VIRUSES OF                  PUBLIC HEALTH                   IMPORTANCE                                          March 2012...
EMERGING INFECTIONSSaturday, March 3, 2012
EMERGING                      INFECTIONSSaturday, March 3, 2012
FACTORS THAT LED                        TO EMERGENCE                 • Introduction of the agent into a new host          ...
FACTORS THAT LED                     TO EMERGENCE                 • Microbial adaptation                  • Mutation      ...
FACTORS THAT LED                     TO EMERGENCE            • Human Susceptibility             • immune status           ...
FACTORS THAT LED                     TO EMERGENCE            •       Changing ecosystems / land use                  •    ...
FACTORS THAT LED                     TO EMERGENCE            • Economic development             • Dengue/DHF              ...
FACTORS THAT LED                     TO EMERGENCE            • Technology and industry             • Hepatitis B and C    ...
FACTORS THAT LED                     TO EMERGENCE            • International travel and commerce             • Dengue/DHF ...
INFLUENZASaturday, March 3, 2012
THE BASICS...              •      Influenza is an acute, viral respiratory infection              •      When to suspect?  ...
3 TYPESSaturday, March 3, 2012
PANDEMICS             •       PANDEMIC: world wide spread of infection                     occurring in many countries sim...
Saturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
THE ABILITY OF INFLUENZA                        TO CAUSE PANDEMICS                               HA - hemagglutinin       ...
THE ABILITY OF INFLUENZA TO                   CAUSE PANDEMICS              •       Haemagglutinin (H)                    •...
ANTIGENIC DRIFT &                   ANTIGENIC SHIFTSaturday, March 3, 2012
ANTIGENIC DRIFT &                   ANTIGENIC SHIFTSaturday, March 3, 2012
LIFE CYCLE & TRANSMISSION                              • The virus is spread by                                inhalation ...
CONTROL &           PREVENTION    • EDUCATION    • ISOLATION    • VACCINATION    • PROPER            HYGIENESaturday, Marc...
VACCINE (H) & CHEMOTHERAPY (N)Saturday, March 3, 2012
VACCINE (H) &                   CHEMOTHERAPY (N)Saturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
DENGUESaturday, March 3, 2012
THE VECTOR:                    Aedes aegypti/albopictusSaturday, March 3, 2012
INSIDE THE                 MOSQUITO & INSIDE                      YOU...Saturday, March 3, 2012
TRANSMISSIONSaturday, March 3, 2012
PATHOGENESIS           1.The virus is inoculated into           humans with the mosquito saliva.           2.The virus loc...
PATHOGENESIS         5.The mosquito ingests blood         containing the virus.         6.The vir us replicates in the    ...
WHY                          DENGUE                            HAS                          EMERGEDSaturday, March 3, 2012
PREVENTION & CONTROLSaturday, March 3, 2012
HIVSaturday, March 3, 2012
THE VIRUSSaturday, March 3, 2012
LIFE                          CYCLESaturday, March 3, 2012
DRUGS FOR HIV ARE                  BASED ON ITS LIFE                       CYCLESaturday, March 3, 2012
HOW YOU CAN                            GET IT..Saturday, March 3, 2012
DISEASE COURSESaturday, March 3, 2012
HEPATITISSaturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
HEPATITIS B                          HEPATITIS CSaturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
SARSSaturday, March 3, 2012
THE OUTBREAK            • In November 2002, highly contagious and severe                    atypical pneumonia were observ...
THE HOT ZONESSaturday, March 3, 2012
SEVERE ACUTE                     RESPIRATORY SYNDROME                             (SARS)             •       Cause : SARS ...
Saturday, March 3, 2012
Saturday, March 3, 2012
NATURAL                          RESERVOIRSSaturday, March 3, 2012
TRANSMISSION                     • Evidence of person to person                          transmission                     ...
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Ph viruses eac for finals

  1. 1. VIRUSES OF PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE March 2012 PUBLIC HEALTH “protecting and improving health through education and promotion of healthy lifestyles and research for disease and injury prevention”Saturday, March 3, 2012
  2. 2. EMERGING INFECTIONSSaturday, March 3, 2012
  3. 3. EMERGING INFECTIONSSaturday, March 3, 2012
  4. 4. FACTORS THAT LED TO EMERGENCE • Introduction of the agent into a new host population, originating from: • environment • another host species • variant of an existing human infection • Establishment and further dissemination within the new host populationSaturday, March 3, 2012
  5. 5. FACTORS THAT LED TO EMERGENCE • Microbial adaptation • Mutation • Natural selection • antibiotic-resistant bacteria • Evolutionary progression • Virulence factorsSaturday, March 3, 2012
  6. 6. FACTORS THAT LED TO EMERGENCE • Human Susceptibility • immune status • nutrition • age • occupation, etc. • Human behavior and demographics • Affect disease disseminationSaturday, March 3, 2012
  7. 7. FACTORS THAT LED TO EMERGENCE • Changing ecosystems / land use • Argentine, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever • changes in agriculture (grassland to maize) favoring rodent host • Hantaviruses • Ecological or environmental changes increasing contact with rodent hosts • Rift Valley fever • agriculture, irrigationSaturday, March 3, 2012
  8. 8. FACTORS THAT LED TO EMERGENCE • Economic development • Dengue/DHF • urbanization favoring mosquito vector • Lassa fever • urbanization favoring rodent hosts, increasing exposure • Rift Valley fever • dam buildingSaturday, March 3, 2012
