Bio 151 lec 14 15 h & iid

957 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
957
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
72
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Bio 151 lec 14 15 h & iid

  1. 1. Biology 151 Lectures 14-15 HYPERSENSITIVITIES & IMMUNITY TO INFECTIOUS DISEASES PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  2. 2. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW... 4 TYPES OF HYPERSENSITIVITIES VIRAL INFECTIONS BACTERIAL INFECTIONS PROTOZOANS AND HELMINTHS (PARASITIC) EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING INFECTIONS PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  3. 3. HYPERSENSITIVITIES RECALL! Inflammatory response - local, eliminates antigen without extensively damaging the host’s tissue Hypersensitivity - immune & inflammatory responses that are harmful to the host (von Pirquet, 1906) PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  4. 4. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  5. 5. IMMEDIATE!!! PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  6. 6. TYPE I HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  7. 7. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  8. 8. Systemic (Anaphylaxis shock) Symptoms include: labored breathing, drop in blood pressure, smooth muscle contraction, bronchiole constriction (suffocation) Localized Examples: Hay fever (allergic rhinitis), asthma (allergic or intrinsic), food allergies, atopic dermatitis (eczema) PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  9. 9. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  10. 10. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  11. 11. CYTOTOXIC!!! PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  12. 12. EXAMPLES Transfusion Reactions Occurs when an antibiotic forms a complex with red Occurs with ABO blood blood cell membrane protein antigen groups (similar to hapten carrier Complement mediated lysis complex) Drug Induced Hemolytic Induces formation of Anemia antibodies Complement Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  13. 13. Transfusion Reactions PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  14. 14. Transfusion Reactions PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  15. 15. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  16. 16. IMMUNE-COMPLEX MEDIATED!!! PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  17. 17. TYPE III HYPERSENSITIVITY Occurs when antigen enters bloodstream, circulating immune complexes form Symptoms include: Fever ; Weakness; Rashes; ETC. Complement initiates mast cell degranulation Neutrophils are chemotactically attracted to the site Neutrophils release lytic enzyme after failed attempts to endocytose the immune complex PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  18. 18. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  19. 19. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  20. 20. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is inflammation of the lungs due to breathing in a foreign substance, usually certain types of dust, fungus, or molds PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  21. 21. DELAYED!!! PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  22. 22. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  23. 23. u r u s h i o l PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  24. 24. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  25. 25. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  26. 26. PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  27. 27. UPDATE ON SCHEDULE PLAN A PLAN B March 7: Immunity Lecture Hand-outs and Emerging thru FB Diseases Take-Home March 14: Vaccines Examination! and Special Topics 24 hours to complete March 21: Plenary Reports Plenary Reports Submitted in PPT March 28: format Examination 2 Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  28. 28. IMMUNITY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  29. 29. OUR FOCUS... Overview: Innate and Adaptive Immunity as Response to Infectious Diseases Viral, Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic/ Helminths/Protozoa Emerging & Re-emerging InfectionsThursday, March 3, 2011
  30. 30. OUR RESPONSE INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE :TO INFECTIOUS forms the initial defense againstAGENTS pathogens PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  31. 31. OUR RESPONSETO INFECTIOUSAGENTS Humoral and Cell-Mediated Response: for the specific infections may be caused by the host response to the pathogen and its products rather than the pathogen itself response to infectious agents PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  32. 32. OUR RESPONSE TOINFECTIOUS AGENTS NOTE: The survival and pathogenicity of pathogens in a host are critically influenced by their ability to evade or resist protective immunity Tissue injury and disease consequent to infections may be caused by the host response to the pathogen and its products rather than the pathogen itself PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  33. 33. IMMUNITY AND VIRAL INFECTIONS PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  34. 34. VIRUSES... •Obligatory intercellular pathogens that replicate within cells •Use the nucleic acid and protein synthetic machineries of the host cell •Infect a variety of cell populations by utilizing normal cell surface molecules as receptors to enter cellThursday, March 3, 2011
  35. 35. The Outcome of the Infection Depends on HowEffectively the Host’s Defensive Mechanisms Resist theOffensive Tactics of the Virus....Thursday, March 3, 2011
