History of the american revolution In Volume II By David Ramsay


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History of the american revolution In Volume II By David Ramsay

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  5. 5. CONTENT^ O r F H E SECOND VOLUME. CHAPTER XIV. Pagco Campaign of ^"^HE § 1 777, - - - States, middle the in CHAPTER - XV. The Northern Campaign of 1777, - CHAPTER The The Campaign XVI. APPENDIX, Continental Paper Of Indians, No. I90« II. r ^25* XVIII. and Expeditions into the Indian - - Country^ i '• Currency, CHAPTER 59. XVII. - - Campaign of I779> - of 177S, CHAPTER Of 25. between France and the United Alliance States. l» - - CHAPTER XIX. 1780, in the Southern States, Campaign of CHAPTER Campaign of 1780, in the States, 18 r. XXI. Foreign Affairs, connected with the American ^ Revolution, 1780, J 781, CHAPTER 151. XX. Northern CHAPTER 136. 205. XXII. The Revolt of the Pennfylvania Line; of part the Jerfey troops: Diftrefles of the Ame^f rican army. Arnold's luvalion of Virginia, 218. CHAPTER
  6. 6. CONTENTS. ii CHAPTER Campaign of Carolinas, XXlir. 1781: Operations and Georgia, CHAPTER Campaign of 1781: - ^ Virginia: New-London deftroyed, APPENDIX, No. the treatment of Prifoners, and of the difof the Inhabitants, CHAPTER XXVI. - - 1782, APPENDIX, The 281. Foreign events and Nego- Cimpaign of 1782. Pear.e 254. III. treffes ciations. 229. XXIV. in Operations Cornwallis captured: Of the two in - 290. No. IV. of Parties; the advantages and difadvantages of tlie Pvevolution; its influence on flate - the minds and morals of the Citizens, CHAPTER 310V XXVII. The difcharge of the American army; the evacuation of New- York The Refignation of General Wafliington: Arrangements of Con: grefs for difpofing of their V/eftern territory, and paying their debts The diflreffes of the : States after the Peace : The inefficacy of the A general convention for an'.ending the government : The New Conflituiion General Waihington apArticles of the Confederation: : An Addrefs to the People pointed Preiident of the United States, : 325. Alphabetical lifl of the Members of Congrefs, who attended from the feveral States, from the 5th November, 1789, - to the 1774, - 3d of March, u .. 357. The
  7. 7. Prefatot-y fevery individual them timates his political charaBer. iv: tude. -j'- As men, he efand does not their moral redi- private in proportion to their fecial virtues, wilh to invalidate whatever He Address, to acknowledges be may elTential to have written with freedom. : but the conCroverfy of the prelent day, as connefled with the future happinefs of our common country, demands an unequivocal invefliHe is willing to (land the gation of public men and meafures. of principles ; and for this purpofe only, has he confented to give his name as a voucher for the fmcerity of his obfervations. teft The he is may caufe of real, undejilcd religion, as inculcated in the gofpelf ever defirous to efpoufe, and if any remarks on its profeflbrs appear pungent, it is for the fole purpofe of difcriminating be- neither would he uncharitably contween piety and hypocrify fuch men, as differ from him, as hypocrites or apof* temn all tat^s ; yet the feverity and indecency with which fome have repli: ed to his remarks, juftify him in adminiftering the tartar of retal- iation. He has been particular in fome of his numbers to appeal to the and unbiafTed judgment, of the young men. He has good made his addrefs to this valuable clai's of citizens, from the moft fenfe, and though he may be thought, by a documents few of them, to have efpoufed dodtiines fubverfive of their intere-ft, on a candid re-perufal of the fubjecl, acquit yet he trufts they will, He has furnifhed tliem with the fuch defign. him from any of the merchants, fanctioned with names of the fpecific proceedings iuconteftible ; hlgheft credibility on this ; and he leaves it with the young men to decide important queftion. is wrong in any one particular throughout the feveral numbers, he is willing to acknowledge his error ; but fcurrility and defamation will never be confidered as arguments, either to abandon his principles, or intimidate him from perfeverance. The If he remarks are fubmitted to a candid public ; and to their tribunal he is ready to fubmit his plea. Having no fmifter views to gratify, if he they are acceptable to his fellow-citizens, warded The is perfadtly re- for his labours. author Hands on the bafis of the conftitution he maintains an biUingfgate effufions ; and while which compad:, the juftifiable by a defperate faftion will be unnoticed. If of attitude, is this
  8. 8. 8 Prefatory Aildresst any rnan will meet him with his name, he is willing to inveftigate a gentleman and citizen. After this exfubjeifi, becoming declaration, whoever replies, in abufive language, in an ari' plicit the onymous dlfguife, will be treated as fuch a chara(5ler ought ever to be, with lilent contempts
  9. 9. THE HIS T O O F R Y T H E AMERICAN REVOLUTION. CHAP. The Campaign of I777> in XIV. the Middle States. after the declaration of independence, the au- thority SOON of Congrefs was obtained for raifing an army, that would be more permanent than the temporary levies, It was which they had previoufly brought into the atfirft field. propofed to recruit, for the indefinite term of the war, but it being found on experiment that the habits of the people were averfe to engagements, for fuch an uncertain period of fervice, the recruiting officers were inftrudled to offer the alternative of, either enlifting for the war, or for three years. Thofe who engaged on the firfl conditions were promlfed a hundred acres of land, in The troops raifed by addition to their pay and bounty. for the fervice of the United States, were called, Congrefs continentals. Though in September 1776, refolved, to raife 88 battalions, and in it had beea December follow- was given to gener.d Wadiington to raife little progrefs had beea made in the bufinefs, till after the battles of Trenton and recruiting Everi after that period, fo much time was Princeton. ing, authority 1 6 more, yet very necefliirily confumed before thefe new recruits joined the whole force at Morris-town, and the feveral out-pofts, for fome time, did not exceed 1500 men. Yet, what is almoft incredible, thefe 1500 commander in chief, that his many thoufands Vol. II. kept as of the Britilh clofcly pent up in A Brunfwick. 1777.
  10. 10. The 2 1777. ^'''''^^"*^ history of the Al moll every party that was fent out by the was fuccefsfully oppofed by the former, and the adjacent country preferved in a great degree of tranquility. It was matter of aftoniihment, that the Britifli fuffered Brunfvvick. latter, the dangerous interval between the difbanding of onearmy, and the raifing of another, to pafs away without attempting fomething of confequence againft the remaining fhadow of an armed Hitherto there had been a force. deficiency of arms and ammunition, as well as of but in the fpring of i 777, a vefiel of 24 guns arrived men, from France at Portfrnoxith in New-Hampfliire, with upwards of 11,000 ftand of arms, and 1000 barrels of powder. Ten thoufand {land of arms arrived about the fame time, in another part of the United States. Before the royal army took the field, in profecutionof the main bnfinefs of the campaign, two enterprizes for the deftru(Stion of American ftores were undertaken, in an oppofite direction to what proved eventually to be the theatre of the operations of Sir William Howe. The firfl March 23. ^ was conduced by colonel Bird, the fecond by major geThe former landed with about 500 men neral Tryon. General at Peek's-kill, near 50 miles from New-York. Wafhington had repeatedly cautioned the commilTaries not to fufFer large quantities of provifions to be near the water, in fuch places as were accellible to fhipping, but his The few Ameprudent advice had not been regarded. ricans, who were frationed as a gnard at Peek's-kill, on the approach of colonel Bird, fired the principal ftorehoufes, and retired to a good pofition, about two or three The lofs of provifions, forage, and other valuable articles, was confiderable. Major general Tryon, with a detachment of 2000 men, miles diftant. at New- York, and paffing through the Sound, landed between Fairfield and Norwalk. A ^ They advanced April 26 A A the country without interruption, and arrived in through On their approach the few about 20 hours at Dar.bury. embarked M , , • , . • • • , who were in the town withdrew from it. burn and defiroy, butabftained from began injuring the property of fuch as were reputed tories 18 houfes, 800 barrels of pork and beef, 800 barrels of continentals The Britilh to flour.
