial Spartan allies
  72. 72.  Successful at first  400 Spartans surrendered  Sparta offered peace to get them back  Restored Athenian prestige  Athens raised tribute to pay for war
  73. 73.  Athens tried to conquer Megara, Boeotia  Failed  Defeat discredited Athens  Led to a truce with Sparta in 423 B.C.
  74. 74.  Brasidas sent to Thrace and Macedonia  Encouraged revolt among Athens’ subject cities  Captured Amphipolis (important Athenian colony)
  75. 75.  In charge of Athenian fleet fighting Brasidas  Held responsible for loss of Amphipolis  Exiled, wrote history of Peloponnesian War
  76. 76.  Cleon fought Brasidas at Amphipolis.  BOTH Cleon and Brasidas died in battle.
  77. 77.  Some Athenians + Spartans wanted to end war  Fifty-year truce, named for chief negotiator  Restored political conditions to pre-war state
  78. 78.  Neither side honored all commitments  Several of Sparta’s allies refused ratification  415 B.C. = Alcibiades convinced Athens to attack Sicily
  79. 79.  Wealthy  Handsome  Educated by Pericles  Friend of Socrates; potential “philosopherking”  Brilliant military strategist
  80. 80.  Expected political promotion  Experience, intelligence, noble upbringing  Leaders said he needed time to mature  Arrogant, unscrupulous
  81. 81.  Festival  Alcibiades accused of vandalizing religious statues (Hermae)  Ordered to stand before the court  Fled to Sparta, divulged military secrets
  82. 82.  Later, wanted to return to Athens  Athens said, “Yes.”  Described Sparta’s military plans, offered advice  Convinced Athenians to attack, subdue Sicily
  83. 83.  Sicily fought to maintain freedom  Persia provided ships + money; allied with Sparta  Devastating loss for Athens  200 ships, 4,500 Athenian soldiers, 45,000 allied troops  Loss of prestige; sparked rebellions; empowered Sparta
  84. 84.  Athens won battles, but finances + support dwindled  Lysander = Spartan commander; obtained Persian support  Cut off food supplies through Hellespont  Athenians finally starved into submission
  85. 85.  Long walls torn down  Navy destroyed – except for 12 ships  Democratic government dissolved  Forced to be Sparta’s ally  Empire dismantled
  86. 86. Hegemony
  87. 87.  Hegemony = “leadership”  Vacuum of power after Athenian Empire collapsed  Rivalry among Greek cities for leadership  Sparta emerged as leader
  88. 88.  Returned Greek cities in Asia Minor to Persians  Installed board of ten oligarchs in each:  City along European coast  Aegean island
  89. 89.  Limited population, Helot uprisings, conservatism  Corinth and Thebes resented Spartan abuses  Installed oligarchic government in Athens  “Thirty Tyrants” (named for outrageous behavior)  Athenians hated them
  90. 90.  405 B.C. = Death of Persian ruler, Darius II  Succeeded by Artaxerxes II (king who married Esther?)  Younger brother, Cyrus, contested his rule  Asked Sparta for help  Spartans win, but Cyrus died in battle
  91. 91.  Greeksin Asia Minor had supported Cyrus  Feared Artaxerxes’ revenge, asked Sparta for help  Sparta sent army to Asia Minor  Army led by new Spartan king, Aegislaus  Frightened Persians
  92. 92.  Persians promised Greeks support if they fought Sparta  Thebes said ok, organized alliance  Alliance included Argos, Corinth, and resurgent Athens  Resulted in Corinthian War (395-387 B.C.)  Ended Spartan aggression in Asia
  93. 93.  Persian fleet destroyed Sparta’s naval empire  Athenians took advantage of this:  Rebuilt walls, enlarged navy  Recovered some of lost empire in Aegean  War ended when Greeks accepted Persian treaty
  94. 94. A SPARTAN SHIELD  Persians worried about Athens  Told Sparta manage Greece  All alliances dissolved, except Peloponnesian League  Spartan army kept poleis in check  Threatened to put Spartan allies in positions of leadership
  95. 95.  Sparta seized Thebes  During peacetime, without warning or cause  Similar attempt on Athens  Athens joined with Thebes  Athens rebelled earlier; gained independence  Athens/Thebes defeated Sparta
  96. 96.  Thebans urged central Peloponnesus to make changes:  Form league, free Helots, establish own city  Accomplished at Sparta’s expense  Lost farmland, workers, power, prestige  Surrounded by hostile neighbors
  97. 97.  Power based on:  Democratic constitution  Control over Boeotia  Leadership of two popular generals
  98. 98.  Most popular Theban general  Thebes dominated Greece  North of Athens + Corinthian Gulf  Challenged new Athenian Empire for power in Aegean
  99. 99.  Many poleis resisted Theban control.  Battle of Mantinea  Epaminondas led Boeotian army into Peloponnesus  Army successful but Epaminondas died  BOTH Theban generals died; ended Theban dominance
  100. 100.  Organized in 378 B.C.  Goal: Resist Spartan aggression in Aegean  Hoped to avoid past mistakes and abuses  Athens still repeated abuses; allies revolted  By 355 B.C., Athens abandoned most of the empire
  101. 101.  After 200 years of almost continuous warfare, the Greeks returned to the chaotic disorganization that characterized the time before the founding of the Peloponnesian League.
