RESEARCH METHODS                    (2nd semester, 2011-2012                                          MMPBalolongThursday,...
LECTURES                             TYPES OF RESEARCH -                             FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES            ...
ACTIVITIES                             Formulating Titles, Research Questions                             and Objectives  ...
LECTURES                             TYPES OF RESEARCH -                             FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES            ...
The usual definition of RESEARCH...                  “going to the library”                  “google-ing some key         ...
RESEARCH               the process of constant exploration               and discovery               the process of discov...
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH                             systematic, controlled,                             empirical, critical   ...
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH                             a process through which we attempt to                             achieve ...
8 DISTINCT CHARACTERISTICS  OF A RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY                             MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
1. Originates with a question or                       problem                             What are he environmental      ...
2. Requires a clear articulation of                       a goal                             What precisely do you intend ...
3. Follows a specific plan of                       procedure                             carefully planned               ...
4. Usually divides the principal problem     into more manageable subproblems                principal problem: How do we ...
5. Guided by specific research problem,     question or hypothesis                             hypothesizing: attempting t...
6. Accepts certain critical                       assumptions                             it is necessary to assume       ...
8. It follows logical,                       developmental stages                             From questions to answer    ...
ULTIMATE AIM OF RESEARCH                To fill in the gaps along the stream of knowledge                To provide soluti...
EXPERIMENTAL              Purpose: the only method of research which can truly test !     !              ! !       hypothe...
The Process of Research:                                  Logical Steps                The Research problem               ...
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM                             the heart of the research project                             requirement...
IDENTIFYING YOUR PROBLEM                 where to find interesting problems...                         journals, books, ab...
CHARACTERISTIC OF A    RESEARCH PROBLEM             should be of great interest     can be completed in the             to...
A GOOD RESEARCH          PROBLEM SHOULD BE               S-M-A-R-T!             SPECIFIC, MEASURABLE, ACHIEVABLE,         ...
IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH?              EXternal factors                      novelty and avoidance of unnecessary ...
IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH?             personal factors                    specialized working                     ...
STATING YOUR RESEARCH                             THE RESEARCH PROBLEM                             MUST BE STATED IN A CLE...
WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE    RESEARCH PROBLEMS?               BUSING OF SCHOOL CHILDREN               RETIREMENT PLANS OF AD...
FORMULATION OF RESEARCH      OBJECTIVES               RESEARCH OBJECTIVES                        REFLECT THE QUESTIONS WHO...
SAMPLE OBJECTIVES                             TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMIZED                             PROTOCOL TO DETECT      ...
HOW DO YOU FORMULATE      YOUR OBJECTIVES?                      GENERAL                      summarize what is to be achie...
HOW DO YOU FORMULATE      YOUR OBJECTIVES?                      SPECIFIC                             smaller, logically co...
PICKING THE RIGHT WORDS                      Clearly phrased in operational terms                      Use action verbs   ...
WORDS TO AVOID...        • To know            • To internalize        • To understand      • To grasp the                 ...
SAMPLE OBJECTIVES                             GENERAL: To evaluate if home-based care (CHBC) projects in Zimbabwe         ...
ACTIVITY FOR TODAY      1. Formulate Title from Desired Topics  2. Formulate the Research Question/Research               ...
LECTURES                             TYPES OF RESEARCH -                             FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES            ...
SCOPE & LIMITATIONS                        Researcher must be shrewd in narrowing                        the scope of his ...
FACTORS TO CONSIDER                the scope of the problem                time allotted for the conduct of the study     ...
THE LITERATURE                                  REVIEW                             Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your ...
THE LITERATURE                                  REVIEW                             Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your ...
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                        After the research problem has been identified and the objectives     ...
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE               RELATED LITERATURE: Composed of               discussions of facts and principl...
FUNCTIONS OF YOUR RRL             It identifies the start for the research problem by             presenting the gaps, weak...
CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUR RRL                The surveyed materials must be as recent as                possible            ...
HOW TO CONDUCT THE                          REVIEW OF RELATED                              LITERATURE                     ...
WHERE TO SEARCH                personal or school library (magazines,                journals, books, etc)                ...
WHERE ELSE???                             You can actually ask for                             reprints:                  ...
AFTER ALL THESE PHOTOX                  WHAT’S NEXT?                             “ITS TIME TO ORGANIZE YOUR TREASURES!”Thu...
ORGANIZING YOUR RRL                             General Information                             Methods in Other Studies  ...