  11. 11. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. bufliels of grain, 1700 tents, and fome other were loft to the Americans. Generals Woofter, Arnold and Silliman, having haftily collected a few hundred of the inhabitants, made arrangements for interrupting the march of the royal detachment, but the arms of thofe who came forward on this emergency, were injured by exceflive rains, and the men were worn down with flour, 2000 articles Such diimiles in the courfe of a day. were neverthelefs made, and fuch advantageous pofitions inpofts were taken, as enabled them greatly to annoy the General Arnold, vaders when returning to their Ihips. with about 500 men, by a rapid movement, reached a march of 30 R.idgefield in their front---barricadoed the road, kept up a brilkfire upon them, and fuftained their attack, till they had made lodgement on a ledge of rocks on his left. After the Britifh had gained this eminence, a whole platoon levelled at general Arnold, not more than 30 yai-ds diftant. His horfe was killed, but he efcaped. While he was extricating himfelf from his horfe, a fuldier advanced to run him through with a bayonet, but he ihot him dead The Amewith his piftol, and afterwards got ofFfafe. in feveral detached parties, harrafled the rear of ricans, the Britifti, and from various ftands kept up a fcattering fire upon them, till they reached their (hipping. a ; The but it accomplilhed the object of the expedition, coft them dear. They had by computation 2 or Britiflr — wounded, or taken. The lofs of the AAmericans was about 20 killed, and 40 wounded. 309 men mong killed, the former was Dr. Atvvater, a gentleman of re- Colonel fpedlable charadter, and conflderable influence. Lamb was among the latter. General AVoofter, though feventy years old, behaved with the vigour and fpirit of While glorioufly defending the liberties of his country, he received a mortal wound. Congrefs refolved, that a monument fhould be eredled to his memory, as an youth. acknowledgment of his merit and fervices. They alfo refolved, that a horfe, properly caparifoned, fliould be prefented to general Arnold, in their name, as a token of their approbation of his gallant conduct. Not long after the excurlion to Danbury, colonel Meigs,
  12. 12. HISTORY The 4 1777. ^'''"''^^ jyiay 24. of the Meigs, an enterprifing American officer, tranfportcd a detachment of about 170 Americans, in whale boats, over the Sound, which feparates Long-Ifland from Connecticut, ^^j burned twelve brigs and floops, belonging to the Bri- and deftroyed a large quantity of forage and other articles, colle£led for their ufe in Sagg-Harbour on that killed fix of their foldiers, and brought off 90 ifland; tifii, — killed or prifoners, without having a ilngle man either his puny returned to Guilwounded. The colonel and ford in 25 hours from the time of their departure, having in that fhort fpace not only completed the objeft of their a fpace not expedition, but traverfed by land and water, lefs than 90 miles. Congrefs ordered an elegant fword good conduct in to be prefented to colonel Meigs, for his this expedition. the feafon advanced, the American army in Newthe fucceffive arrival of recruits, Jerfey, was reinforced by As '^ ^' aopening of the campaign, it men. 7272 Great pains had been taken to recruit the Britifharmy commiffion of brigadier gewith American levies. but neverthelefs mounted only at the to A neral had been conferred on Mr. Oliver Delancey, aloy- and he was augreat influence in New-York, thorifed to raife three battalions. Every effort had been alifl: of men, both within and without theBriti ill lines, and alfo from among the American prifoners, but with all thefe exertions, ori'ly 597 were procured. Mr. Courtland Skinner, a loyalift well known in Jerfey, was alfo appointed a brigadier, and authorifed to raife five made, to raife the Great battalions. ed Towards were alfo made to procure re- command) ^V- cruits for his only to 5 efforts i their whole number amount-^ 7. the latter end of May, general WaQiington at Morriftown, and took quitted his winter encampment a flrongpofition at Middlebrook. Soon after this movement was effefted, the Britifli marched from Brunfwick, and extended their van as far asSomerfet court-houfe, but This a few days returned to their former flation. fudden change was probably owing to the unexpe(51:ed oppofition which feemed to be colle<ftin^ from all quarters. in
  13. 13. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. for the Jerfey militia, turned out in a very fpirited Six months before that fame ner, to oppofe them. man- army marched through New- Jerfey, without being fired upon, and even fmall parties of them had fafely patrolled the but experience country, at a diftance from their camp Britifh prote£tions were no fccurity for having proved that •, property, the inhabitants generally rcfolved to try the of refiftance, in preference to a fecond fubmiffion. effciHis A fortunate miftake gave them an opportunity of aflembling in great force on this emergency. Signais had been agreed on, and beacons eredted on high places, with the view of communicating over the country, inftantaneous few hours intelligence of the approach of the Britifli. A before the royal army began their march, the fignal of alarm, on the foundation of a falfe report, had been The farmers, with arms in their hands, ran to hoifted. the place of rendezvous from confiderable diftances. They had fet out at leafl: twelve hours before tlie Britifli, and were collefted in formidable numWilliam Howctniendcd to force hi$ way through the country to the Delaware, and afterwards on their appearance Whether Sir bei's. to Philadelphia, or to attackthe American army, is unccr-t but whatever was his deugn, he thought proper, fudThe denly to relinquifh it, and fell back to Brunfwick. tain, army, on their retreat, burned and deftroyed the farm houfes on the road, nor did they fpare thofe buildings which were dedicated to the fervice of the Deity. Sir William Howe, after his retreat to Brunfwick, en- Britifli deavoured to provoke general Wafliington to an engagement, and left no manoeuvre untried, that was calculated to induce him to quit his pofition. At one time he apas if he intended to pufli on without peared regarding the At another he accurately exaarmy oppofed to him mined thefituation of the American encampment, hoping that fome unguarded part might be found, on which aq attack might be made that would open the way to a general engagement. All thefe hopes were fruftrated. General Walhington knew the full value of his fituation. He had too much penetration to lofe it from the circumvention of military manoeuvres, and too much tem^
  14. 14. } The 6 1777. ^-"'^y'^^ , its the fortune to a fingle attion. Sir William *' * of He was well per to be provoked to a dereli<ftion of it. it was not the intereft of his apprized country, to commie >' V HISTORY ^" front of the force to Howe fuddenly relinquifhed his pofition and retired with his whole Americans, Amboy. The apparently retreating Britifli, were puriued by a confiderable detachment of the American army, and general Wafiiington advanced from Middle- * brook to Quibbietown, to be near at port of his advanced parties. t * ^ ^^ " mediately * marched his The hand Britifli for the fup- general im- army back from Amboy, with great expedition, hoping to bring on a general a£lion on equal ground, but he was difappointed. General Waihington fell back, and pofted his army infuch an advanta- geous polition, as compenfated for the inferiority of his numbers. Sir William Howe was now fully convinced of the impofllbility of coinpelling a general engagement on equal terms, and alfo fatisfied that it would be too hazardous to attempt paffing the Delaware, while the country was in arms, and the main American army in full force in his rear. He therefore returned to Amboy, and ^ thence palTed over to Staten-Ifland, refolving to profecute the objects of the campaign by another route. During the period of thefe movements, the real defigns of * general Howe were involved in great obfcurity. Though the feafon for military operations was advanced as far as the month of July, yet his determinate objedt could not be afcertained. Nothingon his part had hitherto taken place, but alternately advancing and retreating. General Wafiiington's embarraifment on this account, was increafed by which arrived, that Burgoyne was coming in force towards New- York, from Canada. Appregreat hending that Sir William Howe would ultimately move intelligence the North-River, and that his movements, which looked fouthwardly were calculated to deceive, the American general, detached a brigade to reinforce the northern divifion of his army. Succeffive advices of the advance of Burgoyne, favoured the idea, that a junction of the two royal armies, near Albany, was intended. Some up ' movements were therefore made by general Wafliington, towards
  15. 15. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 7 towards Peek's-kill, and on the other fide towards Trennear the Clove, ton, while the main army was encamped or fouth, as the in readinefs to march either to the north movements of Sir WiUiam Howe might require. At of the royal army, confifting of length, the main body and Heffian battalions, with a regiment and a loyal provincial corps, called the of light horfe, in Queen's rangers, and a powerful artillery, amounting whole to about 16,000 men, departed from Sandythe About hook, and were reported to fteer fouthwardly. the time of this embarkation, a letter from Sir William Howe to general Burgoyne was intei'cepted. This contained intelligence, that the Britifh troops were defined The intended deception was fo futo New-Hamp(hire. thirty-fix Britifh ' in perficially veiled, that conjun^ion with the intelligence of the Britifh embarkation, it produced a contrary eflfe6t. Within one hour after the reception of this intercepted letter, general Wafiiington gave orders to his army to move to the fouthward, but he was nevcrthelefs fo much with a conviction, that it was the true interefl imprefTed Howe to move towards Burgoyne, that he ordered the American army to halt for fome time, at the river Delaware, fufpedting that the apparent mavement of the royal army to the fouthward, was a feint calculated to draw him The Britifli fleet having farther from the North-river. were a week at fea, before they failed from Sandy-hook, At this time and place, for reached cape Henlopen. that do not obvioufly occur, general Howe gave reafons of idea of approaching Philadelphia, by afcending the Delaware, andrefolved on a circuitous route by the vi^ay up the of the Chefapeak. Perhaps he counted, on being joined reinforcements from the numerous tories in Maby large ryland or Delaware, or perhaps he feared the obftructions which the Pennfylvanians had planted in the DelaIf thefe were his reafons, he was miflaken in ware. both. From the tories he received no advantage, and in the river, his fhips could have from the obftruftions received no detriment, ifhehad landed his troops at NewCaftle, which was 14 miles nearer Philadelphia than the head of Chefapeak bay. The 1777.
  16. 16. history The of the The Britifh fleet, after they had left the capes of thi Delaware, had a tedious and uncomfortable paffage, being twenty days before they entered the capes of Virgi" nia. They afcended the bay, with a favourable wind, AUg.25. gj-jj landed at Turkey-point. The circumftancc of the Britifh fleet putting out to fea, after they had looked into the Delaware, added to the apprehenlion before en- whole was a feint calculated to draw American army farther from the North-river, i'o as prevent their being at hand to oppofe a jundlion be- tertained, that the the to tween Howe and Burgoyne. Wafliington therefore fell back to fuch a middle flacion, as vv-ould enable him, either fpeedily to return to the North-river, or advance to The Bririfh fleet, after leavthe relief of Philadelphia. the capes of Delaware, were not heard of for near ing three weeks, except that they had once or twice been feen council of offinear the coaft fleering fouthwardly. A cers convened it moufly gave Nefliaminy, near Philadelphia, lanani- at as their opinion, that Charlefliown, in South-Carolina, was mofl: probably their object, and that it would he for its impoflible for the relief. pair the lofs army to march in feafon was therefore concluded to try, to reof Charlefton, which was confidered as unIt avoidable, either by attempting fomething on New- York or by uniting with the northern army, to give fmall change more efi^edtual oppofltion to Burgoyne, ifland, A of polition, conformably to this new fyftem, took place. The day before the above refolution was adopted, fleet entered the Chcfapeak. Intelligence thereof, in a few days, reached the American army, and difpelled that mifl: of uncertainty, in which general Howe's the Britifli movements had been heretofore enveloped. The Ame- motion to meet the Britifh army. rican troops were put numbers on paper amounted to 14,000, but their Their real eiTe^live force on which dependence might be placed in the day of battle, did not much exceed 8000 men. Every appearance of confidence was afTumed by them as in they pafled through Philadelphia, that the citizens might be intimidated from joining the Britifh. About the fame time a number of the principal inhabitants of that city, being
  17. 17. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 9 to the American caufe, bting fufpe^led of difaffedlion were taken into cuftody, and fent to Virginia. Soon after Sir William Howe had landed his troops in Maryland, he put forth a declaration, in which he in- formed the 1777. <-.'or«0 that he had iflued the ftridtefl " for the prefervation of regularity and that the mofl: exemplary punifli- inhabitants, orders to the troops and good difcipline, ment fhould be inflidled upon thofe who fhould dare to the perfons of any of his plunder the property, or moleft It feemed as though majefty's well-difpofed fubjeds." fully apprized of the confequences, which had refulted from the indifcriminate plunderings of his army in Ncwto adopt a more politic line Jerfey, he was determined Whatever his lordfliip's intentions might of conduct. were by no means feconded by his troops. be, they The royal army fet out from the eaftern heads of the Sept. Chefapeak, with a fpirit which promifed to compenfate for the various delays, which had hitherto wafted the camTheir tents and baggage were left behind, and paign. trufted their future accommodation to fuch quarters they arms might procure. They ad^^anced with boldwere within two miles of the American arthey General my, which was then pofted near New-port. foon changed his pofition, and took poft on Wafhington the high ground near Chadd's Fort, on the Brandywine It creek, v/ith an intention of difputing the paiTage. was the wifh, but by no means the intercfl: of the AmeTheir ricans, to try their ftrength in an engagement. as their nefs, till regular troops were not only greatly inferior in difcipline, but in numbers, to the i*oyal army. The opinion of the inhabitants, though founded on no circumftances more impofed a fpecies of necefto keep his army in front fity on the enemy, and to rifque an adlion for the fecurity of of Inftead of this, had he taken the ridge of Philadelphia. fubftantial than their wifhes, the American general high mountains on his right, the Britifh muft have re-' fpedled his numbers, and probably would have followed the country. In this manner the campaign might have been wafted away in a manner fatal to the invaders, but the bulk of the American people were fo impatient him up Vol. II B - of 3.