  102. 102. For Better…Or, For Worse
  103. 103.  Poverty in the cities  Stronger class divisions  Professionalism in the army  Changes in demographics  Population in some cities  Population in some cities
  104. 104.  People responded in various ways:  Look to the past for explanation and direction  Despair, then look for new answers  Avoid the topic altogether
  105. 105.  Reflected “tension”  Friction, conflict  Victory  Pride in man’s achievements  Despair, frustration  Cynicism
  106. 106.  Major form of Greek poetry  “Attic” = from Attica  Aeschylus= most famous poet of this period  Other famous playwrights include Sophoclesand Euripides
  107. 107.  Part of religious festival, honored Dionysus  Poets submitted plays to archon:  Three tragedies and one satyr play  Plays usually had common theme
  108. 108.  Given to the three best competitors  Prizes: three actors and a chorus  Actors paid by state  Chorus provided by wealthy citizen
  109. 109.  Most tragedies performed in Athens’ Theater of Dionysus  Natural amphitheater  Superior acoustics  Audience of 30,000
  110. 110.  Focused on important issues  Usually from mythology  Sometimes from history or contemporary event  Dealt with difficult questions:  Religion, politics, ethics, morality
  111. 111.  Introduced early in 5th century B.C.  Main playwright = Aristophanes  Scathing satire against political, public figures ▪ Pericles, Cleon, Socrates, Eurip ides
  112. 112.  4th century B.C.  Few political subjects  New kind of story line  Humorous, realistic depiction of daily life  Plots of intrigue  Mild satire
  113. 113.  Role of chorus diminished  Menander  Abandoned mythological subjects altogether  Wrote about domestic tragi-comedy
  114. 114.  No tragedies from 4th century B.C. survived  Euripides’ tragedies resurfaced, became increasingly popular  Few references to the gods  Focused on psychology and individual behavior
  115. 115.  Emphasis on stories about everyday life  Plot moves toward simpler comedies  Fewer stories about epic heroes, lofty topics
  116. 116. The Search for Answers
  117. 117.  Originated in Ionia  6th century B.C.  Movement away from religious myths  Celebrated man’s reason, ability to find Truth  Combined religion, morals, and metaphysics (the nature of
  118. 118.  Do gods cause everything?  Are the gods real? What is real?  Can man affect change?  How to live well =  Right opinions about God, world, man, virtue
  119. 119. Seeking Answers about the Universe
  120. 120.  Questioned nature of the cosmos (universe)  “Single, eternal, imperishable substance = basis for reality”  Wanted to understand the “One”  Everything emerges from the “One”
  121. 121.  Contemporary of Solon  “Water= basic element for everything in nature”  Omitted gods from origin of nature  Believed earth floated on water  First to predict eclipse of the sun
  122. 122.  Rejected Thales belief about water  “Indefinite substance (Boundless) = source of all”  “Boundless” contains powers of heatand cold  Heat and cold produced nucleus(seed of world)  Influenced ideas about evolution
  123. 123.  “Airis primary substance”  Believed world was orderly  “Rainbow made of sun’s rays falling on dense air”
  124. 124. What is the soul?