ALSO....                             write all bibliographic information,                             i.e., author(s), com...
IT’S TIME TO WRITE...                             AVOIDING PLAGIARISM!Thursday, December 8, 2011
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                             Use headings arranged in logical order to                        ...
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE               Give due credit to the real source of your data.               Cite the authors...
A common problem...                                 “turning your                              list of ideas into a       ...
HOW TO AVOID IT                             Make subheads (not too                             many), transitional        ...
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE               Spice your writing with a variety. Keep your paper alive!               Vary th...
READY TO DO YOUR                      RRL?Thursday, December 8, 2011
But before that, let us learn to             critique or evaluate a research                          studyThursday, Decem...
ACTIVITY FOR TODAY: CRITIQUING A        JOURNAL PAPER                   Why did the Researchers do this particular        ...
NEXT MEETING....            TYPES OF RESEARCH -            FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES                             SIGNIFICA...
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Research problem for the girls

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Research problem for the girls

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODS (2nd semester, 2011-2012 MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  2. 2. LECTURES TYPES OF RESEARCH - FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGIES - GANTT CHART MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  3. 3. ACTIVITIES Formulating Titles, Research Questions and Objectives Writing an RRL Constructing Dummy Tables and Graphs Developing the Literature Citations MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  4. 4. LECTURES TYPES OF RESEARCH - FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGIES - GANTT CHART MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  5. 5. The usual definition of RESEARCH... “going to the library” “google-ing some key words” What’s your definition??? MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  6. 6. RESEARCH the process of constant exploration and discovery the process of discovering new information and gain new knowledge MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  7. 7. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH systematic, controlled, empirical, critical investigation of hypothetical prepositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena (Kerlinger, 1973) MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  8. 8. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH a process through which we attempt to achieve SYSTEMATICALLY and with the support of data: the answer to a question the resolution of a problem the greater understanding of a phenomenon MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  9. 9. 8 DISTINCT CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  10. 10. 1. Originates with a question or problem What are he environmental factors that increase shrimp productivity? What active compound in atis leaves extract is cytotoxic to cancer cells? MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  11. 11. 2. Requires a clear articulation of a goal What precisely do you intend to do? Example: to determine the difference in body weight loss after administration of various plant extracts MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  12. 12. 3. Follows a specific plan of procedure carefully planned methods in a purposeful way: to yield data relevant to their particular research problem MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  13. 13. 4. Usually divides the principal problem into more manageable subproblems principal problem: How do we get from UP Manila to Trinoma? subproblems: What is the most direct route? How far do I travel by train? How much will I spend to reach my destination? MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  14. 14. 5. Guided by specific research problem, question or hypothesis hypothesizing: attempting to account for the cause (*guesses) MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  15. 15. 6. Accepts certain critical assumptions it is necessary to assume 7. Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem that initiated the research MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  16. 16. 8. It follows logical, developmental stages From questions to answer “research begets research” MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  17. 17. ULTIMATE AIM OF RESEARCH To fill in the gaps along the stream of knowledge To provide solution to contradictory results from previous studies To satisfy one’s curiosity and quest for knowledge To find truths for the satisfaction of answering questions and using this new information to help others MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  18. 18. EXPERIMENTAL Purpose: the only method of research which can truly test ! ! ! ! hypothesis concerning cause-effect relationship. the effect of a single variable applied to one situation can be assessed and the difference determined Independent Variable : also referred to as the experimental variable, the cause, or the treatment, is that activity or characteristic believed to make a difference. Dependent Variable : also known as the criterion variable, effect, or posttest is the outcome of the study, the change or difference in groups which occurs as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable. Example: 1.! Effect of varying concentrations of Pb on the brain of golden apple snail MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  19. 19. The Process of Research: Logical Steps The Research problem ProblEm Identification (Looking for a Topic) Characteristics of a Good Research Problem Researchability of the Problem Formulation of Research Objectives Definition of Research Objectives Characteristics of Research ObjectivesThursday, December 8, 2011