  18. 18. The 10 1777. ^"""^^"^^ history of the of delays, and had fuch an overweening conceit of the numbers and prowefs of their army, that they could not comprehend the wifdom and policy of manceuvres to flmn a general engagement. On this occafion neceffity dictated, that a facrifice A fhould be made on the altar of public opinion. geII. neral aftion was therefore hazarded. oep. This took place at Chadd's Ford, on the Brandy wine, a fmall flream which empties flux itfelf into Chrifiiana creek, near its con- with the river Delaware. The royal army advanced at day break In two columns, commanded by lieutenant general Kniphaufen, and by lord Cornwallis. The firfl took the dire6l road to Chadd's Ford, and made a fliew of paffing it, in front of the main body of the Americans. At the fame time the other column moved up on the weft fide of the Brandy wine to its fork, and crofled both its branches about 2 o'clock afternoon, and then' marched down on the eafl fide thereof, with the view of turning the right wing of in the their adverfaries. This they efFefted and compelled them to retreat with General Kniphaufen amufed the Americans great lofs. with the appearance of croffing the ford, but did not attempt it until lord Cornwallis having crofled above, and moved down on the oppofite fide, had commenced his attack. Kniphaufen then crofled the ford, and attacked the troops pofled for its defence. Thefe, after a fevere were compelled to give way. The retreat of the Americans foon became general, and was continued to Chefter, under cover of general Wceden's brigade, which came off in good order. The final iflue of battles often conflict, depends on fmall circumftances, which human prudence cannot control one of thefe occurred here, and pre- — vented general Wafliington from executing a bold defign, to eftedl which, his troops were aftually in motion. This was to have crofl"ed the Brandywine, and attacked Kniphaufen, while general Sullivan and lord Stirling, fliould In the moft critical mokeep earl Cornwallis in check. ment, general Wafliingtoa received intelligence which he was obliged to credit, that the column of lord Cornwallis ,
  19. 19. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. ii wallis had been only making a feint, and was returning This prevented the execution of a to join Kniphaufen. v/ould probably have plan, which, if carried into efFe£l, to the events of the day. The killed given a diflferent turn and wounded in the royal army, were near fix hundred. The lofs of the Americans was twice that number. In the lift of their wounded, were two of their general officers,— The marquis de la Fayette, and general AVoodThe former was a French nobleman of high rank, ford. animated with the love ©f liberty, had left his nawho, tive country, and offered his fervice to Congrefs. While he efpoufed in France, and only nineteen years of age, the caitfc of the Americans, with the moft difinterefted and generous ardour. Having determined to join them, he communicated his intentions to the American commiffioners, at Paris. They juftly conceived, that a patron of fo much importance would be of fervice to their caufe, and encouraged his defign. Before he had embarked from France, intelligence arrived in Europe, that the American infurgents, reduced to 2000 men, were fleeing through Jerfey before a Britifli force of 30,000. Under American commiffioners at Pabut honeft to difTuade him from the pre- thefe circumftances, the ris thought it fent profecution of his perilous enterprife. It was in vain His zeal to ferve a that they adled fo candid a part. was not abated by her misfortunes. a veflel, which he purchafed for the in Charledon, early in 1777, and the American army. Congrefs refolved, foon after joined *• in conflderation of his zeal, illuftrious family and that connexions, he fliould have the rank of major general in their army." Independent of the rifque he ran as an American officer, he hazarded his large fortune in confequence of the laws of France, and alfo the confinement of his perfon, in cafe of capture, when on his way to the diftreffed country, Having embarked in purpofe, he arrived United States, by any nation •, without the chance of being acknowledged for his court had forbidden his proceed- ing to America, and had difpatched orders to have him confined in the Weft-Indies, if found in that quarter. This gallant nobleman, who under all thefe difadvantages had 1777.
  20. 20. The 12 1777. history had demonftrated ceived but he his good of the will to the wound United in his leg, at the battle of neverthelefs continued in the field, a States, re- Brandywine, and exerted himfelt" both Ame- ricans. in the by word and example in rallying the Other foreigners of diftindlion alfo (liared Count Pulafki, a Polifh nobleman, the engagement. fame who a few years before had carried off king Stapiflaus from his capital, though furrounded with a nu-^ merous body of guards, and a Rufllan army, fought with the Americans at Brandywine. He was a thunderbolt of war, and always fought for the polt of danger as the Soon after "this engagement Congrefs pofl of honour. him commander of horfe, with the rank of briappointed Monfieur du Coudray, a French officer of high gadier. and great abilities, while on his way from Philadelrank, phia to join the American army, about this time was drowned in the river Schuylkill. He rode into the flatbottomed boat on a fpirited mare, whofe career he was not able to flop, and flie went out at the farther end in^ to the river, with her rider on her back. ' The evening after the battle of Brandywine, a party of the Britifh went to Wilmington, and took prefident M'Kinley prifoner. They alfo loaded with the moft valuable took pofTcflion of a ihallop, efFcdls of the inhabitants. Howe perfevered in his fcheme of gaining the right This was no !efs Ifeadily pur^iftank of the Americans. fued on the one fide, ington^ame forward than avoided on the other. Wafhin a few days with a refolution of He accordingly advanced as rifquing another a^ion. far as the Warren tavern on the Lancafter roadNear that place both armies were on the point of engaging with their whole force, but were prevented by a moil violent Sep. 1 8. flonn of rain, which continued Whtp pight. their ammunition the vain ceafed, the and Americans found that for a whole day was entirely ruined. They therefore Before a proper fupply a place of fafety. withdrew 10 the Britilh marched fi'om their pofition was procured, near the White Plorfe tavern, down towards the Swedes The Americans again took poff in their front ; Ford. ^ut the Britilh, inflead of urging an a(ftion, began 10 march
  21. 21. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. rnarch To up towards Reading. fave the ftores which took a new depofited in that place, Wafliington and left the Britifh in undifturbed pofleffion of had been pofition, His troops were the roads which lead to Philadelphia. down with a fuccefllon of feverc duties. There were worn in his army above a thoufand and who had performed all men who were barefooted, movements in that Americans fuftained a their late About this time the condition. confiderable lofs by a night attack, conduiSted by general Grev on a detachment of their troops, which was en- camped near the Paoli tavern. The outpofts and pickets were forced without noife, about one o'clock in the morn- The men had ing. fcarcely time to turn out, ^' and when in the light they turned out they unfortunately paraded This directed the Britifh how, and where of their fires. to proceed. They rufhed in upon them and put about 300 to death in a filent fo manner by a tree and exclufivc The enterprife was conducted with addrefs, that the lofs of the affailants did not ex- ufe of the bayonet. much ceed eight. a fliort refidence at Baltimore Congrefs, which after had returned to Philadelphia, were obliged a fecond time to confult their fafety by flight. They retired at and afterwards to Yorktown. Lancafter, firfb to The bulk of the Britifh army being left in Germantown, Sir William Howe, with a fmall part, made his triumphal with the hearty entry into Philadelphia, and was received welcome of numerous citizens, who either from con- Sep. 26, fcience, cowardice, interefi;, or principle, had hitherto feparated themfelves from the clafs of a»5tive whigs. The pofTeffion of the largcfh city in the United States, with the difperfion of that grand council which together had heretofore conducted their public oned by the fhort fightcd as decifive afBiirs, of their were reckfate. The fubmifTion of countries, after the conqueft of their capital, had often been a thing of courfe, but in the great conteft for the fovereignty of the United States th^ queftion did not reft with a ruler, or a body of rulers, nor was it to be determined by the poflefHon or lofs of any particulai* It was the public mind, the fentiments and opyiplace. Jon§
  22. 22. history The the of yeomanry of the country which were to deThough Philadelphia had become the refidence of ions of the cide. the Britidi army, yet as long as the bulk of the people of the United States were oppofed to their government, Indeed it was prefumed by the country was unfubdued. the more difcerning politicians, that the luxuries of a as to great city would io far enervate the Britifli troops them for thofe aftive exertions to which they indifpofe while inconveniently encamped in the were prompted, open country. To make take off the impreffion the Britifh fuccefles, might in France to the prejudice of America, Doctor Franklin *' gave them an ingenious turn, by obferving, Howe had taken Sir William that inftead of faying Philadelphia, it would be more proper to fay, phia had taken Sir William Howe." One of the firft got pofTeffion, was and objeas of the Britilh, after they had to ereft batteries to to proteiSl the city Britifli fliipping PhiladeU from any command infult the river, by water. The were prevented from afcending the De- which by obii:ru(Stions hereafter to be defcribed, were fxxed near Mud-Iiland. Philadelphia, though poffefled by the Britifli army, was expofed to danger from lawai^e, the American veflels in the river. The American frigate Delaware, of 32 guns, anchored within 500 yards of the unfiniflied batteries, and being feconded by fome fmaller the batteveiTels, commpnced a heavy cannonade upon ries and town, but upon the falling of the tide ftie ran asround. Beinc? briflvlv fired upon fron» the town, while was foon compelled to furrender. The other American veffels, not able to refift the fire from the batteries after lofing one of their number, rein this condition flie tired. Geoeial Wafliington, having been reinforced by 2500 men from Pecks-kill and Virginia ; and having been informed, that general Howe had detached a confiderable of his force, for reducing the forts on the Delapart ware, conceived a defign of attacking the Britifli poll Their line of encam.pment, crofled at Germantov/n. The left wing the town at right angles near its centre. extended
