Ireland Culture Communication Presentation!

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CMST 101 (Group #2): Communication Used Throughout The Ireland Culture

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Ireland Culture Communication Presentation!

  1. 1. THE IRISH CULTURE<br /><ul><li> Presented by Group 2:
  2. 2. Lauren Heikes, Lisa Holt, Lola Jackson, Ieesha Irving, & Thomas Gwinn
  3. 3. August 9th,2011</li></li></ul><li>IrelandCultureisPresented in theFollowingOrder:<br /><ul><li>TheBackground of IrelandPeople (BytheGroup)
  4. 4. TheNonverbal Use of Clothing:
  5. 5. Formal Eadaigh: Medieval and Renaissance Times, IrishDancers, Kilts, IranKnits, and Saint Patricks Day Attire (By Lauren Heikes)
  6. 6. Informal (ByIeesha Irving)
  7. 7. Rituals:
  8. 8. Verbal Traditions (By Lola Jackson)
  9. 9. Nonverbal Traditions (By Thomas Gwinn)
  10. 10. Festivals:
  11. 11. Cultural Traditions (By Lisa Holt)
  12. 12. Thegoal of thispresentationisto explore and betterunderstandIreland’s culture byexplaining and exploringthehistorythatshapedIreland’speople as well as the country. TheIrish culture willalso be definedthroughthreeimportantnonverbalaspects: the use of clothing, theIrishrituals, aswell as festivals and thetraditionspresented. </li></li></ul><li>HistoryTimeline of Ireland<br />Information Source: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~fianna/history/<br />
  13. 13. HISTORY/BACKGROUND OF IRELAND<br /><ul><li>Ireland is thought to have been inhabited from around 6000BC by people of a mid-Stone Age culture. 
  14. 14. 4,000 years later, tribes from Southern Europe arrived and established a high Neolithic culture.
  15. 15. Ireland’s famous patron saint didn’t actually come from Ireland. Saint Patrick was taken prisoner from his family home in Britain by Irish raiders and was brought to Ireland to work as a shepherd. After Patrick escaped back to Britain, he had a vision from God telling him to return to Ireland as a missionary. Now credited with introducing Christianity to Ireland, relics of St Patrick’s time here can be seen all over Ireland. One of the best known is Croagh Patrick in County Mayo, where Patrick fasted for 40 days in 441AD. Today, pilgrims climb the mountain every year on the last Sunday in July. Saint Patrick’s remains are believed to be buried in the grounds of Downpatrick Cathedral, County Down.
  16. 16. The Vikings first launched their attack on Ireland in 795AD. And in 837AD, 60 Viking Dragon warships appeared at the mouth of the River Liffey. Five years later, Dublin was taken under force, but the Vikings were attacked by the local Irish and fled. They returned 17 years later under Olaf the White and made a permanent settlement at Dyflinn (later to be Dublin). The King’s Palace stood on the present, Dublin Castle site, and part of the town’s defenses can still be seen at the Undercroft in Dublin Castle.Top of For
  17. 17. The latter half of the 19th century was a period of tragedy in Irish history.  Ireland was struck by the Great Famine caused by a potato blight that struck crops over a four-year period from 1845-49. Over two million people emigrated to other and from 1848-1950 over six million Irish fled the land. Now the Irish diaspora is thought to contain over 80 million people scattered all over the globe. 