  36. 36. VIRUS NEUTRALIZATION :ANTIBODIES Antibodies: effective in protecting against localized infection (site of viral entry) SURFACE RECEPTOR MOLECULES: enable them to initiate infection = binding to specific host-cell membrane molecules EXAMPLES: Influenza: binds to sialic acid residues in cell membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids Rhinovirus: binds to intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) Epstein-Barr virus: binds to type 2 complement receptors on B cells NOTE: If antibody to the viral receptor is produced, it can block infection altogether by preventing the binding of viral particles to host cells PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  37. 37. Oseltamivir was developed through modifications to the sialic acid analogue A: Rhinovirus binds to ICAM-1 on cell surface B: ICAM-1 binding triggers a conformational change of virus, and leads to a release of RNA, which is transported into the inside of cells C: Use the first domain of ICAM-1 to neutralize virus = inhibit rhinovirus infectionThursday, March 3, 2011
  38. 38. VIRUS NEUTRALIZATION :ANTIBODIES Secretory IgA in mucous secretions plays an important role in host defense against viruses by blocking viral attachment to mucosal epithelial cells EXAMPLE: attenuated oral polio vaccine induces production of secretory IgA effectively blocks attachment of poliovirus along the gastrointestinal tract PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  39. 39. CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: VIRAL CONTROL & CLEARANCE • ANTIBODIES: contain the spread of a virus in the acute phases of infection • BUT, cannot eliminate the CASE: HIV virus once infection has Neutralizing antibodies are efficient in occurred—particularly if the blocking virus particles but poorly virus is capable of entering a effective against cell-associated virus, latent state in which its DNA is such as virus-infected cells integrated into host CTLs are effective against virus- chromosomal DNA infected cells but not against free virus • Once an infection is particles established, cell-mediated Neither antibodies nor CTLs are immune mechanisms are most effective against latently infected cells important in host defense PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  40. 40. CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: VIRAL CONTROL & CLEARANCE In most viral infections, specific CTL activity arises within 3–4 days after infection, peaks by 7–10 days, and then de- clines Within 7–10 days of primary infection, most virions have been eliminated, paralleling the development of CTLs CTLs specific for the virus eliminate virus-infected self- cells and thus eliminate potential sources of new INFLUENZA virus PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  41. 41. EVASION: VIRUSES (Antonio Alcami and Ulrich H. Koszinowski, 2000. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY. Vol.21 No.9 447) PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  42. 42. EVASION: VIRUSES (Antonio Alcami and Ulrich H. Koszinowski, 2000. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY. Vol.21 No.9 447) PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  43. 43. EVASION: VIRUSES (Antonio Alcami and Ulrich H. Koszinowski, 2000. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY. Vol.21 No.9 447) PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  44. 44. EVASION: VIRUSES (Antonio Alcami and Ulrich H. Koszinowski, 2000. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY. Vol.21 No.9 447) To prolong cell viability and facilitate their own replication, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to inhibit the host apoptotic response Cellular proteases such as caspases and serine proteases are instrumental in promoting apoptosis Thus, these enzymes are logical targets for virus- mediated modulation to suppress cell death PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  45. 45. EVASION: VIRUSES (Antonio Alcami and Ulrich H. Koszinowski, 2000. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY. Vol.21 No.9 447) PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  46. 46. EVASION: VIRUSES (Antonio Alcami and Ulrich H. Koszinowski, 2000. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY. Vol.21 No.9 447) PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  47. 47. EVASION OF NATURAL (a) NK cells can be inhibited by a viral MHC class I homolog KILLER CELLS (b) Viruses can inhibit expression of HLA-A and HLA-B, resulting in a relative increase in HLA-C and HLA-E on the surface of the target cell; these inhibit NK cells (c) Virus-encoded proteins can function as cytokine binding proteins that block the action of NK cell activating cytokines (d) NK cell activities can also be avoided by decreased expression of NK cell−activating ligands in virus- infected target cells, which prevent signal transduction via NK cell −activating receptors. (e) Viruses can also directly inhibit NK cells by infecting them or using envelope proteins to ligate NK cell inhibitory receptors PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  48. 48. NEXT MEETING: SPECIAL IMMUNOLOGY CASES INFLUENZA & HIV etc...... PARUNGAO-BALOLONG 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011
  49. 49. PLS. CHOOSE YOUR PREFERENCE PLAN A PLAN B March 7: Immunity Lecture Hand-outs and Emerging thru FB Diseases Take-Home March 14: Vaccines Examination! and Special Topics 24 hours to complete March 21: Plenary Reports Plenary Reports Submitted in PPT March 28: format Examination 2 Parungao-Balolong 2011Thursday, March 3, 2011

×