  23. 23. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. t? extended to the Schuylkill, and was covered In front by The queen's the mounted and difmounted chalTeurs. and a battalion of light infantry were American rangers The 40th regiment with another in front of the 1777- right. battalion of light infantry were pofred on the Chefnut- Lord in advance. quarters of a mile Cornwallis lay at Philadelphia, with four battalions of few of the general officers of the Ameroad, three hill A grenadiers. rican army, whofe advice was requefted on the occafion unanimoufly recommended an that it attack-, and it was agreed niade in different places, to produce confufion, and to prevent the feveral parts fliould the greater of the Britifh be from affording fupport to each From an apprehenfion, that the Americans from other. the want of dicipline would not perfevere in a long attack, it was refolved that it fhould be fudden and vigorous, and if unfuccefsful to make an expeditious retreat. The divifions of Sullivan and Wayne flanked by Conway's brigade, were to enter the town by the v^^^yof Chefforces, nut-hill, while general Armftrong with the Pennfylvania militia (liould fall down the Manatawny road, and gain The divilions of Greene left and rear of the Britifli. and Stephen's flanked by M'Dougal's brigade were to enter The militia of Maryland and by the lime kiln road. under generals Smallwood and Furman, were to Jerfey march by the old York road, and to fall upon the rear the of their right. to Lord Stirling with Nafhe's and Maxwell's brigade were form a corps de referve. The Americans began their attack about funrifc on the 40th regiment, and a batta- of light infantry. Thefe two corps being obliged to retreat, were purfued into the village. On their retreat lion colonel Mufgrove with fix companies took Mr. Chew's flrong ftone houfe, which lay in front lieutenant poft in of the Americans. From an adherence to the military maxim of never leaving a fort poiTeircd by an enemy in the rear, it was refolved to attack the party in the houfe. In the mean time general Greene got up with his co- lumn and attacked routed a the right wing. Colonel Mathews party of the Britilh oppofed to him, killed fevera!, OiTt. 4'
  24. 24. The iS 1777. history the of and took i 10 prifoners, but from the darknefs of^ the day loft fight of the brigade to which he belonged, veral, and having feparated from it, was taken prifoner with his* whole regiment, and the prifoners which he had previA number of the troops in oufly taken, were relealed. Greene's divifion, were ftopped by the halt of the party before Chew's houfe. Near one half of the American army remained for fome time at that place inadlivc. In the mean time general Grey led on three battalions of the third brigade, and attacked with A fharp convigour. teft Two followed. Bi-itifh attacked regiments at the fame time on, the oppoiice fide of the town. General Grant moved up the 49th regiment to the aid of thofe who were engaged with Greene's column. The morning was exti'emely foggy. This, by conceal- — ing the true lituation of the parties occafioned miftakes, and made fo much caution necefTary as to give the Britifh time to recover from the effedls of their firft furprize. thefe caufes the early promiling appearances on the The Amepart of the aiTail ants were fpeedily reverfed. ricans left the field haftily, and all efforts to rally them were inefFe£lual. Lord Cornwallis arrived with a part/ From of light horfe, and joined in the purfuit. This was continued for fome miles The lofs of the royal army, inthe wounded and prifoners, was about Acluding 500. were brigadier general Agnew, and lieuThe lofs of the Americans, in400 prifoners, was about 1000. Among their cluding Hain were general Nafta and his aid de camp major Wi- mong their flain tenant colonel Bird. therfpoon. Soon after this battle the Britifta left Germantown, and turned their principal attention towards opening a free communication between their army and their fliipping. Much induftry and ingenuity had been exerted for the on the water fide. Thirteen gal- fecurity of Philadelphia lies, two floating batteries, two zebeques, one brig, one fhip, befides a number of armed boats, fire fliips and rafts, were conftru6ted or employed for this purpofe. The A- mericans had alfo built a fort on Mud-Ifland, to which they
  25. 25. ICAN REVOLUTION. AIVIeR they gave the name of fort Mifflin, and ere^led thereon a This ifland is admirably fituated confiderable battery. for the ereftion of works to annoy (liipping on their way up the Delaware. It lies near the middle of the river, No vcfTcls of burden about 7 miles below Philadelphia. main Ihip channel, which can co/ne up but by the narrow for more palfes clofe to Mud-Illand, and is very to fort MlfHin there is a than a mile below. Oppoiite This overlooks not only the height, called Red-Bank. On this eminence, river, but the neighbouring country. a refpefluble battery was eredled. Between thefe two fortreffes, which arc half a mile diAant from each other, the American naval armament for the defence of the rimade their harbour of retreat. Two ranges frife were alfo funk into the channel. Thefe ver Delaware, of chevaux de tonfilled of large pieces of timber, ilrongly framed together, in the manner ufual for making the foundation ot wharfs in deep water. Several large points of bearded iron projelling down the river were annexed to the upper parts of thefe chevaux de frife, and the whole was funk with fo as to be about four feet under the water at low Their prodigious weight and ftrength could not fail to eiFect the deftru6tion of any veficl which came upon them. Thirty of thefe machines were funk about 300 yards below fort Mifflin, fo as to ftretch in a diagonal ftones, tide. line acrofs the channel. The only open paifage left was between two piers lying clofe to the fort, and that was fecured by a ftrong boom, and could not be approached but in a direct line to the battery. Another fortification Avas erected on a Iiigh bank on the Jerfey fliore, called. And Billingsport. oppofite to this, another rant^e of chevaux de frife was depoGted, leaving only a narrow and Ihoal channel on the one fide. There was alfo a tempo- rary battery of two heavy cannon, at the mouth of Mantua creek, about halfway from Red-Bank to Billingfport. The Britlfli were vi-ell apprized, that without the command of the Delaware, their poireffion of Philadelphia would be of no advantage. Thev therefore fcrained everv ^ — to this end nerve, to open the navigatioti of that river, lord Howe had early taken the nnoit efll-jftual meafures Vol. II. C foi-
  26. 26. i8 1777. The HISTORY of the for condufling the fleet and tranfports round from the Chefapeak to the Delaware, and drew ihem up on the Pennfylvania fhore, from Reedy-Illand to New-Caftlc. Early in Odlober, a detachment from the Britifh army croffed the Delaware, with a view of dillodging the Ainericans from Billingfport. On their approach, the place was evacuated. As the feafon a;dvanced, more vigorous meafures for removing the obftruftions were concerted between the general and the admiral. Batteries were erected on the Pennfylvania fhore to affift in diflodging the Americans from Mud Iflarid. At the fame time Count Donop with 2000 men, having crofled into NewJerit^y, oppofite to Philadelphia, marched down on the eaftern fide of the Delaware, to attack the redoubt at Red Bank. This was defended by about 400 men under the command of colonel Greene. The attack immediately commenced by a fmart cannonade, under cover ot which the Count advanced to the redoubt. This place was intended fOr a much larger garrifon than was then in it. It had therefore become necefTary to run a line in the middle thereof, and one part of it was evacuated That part was eafily carried by the afTailants, on which they indulged in loud huzzas for their fuppofed victory. The garrifon kept up a fevere well diredled fire on the afTailants by which they were compelled to retire. They fuffered not only in the afTault, but in the approach to, and retreat from the fort. Their whole lofs in killed and wounded was about 400. Count Donop was mortally wounded and taken prifoncr. Congrefs refolved, to prefent colonel Greene with a fword for his good conduct on this occafion. An attack made about the fame time on fort MifHin by men of war and frigates, was not more fuccefsful than the afTault on Red-Bank. The Augufta man of war of 64 guns, and the Merlin, two of the veffels which were engaged in it, got aground. The former was- fired and blew up. The latter was evacuated. Though the firfl attempts of the Britifli, for opening the navigation of the Delaware, were unfuccefsful, they tarried their point in another way that was unexpe^led. The chevaux dc frife, having been funk fome confidcrable
  27. 27. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. able time, the current of the water was diverted by this In confeqijcnce thereof greaL bulk into new chirlfiels. the oafTage between the lilands and the Pcnnfylvania f}ore deepened as to admit vcflels of fome coiifiderable Through this paiTage, the Vigilant, draught of water. was fo down fo as to draw but little water, with 24 pounders, made her way to a pofition mounted from which fhe might enfilade the works on Mud-Ifland. a Idige Ihip, cut This gave the Britilh fuch an advantage, that the port was no longer tenable. Colonel Smith, who had with great gallantry defended the fort from the latter end of Sep- November, being wounded, was Within five days after his removal, major Thayer, who as a volunteer had nobly offered to take charge of this dangerous poft, was obliged to eva-? tember, to the removed cuate I ith of to the main. it. This event did not take place till the works were enand tirely beat downr--every piece of cannon difmounted, one of the Britifh (hips fo near that fhe J|rew granadoes and killed the men uncovered in the plat- into the fort, form. The Mifflin, made troops who had fo bravely defended fort Red-Bank. Congrefs voted lieutenant colonel Smith and com- a fafe retreat to fwords to be given to modore Hazlewood, for their gallant defence of the I)e- Within three days after Mud-Ifl.ind was evacuated, the garrifon was alfo withdrawn from Red-Bank, on the approach of lord Cornwallis, at the head of a large Some of the American gilforce prepared to aflault it. lies and armed velTels efcaped by keeping clofe m with laware. the Jerfey (hore, to places of fecurity above Philadelphia, but 17 of them were abandoned by their crews, and iired. Thus a free communication between and (hipping. This event was to them very army defirable. They had been previoufly obliged to draw their provifions from Chefter, a diftance of fixteen miles, The long at fome rifque, and a certain great expence. the Britifh gained their protradled defence of the Delaware, deranged the plans of the Britifh, for the remainder of the campaign, and confcquently faved the adjacent country. About this time the chair of Congrefs became vacant, by
