What it means: A country or region governed
internally by a foreign power.
Example: When a stronger country comes into
a weaker country and takes over their
government. All the people know exactly
what is going on, it is not a secret that the
weaker country is being controlled by the
What it means: A country or territory with its
own internal government but under the
control of an outside power.
Example: When the leader of the weaker
country continues to be the leader, but they
are controlled by the stronger country.
(Think of a puppet).
What it means: An area in which an outside
power claims exclusive investment or trading
Example: US had a sphere of influence in
Liberia, what that meant is that Liberia was
only allowed to trade with the US, but Liberia
still had some control over the trade.
What it means: Independent but less developed
nations controlled by private business
interests rather than by other governments.
Example: Instead of a stronger country
controlling the trade of a weaker nation a
business controlled the trade.
Indirect Control Direct Control
Used political leaders
that were already in
The stronger country
would train the local
political leaders to use
the form of
wanted the weaker
country to use.
Viewed Africans as
unable to handle their
own government, and
the stronger country
would step in and rule.
They tried to provide
for people’s needs but
didn’t give them any
What it means: Belief that Africans were like
children and needed to be governed in a
“fatherly” way. This was part of Direct
Control where Europeans brought in their
own government and ruled African countries
with a European method.
What it means: This was a policy/belief that all
Africans should become like the French (or
whatever European nation was controlling).
All schools, courts, and businesses were set
up in the same fashion as French schools,
courts, and businesses. French believed that
African culture was inferior to their own.
Shaka was a Zulu chief
who using very advanced
military tactics was able
to control a large portion
of southern Africa.
After Shaka died the
people who followed him
to rule were unable to
maintain his power and
fell to British rule.
Zulu land in south Africa
came under British
Dutch settlers known as
Boers had settled in
South Africa and took
over African land a long
time ago (1652).
In the 1830’s the British
arrived and began to take
over areas of the
southern cape of Africa.
When the British arrived
the Boers moved further
into Africa and began
fighting the Zulus for
Diamonds and gold were discovered in the
southern part of Africa. Many outsiders came to
south Africa, but the Boers tried to keep them
out and maintain control. They blamed the
British for this and it led to war in 1899.
The Boer War is considered the first modern
“total” war. What this means is the Boers
launched commando raids and used guerilla
tactics against the British.
The British raided Boer farms and imprisoned
women and children in concentration camps.
The British won, and the Boers came until control
of the British.