  125. 125.  Soul more important than body  Immortality  Transmigration of the soul (reincarnation)  Ate no meat  Influenced Plato
  126. 126.  Taught transmigration of souls (reincarnation)  “Order in universe based on numbers”  Mathematical, geometrical, astronomicalscience  Knew that earth is a sphere  Developed Pythagorean theorum
  127. 127.  “You can never step into same stream twice”  “Material world is in state of flux”  Matter itself is constantly changing  “Fire(constantly changing) = source of all things”
  128. 128.  Disagreed with Heraclitus  “Change is an illusion of the senses”  “Reality is fixed, unchanging”  Founder of formal logic  Believed in True Being: “one,” transcendent, permanent, perfect
  129. 129.  Identified four basic elements:Fire,Water, Earth ,Air  “Reality is permanent but mobile”  Four elements move by two opposing forces  Love and Strife  Like magnet’s attraction or repulsion
  130. 130.  Called the “laughing philosopher”  “World made of innumerable tiny, solid, indivisible, un changeable particles: atoms”  Atoms move, create shapes/colors that senses perceive
  131. 131.  Friend of Pericles  “World made of tiny fundamental particles: seeds”  “Seeds unite on rational basis by nous, or mind”  Made distinction between matter and mind
  132. 132. Searching for Answers through Observation
  133. 133.  Started a school  Observed ill patients, classified symptoms  Predicted future course of an illness  Rejected supernatural explanations and cures
  134. 134. Traveling teachers
  135. 135.  Paid, traveling teachers of rhetoric, dialectic, argumentation  Taught students how to win arguments  Some claimed to teach wisdom  Socrates believed sophistry was wrong  “Distracts people from pursuit of Truth”
  136. 136.  Sophist  “Law is contrary to nature”  “Law man-made, so weak controls strong”  Extremist  “Gods invented, keep people from doing what they wish”
  137. 137.  Never wrote anything  Plato wrote “dialogues,” Socrates was a character  Xenophon also wrote about Socrates  Did not consider himself wise  Denied he was a teacher or sophist
  138. 138.  Socrates walked around Athens, barefooted  Odd looking: Bulging eyes, large nose  Successfully argued that he was superior looking  Taught by asking questions (Socratic Method)
  139. 139.  Leading questions get people to think (“Aha!”)  Believed people do wrong because of ignorance  Don’t know what is virtuous  Educate in virtue, right living will follow  BOTH student AND teacher learns
  140. 140.  Angry Athenians accused him of:  Corrupting the youth  Bringing new gods into the city  Stood trial  Choice: exile or execution  Chose death: drank poison from hemlock plant
  141. 141.  Extremists  Based philosophy on Socratic teaching  Disdained worldly pleasure and wealth  Withdrew from political life
  142. 142.  Founded the Cynics  Follower of Socrates
  143. 143.  Wore rags, lived in a tub  Performed shameful acts in public  Made living by begging  “Happiness found in satisfying natural needs in simplest, most direct, public way”
  144. 144.  Ridiculed all religious observances  Plato said Diogenes was Socrates gone mad.
  145. 145.  “Virtue = wisdom and happiness”  “Virtue comes from proper style of life”  Can’t be taught, does not come from philosophy  (Socrates said the opposite)
  146. 146.  Abandoned concept of polis altogether  Diogenes said he was kosmopolites, “citizen of the world”
  147. 147.  Socrates’ most important student  Became greater than Socrates  First systematic philosopher  Applied philosophy to political events, ideas
  148. 148.  Wrote 26philosophical discussions  Almost all were dialogues  “Conversations” between Socrates and various people
  149. 149.  Noble Athenian family  Wanted to participate in politics but didn’t  Socrates’ execution  Reign of Thirty Tyrants
  150. 150.  Influential school  Purpose: train statesmen, citizens  Closed by Justinian in 6th century A.D.