  28. 28. The history of the by the departure of Mr. Hancock, after he had difchargedi the duties of that office to great'*'acceptance, two years an4 months. Henry Laurens, of South-Carolina, was He had been in Engunanimoufly ele^ed his fucceffor. land for fome years, antecedent to the hoftile determirations of parliament againft the colonies, but finding the difpute growing ferious, he conceived that honour five iMov. I, and duty called him to take part with his native country. He had been warmly folicited to flay in England, and ofwere made him not only to fecure, but to double his American eftate, in cafe of his continuing to reiide there, —but thefe were refufed. To a particular friend in London, dilTuadsag him from coming out to America, hereplied on the yth of Nov. 1774, when at Falmouth, on the point of embarking, " I fliail never forget your fers " friendly attention to my intereft, but I dare not return. Your minifkers are deaf to information, and fctm bent <* *' on provoking unneceffliry ^' I now go refolved ftill to the part of a^aithfal fubjedt, labour for peace ; at the fame time determined in the ** conteil:. I think I have a«fl:ed ** laft event to fcand or fall with my country." Immediatelv on his arrival in Charlefton, he was ele^led a member, and foon after the prefident of the provincial the congrefs,--- the prefident of the council of fafety — and — a member of congrefs. vicc-prefident of the ftate, While Sir Williarn Howe was fucceeding in evei y enterprize in Pcnnfylvania Intelligence arrived, as fliall be the next chapter, that general Burgoyne and whole army had furrendercd prifoners pf war to the Americans. General Wadiingtou foon after received a confiderable reinforcement from the northern army, which had related in his With this increafed force accomplifhed this great eventThe royal he took a pofition at and near Whitemarfl:i. army having Dec A ^^^^ Sir river liicceeded in Delaware, WiUiam Howe, removing the obftruflions in were ready for new enterprizes. marched out of Philadelphia with almoft his whole force, expcfting to bring on a general The next morning he appeared on Chef-^ engagement. nut-hil! in front of, and about three miles diAant fiom the
  29. 29. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 2% On the day follow- 1777. the right wing of the Americans. ^"^""^^"^ the Britilh changed their ground, and moved to the ing the ftill farther to after they moved Two d;iys right. and made every appearance of anintentionro attack Some llcirmilhes took place, the American exicampment. and a general action was hourly expected: but inftead right, thereof on after various morning of the next day, the from Dec. marches and countermarches, the Britiih filed off their right, by two Qr three different routes, in fuU m.arch for Philadelphia. The in a military point polxtion of general V/afnington He was fo fenfible of the advan-' of view was admirable. of Sir V/illiam IIowc tages of it, that the manoeuvres In confefor fome days, could not allure him from it. of the reinforcement lately received, he had not quence any preceding period of the campaign been in an equal condition for a general engagement. Though he arwiflied to be attacked, yet he would not relinquifh dently a pofition, from which he hoped for reparation for the in adverfities of Howe He could not believe that the campaign. with a viftorious army, and that lately re- general inforced with four thoufand come men from New- York, ftiould Philadelphia only to return thither He therefore prefumed that to avoid the difgrace again. of fuch a movement, the Brirllh commander would, from out of a fenfe of, military honour, be compelled to attack him, though under great difadvantages. When he found him cautious of engaging and inclining to his left, a daring defign was formed which would have been executed, had the Britilh either continued in their pofltion, or little farther to the left of the American army. a was phia. to have attempted The in the night to furprife moved This Philadel- neceffary preparations for this purpofe were made, but the retreat of the tion. Soon army retired Britifli prevented its execu- Smallwood with a confiderable force, was ported at Wilmington on the banks pf the Delaware, and general Wafhington, with the main after thefe events general to winter quarters at Valley Forge, 16 from Philadelphia. This poGtion was prediilant and more comfortable villages, as being miles diifant . ferred to calculated v 9»
  30. 30. 1777. history The 22 of the calculated to give the moft extenfive fecurity to the coun-? try to adjacent The Philadelphia. American army might have been tracked, by the blood of their feet, ia marching without fhoes or ftockings over the hard frozen Some ground, between White marfli and Valley Forge. hundreds of them were without blanKefs. Under thefe circuniftances they had to fit down in a wood, in the end of December, and to build huts for their accommodation. This mode of procuring winter quarters, latter if not entirely novel, has been rarely if everpractiled in. Tiie chcerfulnefs with which the general modern war. and his army fubmitted to fpend a fevere winter, in fuch circumftances, rather than leave the country expofed, by retiring farther, demonftrated as v.-eli their patriotifm as their fixed rc^folution to fufFcrevery inconvenience, in pre- Thus ended ference tofubmifiion. Though with the moft the campaign of i 777. had been crowned having gained two confi- Howe's army Sir William brilliant fuccefs, and been equally triumphant in many adions, yet the whole amount of this tide of rood fortune was no more than a good winter lodging derable vicStories, fmaller for his troops in Philadelphia, whilif the men under his command pofieffed no more of the adjacent country than v/hat they immediately it is true, commanded with their arms. was compelled to leave the Congrefs, of their deliberations, and the States changed a number of firft The feat United whig inhabitants for a as true that the minds of in the greatefl: city its numerous royal army but it is the Americans were, if pofiible, more ; hoftile to the claims of Great-Britain than ever, and their army had gained much by difcipline and experience, as compenfated for tis its diminution by defeats. The events of this campaign were adverfe to the fanruine hopes which had been entertained of a fpeedy conquefl: of the revolted colonies. Repeated proofs had been given, that, though general Wafhington was very forward to engage when he thought it to his advantage, for the royal commander to bring yet it was impoflible his confent. him to aclion By this mode of conagainfi; the duiSlihg the defence of new formed dates, two campaigns
  31. 31. AMERICAN REVOLUTION'. and the work which w paigns had been wafted away, for one, was ftill unfiniihcd. originally allotted An account of fome mifcellaneous tranfaiStions will Lieutenant colonel Barton, of a militia of the ftaie of Rhode-Ifland, accompanied by regiment about forty volunteers, pafTed by night from Warwick neck to Rhode-Ifland, and furprifed general Prefcot in his clofe this chapter. quarters, and brougUt him and one of his aids fafe off to the continent. Though they had a pafTage of ten miles by water, they eluded the (hips of war and guard The enterprize boats, which lay all round the ifland. was conduiSted with fo much {ilence and addrcfs, that prize. till the colonel and had nearly reached the continent v/ith their Congrefs foon after refolved, that an elegant fword fliould be prefented to lieutenant colonel Barton, as there was no alarm anions the Britilh his party a teftimonial of their fenfc of his gallant behaviour. It has already been mentioned, that Congrefs in the latter end of November 1775, authorifed the capture of veflels, laden with ftores or reinforcements for their ene- On the 23d of March ij'j(^f they extended this permiffion fo far as to authorife their inhabitants to fit out armed vefTels to ci'uife on the enemies of the united mies. colonies. The Americans henceforth devoted thenifelves lu the courfe lo privateering, and were very fuccefsful. of the year they made many valuable captures, particularly of homeward bound V/eft-India men. The particulars cannot be enumerated, but good judges have calculated, months after Congrefs authorifed privathe Britifh lofs in Captures, exclufive of transteering, ports and government ftore fliips, exceeded a million fuelthat within nine ling. They found no difHcuity in felling their prizes. The ports of France were open to them, both in Europe and in the V/cfi--Indies. In the latter they were fold without any difguife, but was paid to appearances. former a greater regard Open fales were not permitted in the harbours of France at particular times, but even then they were made at the entrance or offing. In the French Weft-India iflands the inhabitants not in the ©nly purchafcd prizes, brought in by x^merican crulfers, but J ^ "'
  32. 32. tHE 777. but fitted HISTORY OF THE out privateers under American colours and com'*' and made captures ofBritifti veflels. William of Philadelphia, was ftationed as the agent of Bingham, Congrefs, at Martinico, and he took an. early and adtivc mifiions, part in arming privateers in St. Pierre, to annoy and cruife The favourable difpofition of ugainft BritiOi property. the inhabitants furnifhed him with an opportunity, which he fuccefsfully improved, not only to diftrefs the Britifli commerce, but to fow the feeds of difcord between the French and English. The American privateers alfo found countenance in fome of the ports of Spain, but not fo readily nor fo univerfally as in thofe of France. The Britifli took many of the American veflels, but they were often of inferior value. Such of them as were laden with provifions, proved a feafonable relief to their Weft-India iflands, which otherwife would have fuffered from the want of thofe fupplies, which before the war had been ufually procured from the neighbouring continent. The American privateers in the year I777> increafed in numbers and boldncfs. They infulted the coafts of Great-Britain and Ireland, in a manner that had never Such was their fpirit of advenbefore been attempted. ture, that it became neceflary to appoint a convoy for the protection of the linen fhips from Dublin and Newry. The general Mifflin privateer, after making repeated captures, arrived at Breft, and faluted the French admiral. This was returned in form as to the vefiel of an independ- Lord Stormont, the Britifh ambaflador, at ent power. the court of Verfailles, irritated at the countenance given to the Americans, threatened to return immediately to was given, and different meaAn order was iflued in fures were adopted by France. confeqiience of his application, requiring all American veflels to leave the ports of His Moft Chriftian Majefty, but though the order was pofitive, fo many evafions were London, unkfs fatisfaiilion and the execution of it was fo relaxed, that it no permanent difcouragement of the beneficial produced praftifed, intercourfe. C H A F.
