The semiotic tradition: what actually goes into the message, its parts, how these are organizedstructurallySemiotics of language: the study of language is heavily influenced by semiotics and vice versaThe phenomenological tradition: the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directedtoward something, as it is an experience of or about some object. An experience is directed toward anobject by virtue of its content or meaning (which represents the object) together with appropriateenabling conditions.Stanley Fish’s Reader- Response Theory: focuses on the reader (or "audience") and his or her experienceof a literary work, in contrast to other schools and theories that focus attention primarily on the authoror the content and form of the work. recognizes the reader as an active agent who imparts "real existence" to the work and completes its meaning through interpretation. argues that literature should be viewed as a performing art in which each reader creates his or her own, possibly unique, text-related performance. One can sort reader-response theorists into three groups: those who focus upon the individual readers experience ("individualists"); those who conduct psychological experiments on a defined set of readers ("experimenters"); and those who assume a fairly uniform response by all readers ("uniformists”)The Rhetorical Tradition: explores the inherent connection between rhetoric and the human tradition. concerned with how people throughout history conceive the nature, scope and function of rhetoric: how the theory, practice, and critique of rhetoric has been intertwined with, constrained by and impacts peoples views about government, citizenship, good and evil, and the life worth living. Also looks at the diversity of views within the continuity of the human condition.Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca’s New Rhetoric:founded on the idea that “since argumentation aims atsecuring the adherence of those to whom it is addressed, it is, in its entirety, relative to the audience tobe influenced”. Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca rely in particular for their theory of argumentation onthe twin concepts of universal and particular audiences: while every argument is directed to a specificindividual or group, the orator decides what information and what approaches will achieve the greatestadherence according to an ideal audience.
Toulman’s Practical Argumentation: he sought to develop practical arguments which can be usedeffectively in evaluating the ethics behind moral issues. also known as substantial arguments intended to focus on the justificatory function of argumentation, as opposed to the inferential function of theoretical arguments. Toulman believed that reasoning is less an activity of inference, involving the discovering of new ideas, and more a process of testing and sifting already existing ideas—an act achievable through the process of justification. Toulman believed that for a good argument to succeed, it needs to provide good justification for a claim.He then proposed a layout containing six interrelated components for analyzing arguments: Claim: A conclusion whose merit must be established Warrant: A statement authorizing movement from the ground to the claim Backing:gives additional support to the warrant by answering different questions. Grounds: the basis of real persuasion and is made up of data and hard facts, plus the reasoning behind the claim. Qualifier: indicates the strength of the leap from the data to the warrant and may limit how universally the claim applies. Rebuttal: counter-arguments that can be used.Bitzers Rhetorical Situation :where rhetorical discourse is called into existence by situationThree constituent parts make up any rhetorical situation. The first is the exigence, or a problem existing in the world. An exigence is not rhetorical when it cannot be changed by human interaction, such as a natural disaster or death. An exigence is rhetorical when it is capable of positive modification and when that positive modification calls for the act of persuasion. The second constituent part Bitzer speaks of is audience. Rhetorical discourse promotes change through its influence of an audiences decision and actions. A rhetorical situation requires that the members of an audience can function as mediators of change. The third constituent part is the set of constraints. Constraints are made up of persons, events, objects, and relations that limit decisions and action. Theorists influenced by Marx would additionally discuss ideological constraints, which produce unconscious limitations for subjects in society, including the social constraints of gender, class, and race. The speaker also brings about a new set of constraints through the image of his or her personal character (ethos), the logical proofs (logos), and the use of emotion (pathos).
Burkes Theory of Identification: persuasion only functions when there is a similarity between speakersand hearers3 States of identification 1. The process of naming something 2. The process of associating and disassociating from others 3. The product or result of identifyingFisher’s Narrative Paradigm : Promotes the believe that humans are storytellers before we are rational,curious or symbol using All reason based communication is narrative Narration is rooted in time and space Narratives are interpreted through the lens of paradigms People are essentially rational We make decisions based on arguments Knowledge is of which is observable in the world Humans are naturally storytellers Operates on coherence and fidelityThe Speech Act-Theory:•Based off of Ludwig Wittgenstein “ordinary language philosophy”: he claimed that language used inordinary life constitutes a language game because it is made possible by rules where people follow rulesto accomplish things with language.•Created by J. L Austin and John Searle: this theory is the basic unit of language used to expressmeaning, it is an utterance that expresses an intention. “when on speaks one performs an act”•A statement can be divided into 3 acts: 1. The utterance act (pronunciation of the words),2.Propositional act( saying something you believe is true), 3. Illocutionary act( performing to fulfill anintention,)•Illocutionary constitutive rules: 1. propositional: condition, 2. Preparatory: presumed preconditions 3.Sincerity: mean what is said 4. Essential: the act is indeed taken by the hearer•Illocutionary types of acts: 1. Assertiveness: avocation 2. Directives: getting the listener to dosomething 3. Commissives: commitment to a future act 4. Expressive: psychological state 5. Declaration:creating the proposition•Two important rules to follow are regulative: provide the guidelines and the obligation to followthrough with other acts, constitutive: the creation and knowledge of the rules
Hans-Georg Gadamers Philosophical HermeneuticsPaul Ricoeurs Theory of Distanciation