  151. 151.  “Truth can be discovered by REASON”  Disliked democracy because power given to “amateurs”  Philosopher = “lover of wisdom” should lead polis  “We should question, challenge authority”
  152. 152.  “Polis is based on virtues: order, harmony, justice”  Goal of the polis: Produce good people  “Man was meant to live in community”  “Community helps man become good”
  153. 153.  “Knowledge” (episteme)  True, unchanging wisdom  Only for a few philosophers  Philosophers need training (helps philosopher see “reality”)
  154. 154.  Only philosophers qualified to rule  Prefer “life of contemplation”  Will accept responsibility from sense of duty
  155. 155.  Tried to define justice and holiness  These are inherent in the Good  Discovery possible only through philosophy
  156. 156.  “Preserve polis through moral + political reform”  Alleviate causes of strife:  Private property, family  Anything that comes between citizen and polis
  157. 157.  Man must have knowledge of the Good  Understand philosophical principles first  Right action follows
  158. 158.  Plato’s student  Son of court doctor in Macedon  Studied at the Academy  Joined Platonic colony in Asia Minor  TaughtAlexander the Great
  159. 159.  Founded Athenian school: the Lyceum  Goal: Gather, order, analyz e all human knowledge
  160. 160.  Wrote dialogueson Platonic philosophy; none survive  158 collections of information  Served as basis for scientific works  Only the Constitution of the Athenians remains
  161. 161.  Philosophy led to scientific studies:  Logic, rhetoric  Physics, astronomy, biolog y (including marine biology  Ethics, politics  Literary Criticism (categorized genres)
  162. 162.  Observe evidence  Physical evidence OR opinion  Applyreason; discover patterns/inconsistencies  Compare + contrast  Explainwith metaphysical principles
  163. 163.  Emphasized balanced life  Moderation in all things  Goal: “The Good Life”  Contemplative but enough wealth to live comfortably
  164. 164.  Sophists: “Polis is a manmade convention”  Aristotle said no:  Polis is natural, necessary  Polis will change over time  Polis will improve
  165. 165.  Everything evolves to final, perfected form  Institutions serve human needs, helps continue species  Marriage + household necessaryto polis  Purpose of polis: moral (not military, economic)
  166. 166.  Best polis combines justice and stability  Good constitution stresses moderation
  167. 167.  “Power should rest with middle class”  Most numerous and stable  Not arrogant from wealth or malicious from poverty  Mixed Constitution best  Democracy AND oligarchy
  168. 168.  Alexander died; Athenians rebelled from Macedonian rule  Aristotle fled  Died in Calcis (in Euboea) the next year
  169. 169.  Contemporary of Plato and Aristotle  Headed important rhetorical/ philosophical school in Athens
  170. 170.  Supported Philip of Macedon  Sought unity and leadership  Urged imperial conquest  Plato said, “No – problem is moral”  Aristotle said, “Apply virtue, moderation; empower middle class”
  171. 171. The Fourth Century B.C.