  33. 33. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. CHAP. 7he XV. Northern Campaign of 1777. efFeft a free communication between New- York and Canada, and to maintain the navigation of the intermediate lakes, was a principal obje6l with the Britilh, The Americans prefuming for the campaign of ^777- TO had been early attentive to their Itcurity, in that quarter. They had refolved to conftrudl a fort on Mount Independence, which is an eminence adjoining the ftraic on which Trconderoga ftands, and nearly oppoilte to that fortrefs. They had alfo refolved to obftru£l the navi~ gation of the ftrait by cafToons, to be funk in the water, and joined fo as to ferVe at the fame time for a bridge between the fortifications on the eafl and weflfide of it;— and that to prevent the Britifh from drawing their fmall craft over on this, land into lake George, the paffage of that lake (hould be obftru£led,— that Fort Schuyler, the fame which had formerly been called Fort Stanwix,fhould be flrengthened, and other fortifications erected near the Requifitions were made by the Mohawk commanding river. officer in the department for 13,600 men, as neceffary for the fccurity The adjacent ftates were urged to fill up of this didricl. their recruits, and in all refpefts to be in readinefs for an — adlive campaign. The Britifli miniftiy were very fanguine in their hopes, from the confequences of forming a line of communication between New- York and Canada. They confidered New England people to be the foul of the confederacy, and promifed themfelves much by fevering them from all free communication with the neighbouring flates. They hoped, when this was accompliHied, to be lible to furround them fo effeftually with fleets and armies, and Indian alAnimated with thefe lies, as to compel their fubmiffion. left nothing undone, which bid fair for expectations they enfuring the fuccefs of the plans they had formed for the this purpofe. The regular troops, Britifh and this fervice, fidered Vol. were upwards of 7000. to be particularly ufefui II. D in German, As an allotted to artillery is con- American war, where ~^
  34. 34. The history of the where numerous inhabitants are to be driven out of woods and faftnefl'es, this part of the fervice was partiTi.e brafs train that was fcnt put, cularly attended to. was perhaps the fineft, and the moft excellently fupplied, both as to officers and men, that had ever been allotted to In addition to fecond the operations of an equal force. the regulars, it was fuppofed that the Canadians and the the neighbouring flates, would add large reloyaliits, in inforcements, well calculated for the peculiar nature of Arms and accoutrements were accordingly the fervice. to fuppiy them. Several nations of favages had provided alfo been induced to take up the hatchet, as allies to his Not only the humanity, but the poBritannic majefty. of employing them, was queftioned in Great-Britain. licy The oppofers of it contended that Indians were caprici- ous, inconftant and intradtable, their rapacity infatiatc, And their aftions cruel and barbarous. At the fame time their fervices were reprefented to be uncertain, and that could be placed on their moft folemn enno dependence On the other hand, the zeal of Britifli mireducing the revolted colonies, was fo violent to make them, in their excefiive wrath, forget that their gagements. nillers for as men. They contended, that in their circumftances every appearance of lenity, by inciting to difobedience, and thereby increafing the objefts of punifh- adverfaries were In their opinion partial fement, was eventual cruelty. and the only method of fpeedverity was general mercy, crufhing the rebellion, was to invelopc its abettors - jly in fuch complicated intolerable, diftrefs, as would make them by rendering their fituation willing to accept the prof- The fentiments of fered bleffings of peace and fecurity. for employing Indians againft the Amethofe who were Prefents were liberally diftributed ricans, prevailed. them. Induced by thefe, and alfo by their innate among thirft for war and plunder, they poured forth their warriors in fuch abundance, to be an incumberance. The vafc force deftined the that their numbers threatened for this fervice was put under lieutenant general Burgoyne, an officer abilities were well known, and whofe fpirit of enttr- command of whofe prizc '
  35. 35. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. and thirft for military fame could not be exceeded. was fupported by major general Philips of the artilhad eftabliflicd a folid reputation by his good lery, who conduft during the late war in Germany, and by major general Reidefel, and brigadier general Speecht of the German troops, together with the Britifh generals Frazer, pi-ize He Powell and Hamilton, all officers of- dillinguifhed merit. The Britilh had alfo undifputed pofTeliion of the navigation of Lake Champlain. Their marine force thereon, with which in the preceding campaign they had deftroyed American fhippingon the lakes, was not only entire, the but unoppoied. A conliuerable force nas left in Canada for and Sir Guy Carleton's military fccurity, internal to the limits of that province. ministry attributed the prefervation of reftricled Britifli its command was Though the Canada to 177$ and 1776, yet by their arrangements his abilities in he was only called upon to act a fefubfervicncy to the grand expedition comcondary His behaviour on this octo general Burgoyne. mitted was conformable to the greatnefs of his mind. cafion, Inftead of thwarting or retarding a fervice which was for the year 1777, part, in taken out of his hands, he applied himfelf to and forward it in all its pans, with the fame difupporc ligence as if the arrangement had been entirely his own, and committed to himfelf for execution. virtually The plan of the Britilh for their projected irruption into the northweflern frontier of New- York, confided of two parts. General Burgoyne with the main body, was way of Lake Champlain, with polltive has been faid, to force his way to Albany, or at to advance by the orders, as leaft fo far as to effe6l a junction with from New- York. A the royal army detachment was to afcend the river St. Lawrence, as far as Lake Ontario, and from that quarter to penetrate towards Albany, by the way of the Mohawk river. This was put under the command of lieutenant colonel St. Leger, and confifted of about 206 Britiih troops, a regiment of commanded by vages. New-York loyalifts raifed and John Johnfon, and a large body of faLieutenant general Burgoyne arrived in Quebec on Sir
  36. 36. The 28 I 777. <—^v->w; on the 6th of May, and exerted * ' jyg jj^g of all the diligence to profecut« He proceeded objects of the expedition. Lake Champlain and landed near Crown-Point. Atup this place be met the Indians them a war feaft, and gave Ij-j •' HIST OR Y j]^g — made them a fpeech to them. This was well calculated to excite to take part v/iih the royal army, but at the fame time to reprefs their barbarity. He pointedly forbad them to fhed blood when not oppofed in arms, and commanded that aged men, women, children, and prifoners, fhould be held facred from the knife and the hatchet, even in the heat of a£lual confli(5l. reward was promifed for A and a fevere enquiry threatened for fcalps, though permiffion was granted to take them from thofe who were previoufly killed in fair oppofition. Thefe reftridlions were not fufficient, as will appear in the fequel, prifoners, The Indians having decidedly taken part with the Britifb army, general Burgoyne ifTued a proclamation, calculated to Tpread terror among the inhabitants. The numbers of his Indian affociates were to retrain their barbarities. magnified, and their eagernefs to be defcribed in high founding words. armies and let loofe to their prey The foi'ce of the prepared to crufh every part of the revolted colonies, wasalfo difplayed in pompous language. Encouragement and employment were promifed to thofe Britifli fleers who fhould aflift in the re eftablifliment of legal government, and fecurity held out to the peaceable and indufAll the catrious, who continued in their habitations. lamities of war arrayed in their mofl terrific forms, were denounced againfir thofe v»ho fhould perfevere in a mili- tary oppofition to the royal forces. June 30. General Burgoyne advanced with his army in a fevr At this place he iflued orders of days to Crown-Point. the following, words are a part: "The army emwhich barks to-morrow to approach the enemy. The fervices, required on this expedition are critical and confpicuous. During our progrefs occafions may occur, in which, nor This difficulty, nor labour, nor life, ai'e to be regarded. muft not retreat." From Crown-Poinc ihe royal army On their approceeded to inveft Ticonderoga. to it, they advanced with equal caution and order proach ariT.y orx
  37. 37. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. on both fides of the lake, while their nax'al 29 force kept in its center. Within a few days they had fnrrounded threefourths of the American works ac Ticonderoga and Mount Independence; and had alfo advanced a work on Sugar Hill which commands both, fo far towards comhours it would have been ready to pletion, that in 24 In thefe circumftances general St. Clair the commanding officer, refolved to evacuate the poft at all events ; open. but conceiving general officers, it prudent to take the fentiments of the he called a council of war on the occafion. was reprefented to this council, that their whole numbers were not fufficient to man one half of the works, It and that as the whole muft be on conftaot duty, ir wotild be impoffible for them to fuftain the necelTary fatigue for any length of time, and that as the place would be corwinvefted on all fides within a day, nothing but an pleteiy immediate evacuation of the poiks could fave their troops. fituation of general St. Clair was eminently embarof the ftates in the fanraffing. Such was the confidence cied ftrength of this poll, and of the fuppofed fupi.;iority of force for its defence, that to retreat without rifquing The an action could not fail To of drawing on him the execration of the multitude. fi:ill, and by fuffering himto rifque his whole army for a finglc felf to be furrounded In to the true intereft of the fi:ates. poft, was contrary with the unanimous approbaiion of this trying fituation, fland a council of his general officers, he adopted the heroic refolution of facrificing perlbnal reputation to lave his army. The afTumption of confident appearances by the garritheir adverfaries to proceed with great fouj had induced While from this caufe they were awed into rethe evacuation was completed with fo much fecrecy fpe6t, and expedition, that a conliderable part of the public caution. was faved, and the whole would have been cmbarked, had not a violent gale of wind which fprungup flores in the night, prevented the boats tion. from reaching their fla- The works abandoned by the Americans, were as folThe old French lines conflru^ed in the late war low : between 1777.
  38. 38. The 30 1777. HISTORY the of between France and England, which looked towards gcBurgoyne's encampment had been repaired the year About the center was before, and were in good order. a battery of fix guns. Thefe occupied about two-thirds of the high ground from the flrait to the old fort. The ^^--^r^^ neral remaining third was open, butfome fleches were thrown up for irs fecurity. The old fort was in ruins, but fome guns were mounted on a ravelin thereof, that looked towards the lake. There was alfo a battery of four guns On the lines, which had the fame afpecfi:. point above the bridge was a battery of four guns, and on in the French Mount Independence another of fix The or eight. fort, on that fide was nearly a mile from the battery, and was formed of piquets. The defence of it might have employed four hundred men, but it could not have refifted a fix pounder. There were no barracks within it, nor a drop of water, but battery at the point, at a cojifiderable diOance. a line From the of entrenchment ran round the mount, upwards of a mile and a half in length. There had been a ftrong abbatis in front of this line the year it had been confumed by fire, as was alfo that cf the French lines. Towards the eaft of the before, but in fi-ont mount was Another was on the Ticonwere begun on the mount, but deroga there was neither time nor llrengch of hands to complete them. great deal of timber had been felled between the eafi: creek and the foot of the mount, to retard the All the redoubts on the low approaches of the Britilh. a block-houie. fide. New works A ground were ah;u)doned,for want of men to occupy them. Thefe works, together with ^'^ pieces of ordnance, and a large collection of pi-ovifions, fell into the hands of the Britifh. July 6, This evacuation of Ticonderoga was the fubje<St of a fevere fcrutiny. Congrefs recalled their general officers in the northern department, and ordered an enquiry into their condu(St. They alfo nominated two gentlemen of in the law to aflift the judge advocate in profecuting thac enquiry, and appointed a committee of their own body to collect evidence in fupport of the charges, eminence which were on this occafion brought againfi: them. General
  39. 39. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. ncral St. Clair, to this from the neceffity of the cafe, fubmitted mode of conducting innovation in the nt courts behalf of the army protefted againft its Charges of no lefs magnibeing drawn into precedent. and treachery, were brought tude than cowardice, incapacity forward in court againft him, and believed by many. The martial, but in fore with the lofs of Ticonderoga, and appublic mind, of general diflrefs, fought to eafe itfelf by When the fituation of throwing blame on the general. an enquiry into his conduft, he was the army permitted In the courfe of his trial it was honourably acquitted. to appear, that though 13,600 men had been early made prehenfive called for as neceflary to defend the northern pofts, yet on the approach of general Burgoyne, the whole force collected to oppofe him was only 2546 continentals, and From 000 militia badly equipped, and worfe armed. the infufficiency of their numbers, they could not pofTefa themfelves of Sugar-hill, nor of Mount-Hope, though the former commanded the works both of Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, and the latter was of great importance for fecuring the communication with Lake George, fortified the year before with that view. and had been To the queftion which had been repeatedly ailced, was the evacuation, if really neceflary, delayed, " till why the furrounded, as to occafion the ** from lofs of fuch valuable ftores ^ It was anfwered, that various circumftances it was impofliblefcr general St. Clair to get early information of the numbers oppofed to him. Americans were They made no fo nearly debarkation till they came to Gilliland's about 40 miles to the northward of Tiand from this they fpeedily reimbarked. The conderoga, deterred fmall reconfavages which they kept in front, from approaching fo near as to make any noitring parties creek, which is difcoveries of their numbers. Large parties from the na- ture of the ground, could not have been fupported without rifquing a general atSlion, and that from the com- bined operation of thefe circumftanccs, the numbers of the approaching royal army were effeftually concealed from the full garrifon, view before it." till the van of their force appeared in The retreating army embarked as much 1777.
