Russia Withdraws In 1917 Russia went through a revolution. Vladimir Lenin, the new leader wanted to get Russia out of the war. In March 1918 Lenin signed the treaty of Brest – Litovsk which ended the war for Russia, but also took a lot of their land.
The Final Push After the Treaty of Brest – Litovsk the Germans were finally able to focus on the western front. By May 1918 German troops were within 40 miles of Paris and it seemed like they had a chance of victory, however they were considerably weakened. With the help of fresh American troops the Allies were able to hold the Germans back. July 1918 at the second battle of the Marne with 2 million more American troops the Allies were able to push Germany back.
Surrender Germany’s allies quit and German soldiers refused to fight, and on November 9, 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced to step down. A representative of the new Germany met with the Allies in Paris and signed an armistice, an agreement to end the fighting at 11:00 November 11, 1918.
Treaty of Versailles After the war was over the peace still needed to be worked out. Beginning January 18, 1919 a conference took place at the palace of Versailles. The conference lasted for a year, and there were often disagreements and debates. Delegates from 32 countries were present, but ultimately it was the Allies/the big four who decided what would happen to post war Europe.
Big Four – Wilson andClemenceau GeorgesWoodrow Wilson, President ofthe United States. Clemenceau, minister from France.
Big Four – George and OrlandoDavid Lloyd George, minister Vittorio Orlando, minister fromfrom Great Britain. Italy.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points1. Open Diplomacy – no secret treaties.2. Freedom of Navigation – open seas in war and peace.3. Free trade – customs barriers and taxes/duties should be removed.4. Multilateral disarmament – all countries should reduce their armed forces to the lowest levels possible (limited military power).5. Colonies – people in European colonies should have a say in their future.6. Russia – should be allowed to have whatever government they want.7. Belgium – should be restored to how they were before the war.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points8. France – should get Alsace – Lorraine back and any other land taken during the war.9. Italy – their borders should be readjusted according to nationality.10. National self – determination – the nations in Europe should be given their own countries whenever possible.11. Romania, Montenegro & Serbia – should be restored and Serbia should get sea access.12. Turkey – people of Turkey should have a say in their future.13. Poland – should become independent and have sea access.14. League of Nations – a group of nations should come together to meet and solve conflicts peacefully rather than by war.
Final Treaty The final treaty looked very little like Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points. Germany was not happy with the treaty, but they had no choice but to sign it.
Final Treaty - Terms League of Nations Territorial Losses International Peace Germany had to Organization was return land. formed. It would Germany had to include 32 Allied and give up their neutral nations. colonies. Germany and Anschluss – Russia were not Germany was not included. allowed to form an The US did not end alliance with Austria up joining. – Hungary.
Final Treaty - Terms Military Restrictions War Guilt Limited the size of Sole responsibility for Germany’s army. the war is placed on Germany prohibited Germany’s shoulders. from importing or Germany must pay making weapons/war Allies $33 billion in material. reparations over 30 Germany forbidden is years. build or buy submarines or have an airforce.
Other Defeated NationsThe other nations in the Central Powers suffered some consequences too, but not as bad as Germany: Hungary lost land and had a limited army. They were also told they had to pay reparations, but an amount was never set. Bulgaria lost land and had a limited army. They had to pay $90 million in war reparations. Turkey lost land in Greece and the League of Nations took Turkey’s colonies.
End Results New nations were created such as: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yu goslavia, and Poland. The Ottoman Empire was broken up into smaller countries, many came under British and French control. Russia felt alienated from the Allies and lost land.
Legacy of the War The Treaty of Versailles was known as the “peace built on quicksand.” The treaty set the world up for a lot of problems later down the line. Many countries felt bitter with the outcome. US didn’t accomplish its goals. Germany was stuck with the war guilt. Japan and Italy had both entered the war to gain territory and neither had truly been successful. Even though the League of Nations had been formed the US wasn’t a member and they were weak. World War I was the first total war on a global scale that made use of new technology. 8.5 million soldiers died, 21 million were wounded and many civilians died as well. The war had a devastating economic impact on Europe, and it shook European society as never before.