Is a state of complete physical, mental, and
social well-being and not merely the absence of
infirmity or disease, in all matters relating to the
reproductive system and to its functions and
Is defined as the constellation of methods,
techniques, and services that contribute to the
reproductive health and well-being by preventing
and solving reproductive health problems.
People are able to have a
satisfying and safe sex life
Have the capability to
Have the freedom to decide if,
when and how often to do so.
To ensure that comprehensive and factual
information and a full range of reproductive health
care services are accessible, affordable,
acceptable and convenient to all users.
To enable and support responsible voluntary
decisions about child-bearing and methods of
To meet changing reproductive health needs over
the life cycle and to do in ways sensitive to the
Communication & services
Education & services for parental care
Prevention & appropriate treatment of infertility
Treatment of reproductive tract infections
STD & other reproductive health conditions
Fertility – means the actual number of births
applied to an individual or to a group while
Fecundity – is the biological capacity of a woman
(or a couple) to have children in the future.
1. Heredity > the ability to reproduce is relatively
influenced by fecundity of one’s ancestor.
Ex. Defects in sex organs affect fecundity and is inherited.
2. Health > if a person is in good, he has the highest
Ex. There are diseases that adversely affect a person’s
3. Age > Reproduction begins at puberty, develops
during adolescence and reaches a high point of
4. Emotional Surroundings > A good environment
helps in the proper development of the fetus.
5. Ovulation cycle > Every 28 days, one or more
ova are released during ovulation – a process in
which the egg cells mature.
6. Lactation > pregnancy is usually impeded as the
mammary glands are active.
7. Pregnancy Wastage > This refers to miscarriage
or spontaneous abortion or stillbirth. Stillbirth
constitutes a longer interruption in pregnancy.
1. Parenthood means
Parents often feel
that their role as
parents is fulfilled
the moment they
have a child.
> There is a belief that
the proof of man’s
virility is to beget
children. The more
he has, the more
manly he believes
3. Perpetuation of the
Sons are desired to
carry on the family
4. Competition with
A man says’ “if my
parents were able to
children, why can’t I
support more?”. This
means that the son
wants to compete with
his parents and even
desires to surpass
5. More hands
It is a common belief,
esp. among farmers,
that many children
mean more hands to
work in the farm.
Hence, the need for
6. Bigger Income
> Many hands that
earn a living means
a bigger income to
> Parents’ beliefs that
having many children
is an assurance that
there will be one or
two who will provide
for them in their old
It is a custom of
some parents to train
their older children
and expect them to
take care of their
younger brothers and
sisters even at an
9. God’s Blessings
considered as gifts
from God. There is a
belief that the large
family is in God’s
grace or is blessed.
value fate. Fatalism
extends even to the
number of children