  172. 172.  “300 years when Greek culture spread from Greece to Egypt, into Asia”  Hellenistic culture:  Mixture of Greek + Near Eastern cultures  Hellenistic world larger than classical Greek world
  173. 173. Conquering the Greeks
  174. 174.  4th century B.C.  North of Thessaly  “Protect Greece” from invading tribes to the north
  175. 175.  Ruled loosely by a king  Family line, army support, quarrels over throne ▪ People pretended to be rightful heir; murder common  Council of nobles checked king’s power  Could reject weak or incompetent king
  176. 176.  Spoke Greek dialect; nobles considered themselves Greek  Kings claimed descent from Heracles  Royal house claimed descent from Argos  Tried to bring Greek culture into their court  Eventually won acceptance at Olympic games
  177. 177.  Gradually drove Athenians from Thermaic Gulf  (near Thessaloniki)  Built fleet to confront Athenian navy  Used ships to harass Athenian trade
  178. 178.  Reigned as regent for infant nephew  Overthrow nephew; made himself king  Admired Greek culture  Had been hostage in Thebes  Exposed to Greek politics and warfare
  179. 179.  Talent for war  Diplomatic  Ambitious  Pacified tribes on his frontiers
  180. 180.  Gold + silver mines enabled him to:  Found new cities  Bribe politicians in foreign towns  Reorganize + strengthen his army  Bribe soldiers to fight as mercenaries
  181. 181. Philip’s Improvements
  182. 182.  Versatile, powerful army; national, professional  Infantry drawn from:  Macedonian farmers  Macedonian hill people  Often rebellious; this created loyalty
  183. 183.  13-foot pikes, not 9-foot pikes  Stressed accuracy with pikes, swords  Heavier fighting clothes  Open phalanx to, held enemy until cavalry charged flank
  184. 184.  Made up of Macedonian nobles, clan leaders  Called the Companions  Lived closely with the king, loyal to him
  185. 185.  Unitedbarbarians, unhap py Macedonians  Job of mercenaries:  Military secrets  Get info: new weapons, tactics, siege machinery  Philip expandedarmywith 40,000 more men
  186. 186. Philip on the March
  187. 187.  Asked Philip to lead war against Phocis  Philip agreed, then took over Thessaly  Turned against Thrace, Greek cities along Aegean  Forced three kings to accept his overlordship
  188. 188.  Athenian statesman and orator  Philip’s chief opponent  Issued series of speeches, called The Philippics  Said Philip wanted to control Greece  Urged resistance
  189. 189.  Most Athenians agreed with Demosthenes  BUT, most were unwilling to move against Philip  Preferred the “path of peace”  Inaction led to defeat
  190. 190.  Athenian philosopher  Thought Philip would bring unity + leadership
  191. 191. Governing Greece
  192. 192.  Not as harsh as feared  Demosthenes could still engage in politics  Athens spared from attack IF:  It gives up rest of empire  Follow Macedon’s lead
  193. 193.  Supposed to:  Provide autonomy, freedom from tribute & garrisons  Suppress piracy & civil war  Members to make independent, foreign policy  NOT TRUE; Philip ruled, period.
  194. 194.  Corinthbecame seat of Philip’s confederacy  Philip announced plans to invade Persia.
  195. 195.  Named pre-existing city “Philippi” after himself  Probably city where Paul was imprisoned  Philippian jailer  Philippian letter probably written to Christians here
  196. 196.  Philip had several wives  Yet, only one queen, Olympias  Mother of his heir, Alexander
  197. 197.  Assassinated– just before he attacked Persians  Who was responsible?  Persians?  Olympias?  Egyptian consort, Cleopatra? (not the famous one)
  198. 198. Philip’s Tomb A golden chest with the star of Macedon imprinted on it
  199. 199. CROWN ARMOR
  200. 200. Philip’s empire The Macedonian Conquest
  201. 201. Conquering King
  202. 202. A Thessalian, named Philoneicus, brought a wild horse to Philip II. Philip was angry because the horse seemed unstable, but Alexander had watched Bucephalus and gave his father a challenge.
  203. 203. Although Alexander was only 12 years old, he had noticed that Bucephalus was shying away from his own shadow. Alexander gently led Bucephalus into the sun so that his shadow was behind him. Eventually Bucephalus allowed Alexander to ride him.
  204. 204. Philip said, "Look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee.”
  205. 205. Alexander named the horse Bucephalus because the horse's head seemed "as broad as a bull’s.”
  206. 206. Bucephalus died of battle wounds in 326B.C. in Alexander's last battle. Alexander founded the city of Bucephala in memory of his beloved horse.