  40. 40. 1777. hist op. Y The 32 of the of their baggage and flores as they had any proof faving on board batteaux, and difpatched them ipc£t under convoy of five armed grillies to Skenefborough. much Their main body took way of Caftleton. its The route towards the fame place by were no fooner apprized Britilh of the retreat of the Americans than they purfued them. General Frazer, at the head of the light troops, advanced on their main body- Major general Reidefel was alfo ordered with the gi*eater part of the Biamfwic troops, to General Burgoyne in permarch in the fame direction. fon conducted the purfult by watei'. The obfkru£lions to the navigation, not having been completed, were foon The two frigates— the Royal George and cut through. the Inflexible, together with the gun boats, having ef- fe£led their paiTage, purfued with fo much rapidity, that in the courfe of a day the gun boats came up with and at- tacked the American falls. gallics near Skenefborough of the frigates all oppofition ceafed. On the approach Two of the gallies were taken and three blown up. The Americans fet fire to their works, mills and batteaux. They were now left in the woods, deftltute of provifions. In this forlorn iituation they made their efcape up Woodcreek to fort Anne. Brigadier Frazer purfued the reAmericans— came up with, and attacked their treating x-ear Ju^y 7* of the engageguard, at Hubbordton. In the courfe ^y^g joined by the German troops, commanded The Americans commanded by coReidefel. j^gj^j. j^g by general lonel Warner, made a gallant refinance, but after Lieut. confiderable lofs, were obliged to give way. ing colonel Hall, with the ninth Britifli regiment, was detached from Skenefborough by general Burgoyne, to take poft enfued between this renear fort Anne. fuftain- An engagement and a few Americans, but the latter, after a congiment flia of two hours, fired the fort, and retreated to fort Edward. The deftruftion of the gallies and batteaux of the Americans at Skenefborough, and the defeat of their rear, obliged general St. Clair, in order to avoid being between two fires, to change the route of his main body, After a faand to turn off from Caftleion to the left. tiouiug and dlflrefring march of leven days, he joined general
  41. 41. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 33 Their combined forces, general Schuyler at fort Edward. whole 4400 on the approach of general Bur- inclusive of the militia, not exceeding in the men, were not long after goyne, compelled to retire farther into the country, bordering on Albany. Such was the rapid torrent of fuccefs, which in this period of the campaign fwept away all oppo- from before the royal army. The officers and men were highly elated with their good fortune. They contoils to be nearly at an end fidered their Albany to be fition ; within their grafp, and the conqueft of the adjacent proIn Great-Britain intellivinces reduced to a certainty. difFufed a general joy. gence of the progrefs of Burgoyne As to the Americans, the lofs of reputation which they fuftainedin the opinion of their European admirers, was than their lofs of polls, artillery and troops. They greater were ftigmatifed as wanting the refolution and abiliticiS of men in the defence of their deareft rights. Their unfubmiffion was qualified fubjugation, or unconditional An opinion was difconlidered as being near at hand. fufed, that the war in efFed was over, or that the farther reiiftance of the colonifts would ferve only to make more humiliating. The terof Ticonderoga fpread throughout the New-England ftates was great, but neverthekfs no difin any pofition to purchafc fafety by fubmiffion appeared did not link under the apprehenfions of They quarter. the terms of their fubmiffion ror which the lofs The royal danger, but adted with vigour and firmnefs. after thefc fucceffi;s, continued for fome days in army, Skene''fborough, waiting for their tents, baggage and proIn the mean time general Burgoyne put forth a viiion. proclamation, in which he called on the inhabitants of the adjacent towns to fend a deputation of ten or more perfons from their refpeftive townlhips, to meet colonel at Caftleton, on the I 5 th of July. The troops were fame time bufily employed in opening a road, and clearing a creek, to favour their advance, and to open a Skene at the A piirty of paffage for the conveyance of their (lores. the royal army which had been left behind at Ticonde- roga, was equally induftrious in carrying gun boats, proand battcaux over land, into lake George. vifion, vefTeis, Vol. II. An E y 7777-
  42. 42. lyyy. HISTORY The 34 of the An immenfity of labour in every quarter was neceflary,but animated as they were with paft fuccefles and future hopes, they difregarded From Skenefborough and danger. general Burgoyne directed his toil courfe acrofs the country to Fort Edward, on Hudfon'sRiver. Though the diilance in a right line from one to the other is but a few miles, yet fuch is the impracticable nature of the country, and fuch were the artificial diffi- thrown in his way, that nearly as many days were confumedas the diflance pafTed over in a direct line tvould The Americans under the dihave meafured in miles. retStion of general Schuyler, had cut large trees on both culties fides of the road, fo The broken as to fall acrofs with their branches the country was likewife fo with creeks and marflies, that they had no lefs interwoven. face of than forty bridges to conftruft, one of which was a logwork over a morafs, two miles in extent. This difficult march might have been avoided, had general Burgoyne fallen back from Skenefborough to Ticonderoga, and thence proceeded by lake George, but he declined this route, from an apprehenfion that a retrograde motion on He had his part would abate the panic of the enemy. that fome delay might be occafioned by American garrifon at Fort George, as in cafe of his alfo a fufpicion the taking that route, they might fafely continue to refift to the laft extremity, having open in their rear a place of retreat. On the other hand it was prefumed, that as foon as they rection knew that the royal which was army was marching in a di- to cut off their retreat, they likely their fafety by a feafonable evacuation. In addition to thefe reafons he had the advice and perfuafion would confult of colonel Skene. That gentleman had been recommended to him as a perfon proper to be confulted. His land was fo fituated, that the opening of a road between Fort Edward anil Skenefborough would greatly enhance its value. This circumftance might have made him more urgent in his recommendations of the n^ortefl:, it that route, efpecially as its being bid fair for uniting the royal intereil: with The opinion formed by general private convenience. the effect of his direct movement from Skenef- Bursovne of horoueh
  43. 43. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. American 35 garrifon, was 1777* verified by the event ; for being apprehenfive of having their retreat cut off, they abandoned their fort and burnt ^^'^'^'""^ borough to ForL Edward on the of Lake George being and ammunition M'ere brought thereby left free,provifions forward from Fort George to the firft navigable parts of Hudfon's-River. This is a diftance of 15 miles, and the The intricate combination of roads of difficult paflage. land and water carriage, together with the infufficient means of tranfportation, and exceffive rains, caufed fuch delays, that at the end of fifteen days there were not more than four days provifion brought forward, nor above ten thsir vefl^els. The navigation batteaux in the river. Tht; difliculties of this conveyance, as well as of the march througli the wildernefs from Skenefborough to Fort Edward, were encountered and overcome by the royal army, with a fpirit and alacrity which could not be exceeded. At length, after incredible fatigue and labour, general Burgoyne, and the army un- July 30. der his command reached Fort Edward, on Hudfon's-R.iver. Their exultation on accomplifliing, what for a long time had been the object of their hopes, was unufually great. While the Bririfh were retarded in their advance by the combined difficulties of nature and art, events took place, which proved the wifdom and propriety of the re- from Ticonderoga. The a*-my faved by that means, was between the inhabitants and general Burgoyne. This abated the panic of the people, and became a center of treat On the other hand, rendezvous for them to repair to. had they flood their ground at T iconderoga, they muft in the ordinary courfe of events, in a fliort time, either have been cut to pieces, or furrendered themfelves prifoners In either cafe, as general St. Clair reprefented of war. " Fear and in his elegant defence difmay would have : on the inhabitants from the falfe opinion that had been formed of the ftrcngth of thefe pofts, wringing grief and moping melancholy, would have filled the habitations of thofe vvhofe deareft connexions were in that army, and a lawlefs hoft of ruffians, fetloofe from every focial prinfeized ciple, ^ would have roamed at large through the defcncelefs
  44. 44. The history of the country, while bands of favages would hate carried havock, devaftation and terror before them. Great part lefs of the ftate of -queror, and New-York muil have fubmitted to the con- he would have found the means to his fuccefs. He would have been able effeftually profecute to have co-operated with general Howe, and would proin it bably foon have been in the fame country with him— that country where the illuftrious Wafhingion, with an inferior force made fo glorious a ftand, but whomufl: have been obliged to retire, if both armies had come upon him at once— or he might have been forced to a general and decifive action in unfavourable circumftances, whereby the founded hopes of America —of liberty, peace and iafety might have been cut off forever.'* Such, it was apprehended, would have been the confequences, if the American northern army had not retreated from their ports at Ticonderoga. From the adoption of that meafure very different events took place. In a few* hopes, the now well days after the evacuation, general Schuyler iffued a proclamation, calling to the minds of the inhabitants the late barbarities and defolations of the royal army in Jerfey — warning them that they would be dealt with as traitors, if they joined the Britiili, and requiring them with tJieir arms to repair to the American ftandard. Numerous parties were alfo employed in bringing off public ftores, and in felling trees, and throwing obfi:ru(n:ions in the way At firft an univerfal panic intimidated the inhabitants, but they foon recovered. Tha laws of felf-prefervation operated in their full force, and of the advancing royal army. diffufed a general adivity through the adjacent ^aies. formalities of convening, draughting and officering tne militia, were in many inftances difpenced with. Hun- The dieds feized their firelocks, and marched on the general call, without waiting for the orders of their immediate commanders. The inhabitants had no means of fecurity, but to abandon their habitations, and take up arms. Every individual faw the neceffity of becoming a temporary fol- The terror exited by the Indians, inftead of difpofing the inhabitants to court Britifh protedion, had a contrary dier. tffecl. The fiieuds of the royal caufe, as well as its ene- anieSj