  18. 18. Modern Ireland now enjoys more immigration than emigration. Thanks in large part to the boom of the Celtic Tiger economy in the 1990s, the Ireland of the 21st century is a vibrant, culturally rich and ethnically diverse country with an entirely youthful and optimistic outlook – over half the population is under 30, after all!</li></ul>Information Source: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~fianna/history/<br />
  19. 19. THE NONVERBAL USE OF CLOTHING IN IRELAND <br />Image Source: http://www.googleimage.com/stpatricksdayclothing.jpg<br />
  20. 20. Formal Clothing(Traditional: Medieval & Renaissance Times, Irish Dancers, Kilts, Aran Knits, and St. Patrick’s Day)BY Lauren Heikes<br />Source: http://dcpages.com/gallery/ Washington-DC-St-Patricks-Day-Parade/DSC02078.jpg.html<br />Image Source: http://www.dalefield.com/knitting/<br />
  21. 21. Irish Eadaigh(Nonverbal Use of Formal Clothing: APPEARANCE)<br />Source:http://www.google.com/images=irish+clothing=http://www.topinvestorleads.com/feg-traditional-irish-clothing.php<br />Eadaigh means “clothing” in the Irish language.<br />Appearance:<br />Many cultures around the world place a high value on appearance: including clothing. The clothing worn conveys ones sense of culture to others. “Although we believe “clothes don’t make the man,” clothing and artifacts do affect how we feel about ourselves and how we are perceived by others” (Beebe et al., 2010; p. 95). All forms of traditional clothing in Ireland, from the color green- to the Aran knit sweater- to the kilt, have made an impact on the views of the Irish culture. <br />http://www.gowealthy.com/travel/culture/Traditional-dress-of-Ireland.html<br />
  22. 22. http://www.the-irish-path.com/irish-traditional-clothing.html<br />http://www.gowealthy.com/gowealthy/wcms/en/home/articles/traveldress-of-Ireland.html<br />Traditional Style (Medieval & Renaissance)<br />The traditional dress of Ireland during the early days was inspired by the Gaelic and Norse costumes.<br />14th Century: Men wore a linen shirt called a leine (seen on rt.) <br />Women wore long dresses that often laced up in the front. They are decorated with hand-embroidered Celtic designs based on the Book of Kells and Irish stone crosses (seen to rt. and top lt. corner). <br />Both men and women wore shaggy brats (cloaks in Irish) called mantles mostly of scarlet coloring. The cloak or brat was a symbol of rebellion during the suppression since it enabled the rebels to endure the worst weather while holding out in the mountains (seen lt. bottom corner).<br />During the 18th and 19th century they began dressing like the English.<br />During some of that time it was actually against the law to wear the traditional clothing. <br />The most common colors used in the dress were green and white. Red was deliberately avoided because of its relevance to England. The ancient Irish were fond of bright colors, as it was a mark of high social status in the community to be allowed to wear more than one color (rt. Bottom corner).<br />source:http://www.the-irish-path.com/irish-traditional-clothing.html<br />Image Source: http://www.googleimage.com/irishcloak.jpg<br />Information Source: http://www.gowealthy.com/gowealthy/wcms/en/home/articles/travel/culture/Traditional-dress-of-Ireland-MdehXbCxQa.html<br />Image source: www.allthingswhiskey.com/irelandflag.jpg<br />
  23. 23. Irish Dancers<br /><ul><li>Women's dresses or skirts are very elaborate:
  24. 24. When a female dancer reaches a high standard of skill and displays perfection in competitions, she may wear a solo dress with her own unique choice of color and design
  25. 25. The crios, worn by some dancers, is a colored hand-woven belt originally worn by Aran Islanders.
  26. 26. Pipers wear a kilt and in 1910 male dancers began to wear kilts as well.
  27. 27. Men dancers wear a jacket and trousers or kilt regardless of level.
  28. 28. Women dancers just started wearing shoes a century ago.