  20. 20. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM the heart of the research project requirement: to state the problem with unwavering clarity, precision what if i simply cannot find a good problem? MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  21. 21. IDENTIFYING YOUR PROBLEM where to find interesting problems... journals, books, abstracts (library/trusted links) recommendation sections of theses and dissertations/journal articles ideas from your mentor or professor ideas from seminars, research colloquia and conferences personal/family experiences rare/interesting occurrences which needs to be explained top ten causes of mortality/morbidity in your locality MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  22. 22. CHARACTERISTIC OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM should be of great interest can be completed in the to you allotted time desired useful for the concerned must use appropriate and people in a particular field up-to-date technology possess novelty does not carry ethical or moral impediments lays foundation for further research in the field MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  23. 23. A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM SHOULD BE S-M-A-R-T! SPECIFIC, MEASURABLE, ACHIEVABLE, REALISTIC, TIME-BOUND MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  24. 24. IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH? EXternal factors novelty and avoidance of unnecessary repetition practical value of the problem availability of data on the problem MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  25. 25. IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH? personal factors specialized working conditions training and personal qualifications hazards to be encountered time requirements research funds (cost) availability of subjects and equipments MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  26. 26. STATING YOUR RESEARCH THE RESEARCH PROBLEM MUST BE STATED IN A CLEAR AND COMPLETE GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE IN AS FEW WORDS AS POSSIBLE! MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  27. 27. WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE RESEARCH PROBLEMS? BUSING OF SCHOOL CHILDREN RETIREMENT PLANS OF ADULTS EFFECT OF PHARMACEUTICALS ON EMBRYO E. COLI AND WATER QUALITY MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  28. 28. FORMULATION OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES RESEARCH OBJECTIVES REFLECT THE QUESTIONS WHOSE ANSWERS THE INVESTIGATOR WANTS TO STUDY YIELD TO CAN BE EXPRESSED EITHER IN THE FORM OF A STATEMENT OR A QUESTION SERVES AS THE STEERING WHEEL IN THE CONDUCT OF A RESEARCH PROJECT SERVES A S AGUIDE IN SPECIFYING VARIABLES TILL INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  29. 29. SAMPLE OBJECTIVES TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMIZED PROTOCOL TO DETECT FLAVIVIRUSES IN SERUM SAMPLES USING PCR TO DETERMINE THE EFFICACY OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  30. 30. HOW DO YOU FORMULATE YOUR OBJECTIVES? GENERAL summarize what is to be achieved by the study. should be closely related to the research question. EXAMPLE: Problem: low utilization of child protection units (CPUs) General Objective: to identify the reasons for this low utilization MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  31. 31. HOW DO YOU FORMULATE YOUR OBJECTIVES? SPECIFIC smaller, logically connected parts of a general objective should systematically address the various aspects (dimensions) of the general objective should specify what you will do in your study, where and for what purpose.! MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  32. 32. PICKING THE RIGHT WORDS Clearly phrased in operational terms Use action verbs Examples: explain, apply, predict, identify, employ, evaluate, describe, illustrate, defend, integrate, use, assess, contrast, interpret, distinguish, sort, categorize, diagram, solve, formulate, report, relate, organize, restate, recall, prepare, review, list, arrange, classify, name, construct, translate, recognize, create, determine MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  33. 33. WORDS TO AVOID... • To know • To internalize • To understand • To grasp the significance • To really of! understand • To have an • To fully awareness appreciate of! ! MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  34. 34. SAMPLE OBJECTIVES GENERAL: To evaluate if home-based care (CHBC) projects in Zimbabwe provide adequate, affordable and sustainable care of good quality to people with HIV/AIDS, and to identify ways in which these services can be improved SPECIFIC To identify the full range of economic, psychosocial, health/nursing care and other needs of patients and their families affected by AIDS. To determine the extent to which formal and informal support systems address these needs from the viewpoint of service providers as well as patients. To determine the economic costs of CHBC to the patient and family as well as to the formal CHBC programmes themselves. To relate the calculated costs to the quality of care provided to the patient by the family and to the family/patient by the CHBC programme. MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  35. 35. ACTIVITY FOR TODAY 1. Formulate Title from Desired Topics 2. Formulate the Research Question/Research problem 3. Formulate Objectives MMPBalolongThursday, December 8, 2011
  36. 36. LECTURES TYPES OF RESEARCH - FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGIES - GANTT CHARTThursday, December 8, 2011