  9. 9. FACTORS THAT LED TO EMERGENCE • Technology and industry • Hepatitis B and C • transfusions, organ transplants • Influenza (pandemic) • possibly pig-duck agriculture facilitating reassortmentSaturday, March 3, 2012
  10. 10. FACTORS THAT LED TO EMERGENCE • International travel and commerce • Dengue/DHF • Ebola, Marburg • In Europe and US, importation of monkeys • HIV • Influenza (pandemic) • SARSSaturday, March 3, 2012
  11. 11. INFLUENZASaturday, March 3, 2012
  12. 12. THE BASICS... • Influenza is an acute, viral respiratory infection • When to suspect? • Fever, chills, headache, aches and pains throughout the body, sore throat which may lead to bronchitis or pneumonia • Vomiting and diarrhea may also occur • Many deaths have been attributed to influenzaSaturday, March 3, 2012
  13. 13. 3 TYPESSaturday, March 3, 2012
  14. 14. PANDEMICS • PANDEMIC: world wide spread of infection occurring in many countries simultaneously • INFLUENZA PANDEMICS: occur approximately every thirty years • REASON FOR OCCURRENCE: new strain of the virus emerges for which people have no immunity and there are no vaccines availableSaturday, March 3, 2012
  15. 15. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  16. 16. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  17. 17. THE ABILITY OF INFLUENZA TO CAUSE PANDEMICS HA - hemagglutinin NA - neuraminidase helical nucleocapsid (RNA plus NP protein) lipid bilayer membrane polymerase complex M1 proteinSaturday, March 3, 2012
  18. 18. THE ABILITY OF INFLUENZA TO CAUSE PANDEMICS • Haemagglutinin (H) • attaches the virus to cells and allows the viral envelope to fuse with the cell membrane and enter cells • Neuraminidase (N) • allow the release of viruses to infect other cellsSaturday, March 3, 2012
  19. 19. ANTIGENIC DRIFT & ANTIGENIC SHIFTSaturday, March 3, 2012
  20. 20. ANTIGENIC DRIFT & ANTIGENIC SHIFTSaturday, March 3, 2012
  21. 21. LIFE CYCLE & TRANSMISSION • The virus is spread by inhalation or by direct contact • Reservoirs of infection: primarily humans, but birds and pigs can act as reservoirs • Multiple host status = mixing of flu typesSaturday, March 3, 2012
  22. 22. CONTROL & PREVENTION • EDUCATION • ISOLATION • VACCINATION • PROPER HYGIENESaturday, March 3, 2012
  23. 23. VACCINE (H) & CHEMOTHERAPY (N)Saturday, March 3, 2012
  24. 24. VACCINE (H) & CHEMOTHERAPY (N)Saturday, March 3, 2012
  25. 25. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  26. 26. DENGUESaturday, March 3, 2012
  27. 27. THE VECTOR: Aedes aegypti/albopictusSaturday, March 3, 2012
  28. 28. INSIDE THE MOSQUITO & INSIDE YOU...Saturday, March 3, 2012
  29. 29. TRANSMISSIONSaturday, March 3, 2012
  30. 30. PATHOGENESIS 1.The virus is inoculated into humans with the mosquito saliva. 2.The virus localizes and replicates in various target organs, for example, local lymph nodes and the liver. 3.The virus is then released from these tissues and spreads through the blood to infect white blood cells and other lymphatic tissues. 4.The virus is then released from these tissues and circulates in the blood.Saturday, March 3, 2012
  31. 31. PATHOGENESIS 5.The mosquito ingests blood containing the virus. 6.The vir us replicates in the mosquito midgut, the ovaries, nerve tissue and fat body. It then escapes into the body cavity, and later infects the salivary glands. 7.The vir us replicates in the salivar y glands and when the mosquito bites another human, the cycle continues.Saturday, March 3, 2012
  32. 32. WHY DENGUE HAS EMERGEDSaturday, March 3, 2012
  33. 33. PREVENTION & CONTROLSaturday, March 3, 2012
  34. 34. HIVSaturday, March 3, 2012
  35. 35. THE VIRUSSaturday, March 3, 2012
  36. 36. LIFE CYCLESaturday, March 3, 2012
  37. 37. DRUGS FOR HIV ARE BASED ON ITS LIFE CYCLESaturday, March 3, 2012
  38. 38. HOW YOU CAN GET IT..Saturday, March 3, 2012
  39. 39. DISEASE COURSESaturday, March 3, 2012
  40. 40. HEPATITISSaturday, March 3, 2012
  41. 41. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  42. 42. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  43. 43. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  44. 44. HEPATITIS B HEPATITIS CSaturday, March 3, 2012
  45. 45. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  46. 46. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  47. 47. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  48. 48. SARSSaturday, March 3, 2012
  49. 49. THE OUTBREAK • In November 2002, highly contagious and severe atypical pneumonia were observed in the Guangdong Province of southern China • The virus was spread to Hong Kong in February 2003 by a doctor who died 10 days after admission into local hospital = a mysterious death • Similar outbreaks occurred at different local communities subsequentlySaturday, March 3, 2012
  50. 50. THE HOT ZONESSaturday, March 3, 2012
  51. 51. SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS) • Cause : SARS CoV • Highly infectious • Mainly affects adults • Superspreading events important in transmission process • No reports of transmission occurring before onset of symptomsSaturday, March 3, 2012
  52. 52. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  53. 53. Saturday, March 3, 2012
  54. 54. NATURAL RESERVOIRSSaturday, March 3, 2012
  55. 55. TRANSMISSION • Evidence of person to person transmission • Close contact with body fluids (especially respiratory droplets ) • Contaminated hands, clothes, equipment; environment may also be importantSaturday, March 3, 2012

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