  29. 29. Around 1924, soft shoes were introduced for the first time by girls dancing jigs, reels and slip jigs.</li></ul>Image Source: http://www.alligator.org/news/collection_46caf772-ad1c-5cae-95a7-330ef20a2a41.html<br />Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_stepdance<br />Source of Information: http://www.gowealthy.com/gowealthy/wcms/en/home/articles/travel/culture/Traditional-dress-of-Ireland-MdehXbCxQa.html<br />
  30. 30. Kilts in Ireland are typically a solid color.<br />Kilts did not originate in Ireland but instead Scotland. <br />The Irish turned to their Gaelic cousins, the Scottish Highlanders, for inspiration. The Irish chose to adopt a solid-colored (or self-colored) kilt, dyed either green or saffron.<br />From the late 1800’s the pipers began to wear the kilt<br />From 1910 on the male dancers began to wear this form of dress. They became popular to step dance in the 1930’s and 1940’s.<br />Greann “Fun” Facts About Kilts<br />Information Source: http://www.gaelicclothing.com/irishkilts.htm<br />Image Source: http://www.datehookup.com/irelandkilt.jpg<br />Image Source: http://www.aef16.dial.pipex.com/irishkiltclub.htm<br />Image Source: http://superstock.com/irelandkilt.jpg<br />
  31. 31. Aran Knits<br />The Aran Stitch was first introduced in the 17th Century<br />The the traditional name for the Aran wool is ‘bainin’, pronounced ‘bawneen’, and is the Irish word for undyedwool.  <br />Aranknitting originated in the Aran Isles six miles west of the Ireland coast.<br />The islands are part of the county Galway, where fishing is the main industry.<br />Tradition has it that the original Aran sweaters incorporated patterns that could identify a drowned fisherman if lost at sea. <br />The patterns for each family are handed down generation to generation and many incorporated these traditional patterns into the knitted sweaters that the men wore.<br />Patterns Include: <br />heavily embossed stitches and intricate patterns<br />usually knit in the natural off white yarn<br />Made with wool that was partially scoured (washed), the wool retained much of the natural oil, or lanolin and made the sweaters more water resistant. <br />The original sweaters were knit with a wide range of natural colors: today we regard the cream as the authentic color and most popular color for all types of Aran garments.  The lighter color, especially the cream, shows the stitches off in the greatest detail.<br />The Aran stitches are very distinctive and traditionally Aran sweaters will incorporate as many as eight patterns in a sweater. <br />Each stitch type has a symbolic meaning. <br />Information and Image Source: http://www..irishcultureandcustoms.com/aemblem/sweaters.html<br />
  32. 32. St Patrick’s Day<br /><ul><li>People in Ireland do not typically wear green.
  33. 33. On St Patrick’s Day (March 17th) most people wear a small bunch of shamrocks pined to the outside of their coat.
  34. 34. The three leaves of the shamrock symbolizes the teaching of the holy trinity by St Patrick: he used the three leaves of a shamrock to explain the Christian holy trinity: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.</li></ul>Information Source: http://thefastertimes.com/news/2011/03/17/slainte-celebrating-st-patricks-day/<br />Image Source: http://thefastertimes.com/news/2011<br />/03/17/slainte-celebrating-st-patricks-day/<br />Image Source: http://www.google.com/three-leaf-clover.jpg<br />
  35. 35. Informal ClothingBy: Ieesha Irving <br /><ul><li>Modern Irish informal clothes are very similar to that of the Western culture.
  36. 36. Flashy colors and styles, white pants, and nylon jogging outfits do not blend into Irish style.
  37. 37. A raincoat or an umbrella is needed year round, since you can experience “four seasons” in one day.
  38. 38. The Irish Dress modestly and conservatively.
  39. 39. Tweeds, wools and subdued colors are recommended.
  40. 40. Women tend to wear peacoats or a waterproof jacket .
  41. 41. Accessories such as leather boots, scarves, and gloves are a necessity.
  42. 42. Royalty and the highest upper classmen wore red; which was considered an expensive color.
  43. 43. The middle class often wore a combination of grey, black, and yellow. These were the natural coloring of wool and the saffron dye.
  44. 44. The lowest class wore whatever they could afford, usually this entailed old and used earth colored garments.
  45. 45. Clothing are worn based on activities. For instance people who work outdoors would wear rubber boots (called Wellingtons) and many layers for warmth. People that work in an office would wear business suits or black pants and skirts; and collared shirts and ties for men.
