0135140560 pp1a


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BSA105: Business English
Section 1: Grammar

Yavapai College
Lindsay Henning
Associate Professor

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0135140560 pp1a

  1. 1. Pearson Business Reference and Writer’s Handbook Section One Grammar
  2. 2. This section provides <ul><li>Fundamentals of effective writing through mastery of basic sentence structure and the foundations of correct grammar. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Recognize basic sentence structure </li></ul><ul><li>Write complete sentences by properly using the parts of speech to logically form a complete thought </li></ul><ul><li>Place phrases and clauses correctly to form complete sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Locate verbs, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs within sentences </li></ul>
  4. 4. Grammar helps you … <ul><li>Write sentences that clearly convey your message and reflect an educated command of English </li></ul><ul><li>Use proper word forms and functions to clearly state your meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Vary the style of the sentences you write, which makes your writing more interesting to read. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Grammar is important because <ul><li>Grammar rules provide the framework for using words correctly as different parts of speech to construct sentences </li></ul><ul><li>When you routinely use correct grammar, you can easily spot mistakes and correct them in your writing </li></ul>
  6. 6. Basic sentence structure <ul><li>Every sentence must include a subject and a verb </li></ul><ul><li>The subject and verb must agree in number </li></ul><ul><li>Objects answer the question whom? or what ? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Phrases <ul><li>Phrases play different roles in sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>They can function as subjects, verbs, and modifiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Their placement is crucial to clarity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Phrases <ul><li>Phrases may be essential or nonessential to the meaning of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure that sentences make sense, notice whether phrases are connected properly to other parts of the sentence </li></ul>
  9. 9. Clauses <ul><li>Clauses contain a subject and a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>A clause may be dependent or independent . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent - cannot stand alone and make sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent - can stand alone and make sense </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Connect independent clauses with: <ul><li>Coordinating conjunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional words and expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Recognize comma splices and run-ons <ul><li>Comma splice - occurs when you place a comma between independent </li></ul><ul><li>Run-on sentence - occurs when you join independent clauses with no punctuation at all. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Recognize fragments <ul><li>A sentence fragment is a group of words lacking a subject or a verb but punctuated as if it were a complete sentence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Verbs <ul><li>A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. </li></ul><ul><li>State-of-being verbs, also called linking verbs, include forms of the verb to be and verbs of the senses, as well as others. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Helping verbs, also called auxiliary verbs, are used with other verbs to show time, possibility, or emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs are also categorized as transitive or intransitive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A transitive requires an object to complete the meaning of the sentence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An intransitive verb does not need an object to complete its meaning . </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Verb Tense <ul><li>Verb tense indicates the time that an action takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>The four simple tenses are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past participle </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Forming verb tenses <ul><li>Regular verbs form the past and past participle by adding d or ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular verbs form the past tense by changing their spelling in other ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Most irregular verbs are so commonly used that we know their forms without thinking </li></ul>
  17. 17. Active Voice of Verbs <ul><li>The subject performs the action </li></ul><ul><li>Places emphasis on the doer of the action </li></ul><ul><li>Is clear and direct and, in general, makes writing more effective </li></ul>
  18. 18. Passive Voice of Verbs <ul><li>The subject is the receiver of the action. </li></ul><ul><li>Used it to invoke a formal tone. </li></ul><ul><li>Use it to de-emphasize the doer of the action. </li></ul><ul><li>Use it to create tactful expression of the action. </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise, use the active voice </li></ul><ul><li>for more lively, clear </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Pronouns <ul><li>Demonstrative </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinite </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive </li></ul><ul><li>Relative </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pronoun Case <ul><li>Three forms of personal pronouns that perform different functions in sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominative case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possessive case </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement <ul><li>Personal pronouns replace specific nouns used elsewhere in a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>For clarity, the pronoun reference must agree in number and gender with its noun or pronoun antecedent. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Adjectives and Adverbs <ul><li>Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Types of Adjectives <ul><li>Descriptive adjectives - tell “what kind.” </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting adjectives - tell “how many.” </li></ul><ul><li>Articles - are the words a, an, and the . </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing adjectives - are similar to articles; they signal a noun and tell “which one.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Adverbs <ul><li>Answer How? When? Where? Why? and To what extent? </li></ul><ul><li>Many adverbs end in ly. </li></ul><ul><li>However, do not assume that all words </li></ul><ul><li>ending in ly are adverbs. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Adjective and Adverbs show comparison <ul><li>Positive form (first degree) </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative form (second degree) </li></ul><ul><li>Superlative form (third degree) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Prepositions <ul><li>Words that connect a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence to show relationships </li></ul><ul><li>A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition </li></ul>
  27. 27. Using prepositions <ul><li>Avoid unnecessary prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid prepositions at the end of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the correct preposition. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Grammar must be correct in all written documents. <ul><li>When you are unsure, use the Pearson Reference Manual and Writer’s Handbook to check your writing. </li></ul>