Evaluating Others’ and Developing Your Own
• RELATED LITERATURE: Composed of
discussions of facts and principles to which the
present study is related
• RELATED STUDIES: studies, inquiries or
investigations conducted to which the present
proposed study is related or has some bearing
• usually unpublished materials
• manuscripts; theses; dissertations
We usually survey the literature to arrive at theories.
• set of interrelated concepts, deﬁnitions
and propositions that presents a
systematic view of phenomena by
specifying relations among variables
• purpose: explaining and predicting the
• It identifies the start for the research problem by
presenting the gaps, weak points, and inconsistencies in
the previous researches. This provides the study with a
conceptual framework justifying the need for investigations.
• It puts together all the constructs or concepts that are
related with the researcher’s topic. The theory then leads
you into the specific questions to ask in your own
• It presents the relationships among variables that have been
investigated. This process enables you to view your topic
on hand against the findings earlier bared.
FUNCTIONS OF RELATED
“WHAT IS IT FOR ME ME ANYWAY?”
gives the researcher a feeling of
confidence since by means of the review
of related literature he will have on hand all
constructs related to the study.
• It provides information about the research
methods used, the population and sampling
considered, the instruments used in
gathering data, and the statistical technique
and computation employed in previous
• It provides findings and conclusions of past
investigations which may relate to your
own findings and conclusions.
• The surveyed materials must be as recent as
• Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased
• Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study
• Surveyed materials must have been based upon
genuinely original and true facts or data to make them
valid and reliable
• Reviewed materials must not be too few or too many
HOW TO CONDUCT THE
REVIEW OF RELATED
“WHERE DO I GO FROM HERE?”
• personal or school library (magazines,
journals, books, etc)
• attend seminars, scientiﬁc meetings (under
your topic of course)...take down notes
• do a computer-aided search through
• example: www.scirus.com; pubmed;
HELP, THEY ARE
ALL FOR SALE!
• You can actually ask for reprints:
• via postcards
• via request letters
• via emails
AFTER ALL THESE
“ITS TIME TO ORGANIZE YOUR TREASURES!”
• General Information
• Methods in Other Studies
• Support for Objectives
• Results to Compare with My Results
• Pros and Cons of Controversy
• Others...it may be of use (malay mo!)
• write all bibliographic information, i.e.,
author(s), complete title, publisher, date
and place of publication, and so on
• write what others have said on the
subject plus your own impressions and
• Start paraphrasing
GUIDE QUESTIONS WHEN YOU
• Do the accumulated literature indicate gaps and
inconsistencies which you hope to fill?
• Are the variables adequately described?
• What data gathering instruments have been used? Are
they reliable and valid tools?
• Are the target and sampling populations presented?
• Were the hypotheses tested and correctly interpreted?
• Are the results logical? Are the conclusions and
• Use headings arranged in logical order to indicate main
• Avoid too long introduction to your main topic.
• Include information that are directly related and relevant to
• A maximum of half-page (double-space) must constitute one
• Do not copy in toto the information from your source. No
more than 10% of the entire paper is allowed for direct
• Give due credit to the real source of your
data. Cite the authors at the end of the
• Paraphrase using your own words and style
the data gathered.
• Summarize important points from your
sources and relate them to your topic.
• Reinforce your data with selected figures or
statistics from your course.
list of ideas into a
HOW TO AVOID
• Make subheads (not too many),
transitional phrases and unifying
ideas to make information flow
HOW TO AVOID
• Spice your writing with a variety. Keep your paper alive!
• Vary the way sentence and paragraph begins:
• Author A found out
• Author B found out
• Replace found out with:
• demonstrates; presented evidence for; supported;
observed; reported; examined; concluded
• Early in the 1980’s, author A
• According to Author A,
But before that, let us
learn to critique or
evaluate a research study
• Why did the Researchers do this particular
• Who/What was/were studied?
• How was the study done?
• What did the researchers ﬁnd?
• What were the limitations of the study?
• What are the implications of the study?
• For December 3, 2009
• Materials: photocopy of guide questions and
uploaded (FB) journal article
• Task: To be guided by the questions and
critique the research study
• One page, single space, Arial, 12
• Submit on December 7, 2009