  46. 46. An Irish man’s wardrobe basics includes straight leg jeans, chinos, cotton plaid shirt, and dark colored wool sweaters.</li></ul>Picture Source: www.bing.com/images/search?q=modern +irish<br />
  47. 47. RITUALS and Traditions (Verbal and Nonverbal)<br />
  48. 48. Verbal TraditionsBy: Lola Jackson<br />
  49. 49. Verbal Traditions:<br />Verbal traditions are very prominent in the Irish Culture. There are many proverbs, sayings, toasts, and blessings that are passed on and used throughout the generations. These are all examples of symbols. Symbols are a word, sound, gesture, or visual image that represents a thought, concept, object, or experience (Beebe et al., 2010. P. 62). Through the use of these proverbs, sayings, toasts, and blessings they remind themselves and others of various things including how bad it was in the past and to always try to look for the good in everything. While reading each section I found that most of them are quite inspiring and positive.<br />
  50. 50. IrishSayings and Toasts:<br /><ul><li>Here are someexamples of variousIrishSayings and toasts:
  51. 51. Mayyoulive as long as youwant, and neverwant as long as youlive.
  52. 52. Mayyour home alwaysbetoosmalltoholdallyourfriends.
  53. 53. Mayyouneverforgetwhatisworthremembering, orrememberwhatisbestforgotten.
  54. 54. Maythe lord keepyou in Hishand and nevercloseHisfisttootight.
  55. 55. A toasttoyourcoffinmayitbe of 100 yearoldoak. And mayweplantthetreetogethertomorrow.
  56. 56. InformationSource: http://www.fionasplace.net/AnIrishPatchwork/Irishsayingsandblessings.html</li></li></ul><li>IrishProverbs<br />Irishproverbs are “borne of a deeplyreligious and hardypeoplewhohavesufferedmuchthrough a turbulenthistory” (Anonymous 1a,2003). Many of theIrishProvebs center aroundtheessences of lifebecause of thewaves of famine and pestilencefromthepast (Anonymus 1a,2003). Theseproverbs are a reminder of howhardlifewascomparedtowhatyouthinkyourgoingthroughnow. Most of themfocusonlooking at thebrighterside of things.<br /><ul><li>Half a loaf of bread is better than no bread at all.
  57. 57. You never miss the water till the well has run dry.
  58. 58. A good laugh and a long sleep are the best cures in the doctor’s book.
  59. 59. Remember, if you lose all, keep your good name; for if you loose that you are worthless.
  60. 60. All examples were taken from: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/article/Ireland/Famous-Irish-Proverbs/2003</li></li></ul><li>IrishBlessings<br />Irishblessings are usedduringtoasts at weddings and gatherings and itoftenattributedto St. Patrick (Ellis-Christensen, 2003-2011). Here are someexamples of famousIrishBlessings: <br /><ul><li>Maytheroadrisetomeetyou. Maythewind be always at your back. Maythesunshinewarmuponyourface. And rainsfallsoftuponyourfields. And untilwemeetagain, MayGodholdyou in thehollow of Hishand.
  61. 61. Maythosewholoveus, loveus. And thosethatdon’tloveus, MayGodturntheirhearts, And if he doesn’tturntheirhearts, May he turntheirankles, So wemayknowthembytheirlimping.
  62. 62. InformationSource: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-irish-blessing.htm</li></li></ul><li>Nonverbal Traditions<br />By: Lola Jackson<br />
  63. 63. Nonverbal Traditions of Dining Etiquette<br />Meeting Etiquette<br />There are many nonverbal traditions within the Irish culture. They can include body movement, gestures, and posture which are also know as kinesics (Beebe et al., 2010. p. 95). For example, if you are invited to an Irish home there are a few nonverbal etiquette traditions that need to be followed, such as: <br /><ul><li>Be on time!
  64. 64. Bring a box of good chocolates and a good bottle of wine for the host
  65. 65. Offer to help with clearing the dishes after a meal.
  66. 66. Table manners are relatively relaxed and informal.
  67. 67. Table manners are Continental (the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right)
  68. 68. Do not rest your elbows on the table, although your hands should remain visible and not be in your lap.