  207. 207.  Tutored by Aristotle  Gave Alexander copy of Homer’s Iliad  Learned military science in father’s school  Fought first battle: 16  Commanded cavalry: 18
  208. 208.  Inherited throne at age 20  Created greatest empire the world had ever seen  Earned title “Alexander the Great”  Extraordinary courage, inspired loyalty among soldiers
  209. 209.  Highly efficient army  Royal Army mostly from Macedonia  Some soldiers from League of Corinth  Professional soldiers from other parts of Greece
  210. 210.  Persia was stronger: more troops, ships, wealth  BUT Persia lacked efficient leadership, military science
  211. 211.  Led 35,000 soldiers into Asia Minor  Defeated Darius III  Darius fled  Darius’s mother, wife, children were captured  Alexander treated them humanely
  212. 212.  Marched into Egypt; captured with little trouble  Called:  “Liberator”  “Pharaoh”  “Son of Re”
  213. 213.  In Egypt, ordered new capital city built  Died before he could see it  Alexandria’s population: at least half a million  One of ancient world’s leading cities
  214. 214.  Famous for achievements in science + scholarship  Ptolemy II founded the first “Museum”  A temple to the Muses  Huge library next to temple ▪ Housed Greek, Egyptian writings
  215. 215.  Housed half a million works  Helped preserve knowledge of Classical Greece
  216. 216.  Marble lighthouse for ships  One of the “Seven Wonders of the World”  Destroyed by earthquakes in 14th century A.D.  1480 A.D. = stones, marble used for Arab fort
  217. 217.  Marched into Gordium  Wagon tied to pole with complicated knot  Prophecy about “cutting the Gordian knot”  Now: ability to solve a difficult problem
  218. 218.  Destroyed Persian army  Again, Darius escaped  Greeks pursued him  Darius murdered by his own troops  Alexander crowned Great King of Persia
  219. 219.  Married Roxana, daughter of Sogdian chief  Received Persian noblemen into his confidence  Adopted dress, customs of Persian court  Worried Macedonians  327 B.C. = Friend taunted Alexander; killed with a spear
  220. 220.  Carried copy of Iliad on campaigns  Housed in casket taken from Darius’ spoils  Drunken rages; killed friend  Executed nobles who plotted against his life  Burned Persepolis, Persian capital
  221. 221.  Never planned to build an empire  Mainly wanted to get rid of Persian threat
  222. 222.  Crossed Hindu Kush mountains  Engaged fierce tribes of the hills  Defeated Porus  Porus commanded large army + used war elephants
  223. 223.  By the time he reached India, many of his soldiers refused to march any further.  Turned and started for home  Winter of 325-324 B.C. = terrible hardships
  224. 224.  His army reached Babylon  There, Alexander caught fever — and died  32 or 33 years old
  225. 225.  Alexander’s army marched over 5,000 miles  Empire stretched as far as northern India  Consolidated Persia in 3 years  Founded 70 cities:  15 named Alexandria, most famous in Egypt
  226. 226.  Under Alexander’s leadership, nature of polis changed  More like a city in a nationalized state  Creative + political freedom ceased to thrive
  227. 227.  The Hellenistic Age came into being – mostly because Alexander helped to spread Greek culture throughout the eastern part of the known world.
  228. 228. Dividing the Empire
  229. 229.  Alexander’s succession was weak  Son and mother = executed or murdered  Weak-minded half-brother = either executed or murdered  Generals became governors, managed parts of empire  Surviving governors claimed kingship over their provinces
  230. 230.  Kingdom divided between Alexander’s generals  Three successors helped preserve, spread Hellenistic culture:  Ptolemy I  Seleucus I  Antigonus I
  231. 231.  One of Alexander’s most trusted generals  One of seven bodyguards  Only a few years older than Alexander; childhood friend  Ruled Egypt and founded Ptolemaic Dynasty  Cleopatra was last rulers
  232. 232.  Ruthlessly expanded his territory  Founded Seleucid Dynasty in Mesopotamia  Ruled Babylonia  Ruled eastern part of empire, including Arabia
  233. 233.  26 years older than Alexander  Alexander appointed him satrap of Phrygia  Held territory with greater power than other "successors."
  234. 234.  Tall warrior  Fought Persians and lost an eye  Gave him a ferocious appearance  Nicknamed “The One-Eyed”
  235. 235.  Founded Antigonid Dynastyin Asia Minor, Macedon  Governed his kingdom well  Appreciated Greek culture  Appreciated freedom of Greek cities in Asia Minor
  236. 236.  First 75 years prosperous: money from Persian battles  Greeks moved into new areas; increased goods, markets  Hellenistic kings familiar with Greek ways  Preserved Greek culture, values, political structure
  237. 237. Changes in the Fourth Century B.C.