  37. 37. SCOPE & LIMITATIONS Researcher must be shrewd in narrowing the scope of his study without becoming concerned with a trivial problem Assumptions, restrictions and limitation must be explicit with respect to the coverage of the study Helps focus attention on valid objectives, & helps minimize the dangers of over generalizationThursday, December 8, 2011
  38. 38. FACTORS TO CONSIDER the scope of the problem time allotted for the conduct of the study cost and funding cooperation/coordination needed from other institutions or researchers availability of research subjects availability of equipment needed ethical considerationsThursday, December 8, 2011
  39. 39. THE LITERATURE REVIEW Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your OwnThursday, December 8, 2011
  40. 40. THE LITERATURE REVIEW Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your OwnThursday, December 8, 2011
  41. 41. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE After the research problem has been identified and the objectives formulated, a review of related literature needs to be done. Two Important Uses: • To get acquainted with the existing studies related to the research to be conducted relative to: - who have done the work on the problem area - what has been found - research design utilized - statistical analysis applied - problem met and how were they resolved • To establish a rationale or a theoretical or conceptual framework based on previous research studies done.Thursday, December 8, 2011
  42. 42. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE RELATED LITERATURE: Composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related RELATED STUDIES: studies, inquiries or investigations conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity usually unpublished materials manuscripts; theses; dissertationsThursday, December 8, 2011
  43. 43. FUNCTIONS OF YOUR RRL It identifies the start for the research problem by presenting the gaps, weak points, and inconsistencies in the previous researches. This provides the study with a conceptual framework justifying the need for investigations. It puts together all the constructs or concepts that are related with the researcher’s topic. The theory then leads you into the specific questions to ask in your own investigation It presents the relationships among variables that have been investigated. This process enables you to view your topic on hand against the findings earlier bared.Thursday, December 8, 2011
  44. 44. CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUR RRL The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid and reliable Reviewed materials must not be too few or too manyThursday, December 8, 2011
  45. 45. HOW TO CONDUCT THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE “WHERE DO I GO FROM HERE?”Thursday, December 8, 2011
  46. 46. WHERE TO SEARCH personal or school library (magazines, journals, books, etc) attend seminars, scientific meetings (under your topic of course)...take down notes do a computer-aided search through databases example: www.scirus.com; pubmed; SCIENCE DIRECT, etcThursday, December 8, 2011
  47. 47. WHERE ELSE??? You can actually ask for reprints: via postcards via request letters via emailsThursday, December 8, 2011
  48. 48. AFTER ALL THESE PHOTOX WHAT’S NEXT? “ITS TIME TO ORGANIZE YOUR TREASURES!”Thursday, December 8, 2011
  49. 49. ORGANIZING YOUR RRL General Information Methods in Other Studies Support for Objectives Results to Compare with My Results Pros and Cons of Controversy Others...it may be of use (malay mo!)Thursday, December 8, 2011
  50. 50. ALSO.... write all bibliographic information, i.e., author(s), complete title, publisher, date and place of publication, and so on write what others have said on the subject plus your own impressions and commentsThursday, December 8, 2011
  51. 51. IT’S TIME TO WRITE... AVOIDING PLAGIARISM!Thursday, December 8, 2011
  52. 52. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Use headings arranged in logical order to indicate main points Avoid too long introduction to your main topic. Include information that are directly related and relevant to your topic. A maximum of half-page (double-space) must constitute one paragraph Do not copy in toto the information from your source. No more than 10% of the entire paper is allowed for direct quotationThursday, December 8, 2011
  53. 53. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Give due credit to the real source of your data. Cite the authors at the end of the sentence. Paraphrase using your own words and style the data gathered. Summarize important points from your sources and relate them to your topic. Reinforce your data with selected figures or statistics from your course.Thursday, December 8, 2011
  54. 54. A common problem... “turning your list of ideas into a BORING review”Thursday, December 8, 2011
  55. 55. HOW TO AVOID IT Make subheads (not too many), transitional phrases and unifying ideas to make information flow smoothlyThursday, December 8, 2011
  56. 56. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Spice your writing with a variety. Keep your paper alive! Vary the way sentence and paragraph begins: Author A found out Author B found out Replace found out with: demonstrates; presented evidence for; supported; observed; reported; examined; concluded Early in the 1980’s, author A According to Author A,Thursday, December 8, 2011
  57. 57. READY TO DO YOUR RRL?Thursday, December 8, 2011
  58. 58. But before that, let us learn to critique or evaluate a research studyThursday, December 8, 2011
  59. 59. ACTIVITY FOR TODAY: CRITIQUING A JOURNAL PAPER Why did the Researchers do this particular study? Who/What was/were studied? How was the study done? What did the researchers find? What were the limitations of the study? What are the implications of the study?Thursday, December 8, 2011
  60. 60. NEXT MEETING.... TYPES OF RESEARCH - FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES SIGNIFICANCE - REVIEW OF LITERATURE METHODOLOGIES - GANTT CHARTThursday, December 8, 2011

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