  69. 69. Women always sit first at the table!
  70. 70. It is proper to sit with legs crossed at the ankles or at the knees
  71. 71. It is informal to cross your ankle over your knee.
  72. 72. Information source: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/ireland.html</li></li></ul><li>Meeting Etiquette<br /><ul><li>Basic Greetings:
  73. 73. Irish business people are generally less formal and more outwardly friendly than in many European countries.
  74. 74. The basic greeting is a handshake and it should be firm and confident.
  75. 75. Eye contact denotes trust and is maintained during a greeting.
  76. 76. It is customary to shake hands with older children.
  77. 77. Greetings tend to be warm and friendly and often turn Into conversations.
  78. 78. In The Pub:
  79. 79. It’scommonpracticetopayfor a round of drinksforeveryone in yourgroup
  80. 80. Alwaysbuyyour round of drinks
  81. 81. Refusinga drink can be perceived as aninsult.
  82. 82. Information source: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/ireland.html</li></li></ul><li>Gift Giving Etiquette<br /><ul><li>In general theIrishexchangegiftsonbirthdays and Christmas.
  83. 83. A giftdoesn’tneedto be expensive, itisthethought of givingsomething personal thatcounts.
  84. 84. Ifgivingflowers, do notgivelillies, they are used at religiousfestivities, and do notgivewhiteflowers as they are uses at funerals.
  85. 85. Gifts are usuallyopenedwhenreceived.
  86. 86. Informationsource: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/ireland.html</li></li></ul><li>Nonverbal Nonverbal Communication Through Traditions in Ireland<br /> By Tom Gwinn<br />
  87. 87. Kinesthetic Intelligence: Learning through DanceAnd Dance Lingo and Terms<br />Express ourselves non-verbally<br />Process our own assumptions, ideas, judgments about the conflict kinesthetically<br />Develop empathy to the movement and body language<br />Explore metaphoric associations<br />Read non-verbal clues<br />Use our body as a guide in making decisions<br />Heighten sensory perception<br />Release emotions through dance<br />Induce emotions through dance<br />Evoke the memory of an emotion through dance.<br />http://lawsagna.typepad.com/lawsagna/2008/12/kinesthetic-intelligence-learning-through-dance.html<br />
  88. 88. Dance Lingo continued<br /><ul><li>Concretization:  Use movement to express the development of the conflict and its effects on the lives of the conflicting parties.
  89. 89. An icon:  Represent the other side, or dance in the opposing party's shoes.
  90. 90. A stylization:  Express the feelings about the conflict through gestures and movement.
  91. 91. A metonym:  Convey the most important thing about the conflict though movement.
  92. 92. A metaphor:  Use a kinesthetic metaphor to represent the conflict.
  93. 93. Actualization: Embody your typical role or your desired role in the conflict.     </li></ul>http://lawsagna.typepad.com/lawsagna/2008/12/kinesthetic-intelligence-learning-through-dance.html<br />
  94. 94. FESTIVALSBy Lisa Holt<br />Festivals represent a nonverbal way to communicate your beliefs to others. “Nonverbal communication is communication by means other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone” (Beebe et al., 2010. P. 20). The festivals of Ireland generally come from religious rituals performed hundreds of years ago. These traditions have been passed down through generations, which is what defines them as part of the Irish culture. “Culture is a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, & norms that is shared by a group of people & shaped from one generation to the next” ((Beebe et al., 2010. P. 150). <br />
  95. 95. There are 4 Celtic festivals celebrating the changing of the seasons:<br />Samhain<br />Imbolg<br />Bealtaine<br />Lúnasa<br />
  96. 96. Samhain<br />The start of Winter & the new year!<br />Begins October 31st<br />Samhain means “Summer’s end <br />It was believed that during this time that the veil between this world & the otherworld was so thin that the dead could return to this world<br />People would dress in animal skins & hold feasts<br />They believed that these costumes would protect them from bad luck<br />This is said to be how Halloween started<br />Information Source: http://www.livingmyths.com<br />