  45. 45. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. mies, fuiFered from their indifcrimlnate barbarities. Among other inftances, the murder of Mifs M'Crea excited an This young lady, in the innocence of univerfal horror. the daughter of a fteady and the bloom of beauty youth, — aod engaged to be married to loyalifl, a Britifli officer, was on the very day of her intended nuptials, mafiacrcd * by the favage auxiliaries, attached to the Britifh army. Occalion was thereby given to inflame the populace, and to blacken the royal caufe. The cruelties of the Indians, aad the caufe in which they were engaged, were aflbciated together, and prefcnted in one view to the alarmed inThofe whofe intereft it was to draw forth habitants. the militia in fupport of American independence, ftrongly expreffed their execrations of the army, which fub- mitted to accept of Indian aid, and they loudly condemned tiiat goverr.ment which could cull fuch auxiliaries into a civil conteft, as were calculated not terminate a people je^s. whom to fubdue, but to exihey affedled to reclaim as fub- Their cruel mode of warfare, by putting to death as well the Imiling infant and the deftncelefs female, as the refifting arffied man, excited an univerfal fpirlt of re- In conjunftion with other circumflances, it imon the minds of the inhabitants a general convicprefled tion that a vigorous determined oppofition was the only fifi:ance. alternative for the prefervation of their property, their children and their wives. Could they have indulged the hope of fecurity and proteiSlion while they remained peaceably at their homes, they would have found many excufes for declining to affume the profeilion of foldiers, but when they contrafted the dangers ef a manly rcfiflance, with thofe of a pafiive inaction, they ehofe the former, as the leall of two unavoidable evils. All the feeble aid, which * This, thougTi true, was no premeditated barbarity. The circumftancet were as follows Mr. Jones, her lover, bom an anxiety for her fafety, engaged fome Indians to remove her from among the AmericcUis, and promifed to reward tiie ptrfon who fliould bring her fafe to him, with a barrel of rum. Tvo of the Indians, who had conveyed her fome diftance, on the way to her intended hulband, difputed, which of them iliotdd prefent her to Mr. Jones. Both were anxious for the reward. One of cheni killed her with his tomahawk, to prevent the other from Burgoyne obliged the Indians to de-t receiving it. liver up the murderer, and threatened to Kis life was onl^ put him to death. the Indians to terms, which the general thought woulc| fpared, upon agreeing be more efficacious than an execution, in fimilar ir.ifcliicfs. preventiro; :
  46. 46. The history of the which the royal army received from their Indian auxiliwas infinitely overbalanced by the odium it brought on their caufe, and by that determined fpirit of- oppoiition aries, which the dread of their favage danger was remote, the preffing cruelties excited. calis of While Congrefs, and of the genera! ofiiceiSj for the inhabitiints to be in readinefs to oppofe a diftant foe were unavailing, or tardily executed, but no fooner had they recovered from the firft » out impreffion of the general panic, than they turned The owners of the foil came with unexampled alacrity. forward with that ardor, which the love of dear connecAn army was fpcedily tions and of property infpires. "When forth from the woods and mountains. poured thev who had beoun the retreat were nearly wafted atheir fpirit of the country immediately fupplied with a much greater and more formidable force. place In addition to thefe incitements, it was early conjedlured, that the royal army, by pufliing forward would be fo enor retrat on equal tangled iis not to be able to advance terms. Men of abilities and of eloquence, influenced with way, the this expectation, harangued the inhabitant.--, in their Itve- forth in high-colouring, the cruelties of the favage auxiliaries of Great-Britain, and the fair proforce of their enemies. fpedls of capturing the whole From the combined influence of .thefe caufes, the Ameral towns— fct men. army foon amounted .to upwards of 13,000 While general Burgoyne was forcing his way down to- rican wards Albany, lieutenant colonel St.Leger was co-operatHe had afcended ing with him in the Mohawk country. the river St. Lawrence, crofTed Lake Ontario, and com- On the approach of the fiege of Fort Schuyler. this detachment of the royal army, general Harkimer 3- collected about 80c of the whig militia of the parts admenced ^"S- jacent, for the relief of the garrifon. St. Le^er aware of the confequences of being attacked detached Sir John Johnfon, with fome adlories and Indians to lie in ambulli, and intercept the took efiefl- The general vancing militia. The ftratagem but feveral of the Indians and his militia were in his trenches, e, were ncyerthelefs furprifed, by their killed fire. A fcene of confufion
  47. 47. AMERICAN REVOLUTION. fion followed. Some of Harkimer's men run off, but others pofted themfelves behind logs, and continued to fight with The lofs on the fide of the Ameribravery and fuccefs. cans was 160 killed, befides the wounded. Among the former was their gallant leader general Harkjmer. Several of their killed and wounded were principal inhabitants Colonel St. Leger availed of that part of the country. himfelf of the terror excited on this occafion, and endeavoured by ftrong reprefentations of Indian barbarity to intimidate the garrifon into an immediate furrender. He " fent verbal, and written meffages, demanding the fur- render of the fort, and Rating the impoffibility of their obtaining relief, as their friends under general Harkimer were entirely cut off, and as general Burgoyne had forced his way through the country, and was daily receiving the fubmiffion of the inhabitants," he reprefented " the pains he had taken to foften the Indians, and to obtain engagements from them, that in cafe of an immediate furrender every man in the garrifon fliould be fpared," and paron the circumfl;ance, " that the Indi- ticularly enlarged ans were determined, in cafe of their meeting with farther oppofition, to mafficre not only the garrifon, but every man, woman or child in the Colonel Ganfevort, who commanded ** Mohawk country." in the fort, replied, being by the United States entrufred with the of the garrifon, he was determined to defend it to charge the laft extremity, againft all enemies whatever, without any concern for the confequcnces of doing his duty." that It being refolved maugrc, tite threats of Indian barbadefend the fort Lieutenant colonel Willet un- rities to dertook, in conjundlion with lieutenant Stockwell, to give information to their fellow citizens, of the ftate of the Thefe two adventurous ofBcers paffed by night the befiegers works, and at the hazard of falling through into the hands of favages, and fuffering from them the garrifon. feverity of torture, dangers and made their way for fifty miles through order to procure relief for their befieged affociates. In the mean time the Britifh carried on their operations with fuch induftry, that in lefs than three weeks they had advanced within i i;o yards of the fort. difficulties, in The
  48. 48. The 40 7777' ^•"""^""^ HISTORY of the The brave garrifon, in its hour of danger, was not forGeneral Arnold, with a brigade of continental troops, had been previoufly detached by general Schuyler for their relief, and was then near at hand. Mr. Toft Schuyler who had been taken up by the Americans, on gotten. , fufpicion of his being a fpy, was promifed his life and his cftate, on confideration that he fhould go on and alarm Indians with fuch the marching againft them, He reprefentations of the numbers as would occafion their retreat. immediately proceeded to the camp of the Indians, and being able to converfe in their own language, informed them that vaft numbers of holtile Americans were near hand. They were thoroughly frightened and determined to go off. St. Leger ufed every art to retain them, but nothing could change their determination. It is the charadteriftic of thefe people on a reverfe of fortune to at betray irrefolution, and which a total want of that conftancy, necelTary to ftruggle for a length of time with diSiculties. They had found the fort ftronger and better is defended than was expeded. They had lofl: feveral headin their engagement with general Harkimer, and had no plunder. Thefe circumftances, added to the cergotten tainty of the approach of a reinforcement to their adver- men which they believed to be much greater than it made them quite untraclable. Part of them decamped, and the remainder threatened to folinftantly This low, if the Britifii did not immediately retreat. meafure was adopted, and the fiege raifed. From the iliries, really was, xlug. 2 2 diforder, occafioned by the precipitancy of the Indians, ^Yic tents, and much of the artillery and ftores of the be- The difconhands of the garrifon. tented favagcs, exafperated by their ill fortune, are faid, fiegers, fell into the on their retreat, to have robbed their Britill:* affociates, of their baggage and provifions. While the fate of Fort Schuyler was in fufpenfc, it occurred to general Burgoyne, on hearing of its being beficged, that a fudden and rapid movement forward would As the principal be of the utmoft confequence. front between him and force of his adverfaries was in Albany, he hoped by advancing on them, to reduce them
  49. 49. f AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 41 to the neceffity of fighting, or of retreating out of Had they to avoid an attack, his way to New-England. the Mohawk river, they would, in cafe of St. retreated them up Leger's Had have put themfelves between two fires. it was fuppofed their fitu- fuccefs, they retreated to Albany, atioQ would have been worfe, New-York was expected. as from move- a co-operation Befides, in cale of that ment, an opportunity would have been given for a juncTo have retired from tion of Burgoyne and St. Leger. the fcene ofadion by filing off for New-England, feemed With fuch to be the only opening left for their efcape. views general Burgoyne promifed himfelf great advantages, The principal was the difficulty from advancing rapidly towards Albany. objedtion againO: this plaufible project, to his troops. of furnifhing To keep up provifions munication with Fort Geoi-ge, fo as to a com- obtain from thatgar- rifon, regular fupplies at a diftance daily encreafing, was The advantages which were exwholly impradlicable. pected from the propofed meafure, were too dazzling to be eafily relinqui{hed. Though the impoffibility of drawwas known ing provifions from the ftores in their rear, and acknowledged, yet a hope was indulged that they A plan was therefore might be elfewhere obtained. from the plentiful farms of formed to open refources, Vermont. Every day's account, and particularly the information of colonel Skene, induced Burgoyne to believe, that one defcription of the inhabitants in that country were panic ftruck, and that another, and by far the moft numerous, were friends to the Britifli intereft, and only wanted the appearance of a prote£ling power to fhew themfelves. Relying on this intelligence, he detached only 500 men, 100 Indians, and two field pieces, which be fuppofed would be fully fufficient for the expedition. The command nel of Baum, and this force it was given to lieutenant coloit he would was fuppofed that with upon a magazine of fupplies which the colle6led at Bennington, and which was It was alfo intended to try the only guarded by militia. of the inhabitants and to mount the dragoons. temper be enabled to feize Americans had Lieutenant colonel VoL. II. Baum was F infl:ru£ted to keep the regular 1777-
  50. 50. The history of the gular force ported, while the light ti-oops felt then- way ; and to avoid all danger of being furrounded, or of having his retreat ctit off. But he proceeded with lefs cau- tion than his perilous fituation required. Confiding in the numbers and promifed aid of thofe who were dependOn his aped upon as friends, he prefumed too much. proaching the place of his deftination, he found the AHe merican militia ftronger than had been fuppofed. entrenched his party, therefore took poft in the vicinity, and difpatched an exprefs to general Burgoyne, with an — Colonel Breyman was detached Though every exertion was made to account of his fituation. to reinforce him. pulh forward this reinforcement, yet from the impracticable face of the country and defective means of tranfportation, 32 hours el apfed before they had marched 24 miles. General Starke who commanded the American Bennington, engaged with them before the junc-^On tion of the tvv^o roval detachments could be eflfedted. militia at this occafion about JJoo undifciplined onets, or a fingle piece of artillery, militia, without bay- attacked and x'outed 500 regular troops advantagcoufly pofled behind entrenchments-— furniOied with the bed arms, and defended The field pieces were taken with two pieces of artillery. from the party commanded by col. Baum> and the great* ell part of his detachment was either killed or captured. Colonel Breyman arrived on the fame ground and on the Infl:ead of fame day, but not till the acTtion was over. his friends, as he expefted, he found himfelf meeting This was begun by colonel Warner, briflcly attacked. with his continental regiment, which having been (who ient for from Mancheficr, came opportunely at this time) and was well fupported by Stark's militia, which had juft defeated the party inan's troops, commanded by colonel Baum. Brey- though fatigued with their preceding luarch, behaved wiili great refolution, but were at length compelabandon their artillery, and retreat. In thefe two anions the Americans took four brafs field pieces, twelve led to drums, 250 dragoon fwords, 4 ammimition wagThe lofs of the Amerigons, and about 700 prifoners. was about 100 men. Cvins, inclufive of their wounded, brafs Congrefs