  238. 238.  Schools continued in Athens but changed:  Academy adopted Skeptics’ philosophies  Lyceum became center for literary, historical studies
  239. 239.  Founder: Pyrrho  Pointed out philosophical fallacies in rival schools  “Nothing can be known; accept conventional morality”
  240. 240.  Denounced morality and status quo  Advocated crude, “natural” life  Shocked and outraged public
  241. 241.  Diogenes reportedly walked around the streets of Athens, in broad daylight, carrying a lantern.  When asked why he was doing this, Diogenes said that he was searching for an honest man.
  242. 242.  Alexander once had an opportunity to meet Diogenes, who was reclining in the sunshine.  Thrilled to meet the famous philosopher, Alexander asked if there was any favor he might do for him.  "Yes,” Diogenes replied. “Stand out of my sunlight."
  243. 243.  Numerous reports:  held his breath till he died  became ill from eating raw octopus  suffered an infected dog bite
  244. 244.  Someone once asked Diogenes how he wished to be buried. He said he wanted to be thrown outside the city wall so wild animals could feast on his body.  “Wouldn’t you mind that?” the man asked.  "Not at all,” Diogenes said, “as long as you provide me with a stick to chase the creatures away!"  “But how could you use the stick? Wouldn’t you lack awareness?” the man asked.  “If I lack awareness,” the philosopher replied, “then why should I care what happens to me when I am dead?"
  245. 245.  Founded by Epicurus  “Happiness achieved through reason”  “Nothing after death, so no need to fear death”  “Gods exist but uninterested in human affairs”
  246. 246.  Wanted to liberatepeople from:  Reliance on the gods  Belief in supernatural  Fear of death
  247. 247.  Emphasis on pleasure, good life (hedonism)  Pleasure = “absence of pain, trouble or responsibility”  Withdrew from society  Avoided business and public life  Advocated “restrained selfishness”
  248. 248.  Founder: Zeno  Established a school  Combined philosophies of Socrates, Cynics, Easte rn thought
  249. 249.  “Live in harmony with yourself and with nature.”  “God and nature are the same.”  Logos = guiding principle in life, divine reason  “Everyone has spark of divinity”  “After death, spark returns to eternal, divine spirit”
  250. 250.  “Pursue virtue; differentiate between good, evil, indifferent”  Good: prudence, justice, courage, temperance  Evil: folly, injustice, cowardice  Indifferent: life, beauty, health, strength, pleasure, wealth  “Misery results from passion; passion = soul’s disease”
  251. 251.  Stoics fit into post-Alexandrian world because of:  Apathy  Willingness to maintain status quo  Docile submission
  252. 252.  Hellenized Greeks preserved manuscripts, made copies  Museum at Alexandria; supported scientists, scholars  Literary criticismemerged; judge, preserve best works  Biographiesof authors written during this time
  253. 253.  Hellenistic monarchies had money for building projects  Needed new cities; introduced grids  Improved existing cities  Hellenistic temples and agoras followed Classical models
  254. 254.  Wealthy people wanted art  More uniform style  Exceptions in Alexandria, Rhodes  Moved away from balanced tension, idealism  More sentimental, emotional, real istic
  255. 255.  Inspired by Plato’s, Aristotle’s works  Alexander interested in science  Took scientists with him on expeditions  Collected, recorded data  Scientists gathered at Museum in Alexandria; discussed ideas
  256. 256.  Wrote Elements  Textbook on plane and solid geometry
  257. 257.  Invented theory of lever in mechanics  Invented hydrostatics  “Eureka!” (bathtub discovery)
  258. 258.  Astronomy based on Babylonian astronomical tables  “Mercury, Venus circulate around sun, not earth”
  259. 259.  “Sun, other fixed stars, do not move”  “Earth revolves around sun in circular orbit”  “Earth rotates on axis”
  260. 260.  Constructed model of universe based on geocentric theory  Explained movements of sun, moon, planets
  261. 261.  Wrote treatise on geography  Calculated circumference of Earth to within about 200 miles
  262. 262.  Life science: biology, zoology, medicine  During 3rd century B.C., almost a retreat from science through astrology, magic

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