  97. 97. Imbolg<br />The start of Spring!<br /> Held at the start of February.<br /> “Imbolg” refers to the lactating ewes.<br />The flow of milk represents the flow of spring’s life giving forces.<br /> Originates from the Celtic goddess “Briganita”<br />She was linked to fertility, childbirth, & milking <br />Information Source: http://www.livingmyths.com<br />
  98. 98. Bealtaine<br />The start of Summer!<br /> Held on the first day of May.<br />Bealtaine means the month of May.<br /> Was a druid tribute to Bel (or Baal), the sun god<br /> Cattle was driven between two flames, they were singed & even cut<br />The blood was burnt as a tribute to Bel<br />Information Source: http://www.livingmyths.com<br />
  99. 99. Lúnasa<br /> The Start of Autumn!<br /> Celebrated on the 1st of August.<br /> Named after the god Lugh.<br />Lugh was skilled in many arts simultaneously.<br /> Celebrates the beginning of the harvest & the growth of corn.<br />Information Source: http://www.livingmyths.com<br />
  100. 100. The Summer & Winter solstice were also celebrated<br />
  101. 101. Summer Solstice<br />The longest day of the year.<br />Celebrated June 21st.<br />Celebrated with bonfires that add to the sun’s energy.<br />Celebrated by watching the sun rising on the first morning of summer.<br />Places the sun rise is watched:<br />Stonehenge<br />Gardens<br />Woods<br />Information Source: http://news.nationalgeographic.com<br />
  102. 102. WinterSolstice<br />Also known as Yule.<br />The beginning of the winter season.<br />Celebrated December 21st.<br />Mistletoe was cut & given as a blessing.<br />The yule log was lit to conquer the darkness, banish evil spirits and bring luck for the coming year.<br />Information Source: http://news.nationalgeographic.com<br />
  103. 103. CONCLUSION<br />Irish culture has clearly incorporated the elaboration of nonverbal communication through the use of Irish clothing, including Aran knits, Traditions and Rituals, as well as festivals. We first gained knowledge by seeking important information on the history of Ireland’s people. And then learned the Irish traditions and cultural values in celebrating Ireland’s festivities, cultural traditions such as holidays, seasons, and the styles in which they dress.<br />
  104. 104. QUESTIONS<br />In Ireland, how are families and family members identified through Aran knits?<br />What article of clothing should you wear year round in Ireland and why?<br />Who are Irish Blessings often attributed to?<br />What are appropriate gift’s to bring to an Irish dinner?<br />Which festival is on the longest day of the year?<br />
  105. 105. REferences<br />Anonymous 1a,2003. Famous irish proverbs. Retrieved on August 2, 2011 from http://www.kwintessentia.co.uk/articles/article/Ireland/Famous-irish-Proverbs/2003<br />Anonymous 1b, 2011. Irish sayings, toasts, and blessings. Retrieved August 2, 2011 from http://www.fionasplace.net/AnIrishPatchwork/Irishsayingsandblessings.html<br />Anonymous 1c, 2011. Ireland-language,culture,customs and etiquette. Retrieved on August 7th, 2011 from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/ireland.html<br />Anonymous, (2000). A Timeline of Irish History. Retrieved on July 26th, 2011 from www.rootsweb.com: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~fianna/history/<br />Anonymous, (2008, December 15th). Kinesthetic Intelligence: Learning through Dance. Retrieved August 8th, 2011 from: Lawsagna.com: http://lawsagna.typepad.com/lawsagna/2008/12/kinesthetic-intelligence-learning-through-dance.html<br />Beebe, S. A., Beebe, S. J., & Ivy, D. K. (2010). The Blue Book of Communication Studies (TCC Custom Edition ed. , pp. 20, 62-62, 94-96, 142-169). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. <br />Eddy, Steve, 2001. Living myths. Retrieved August 5th, 2001 from http://www.livingmyths.com/<br />Ellis-Christensen, Tricia, (2003-2011). What is the irish blessing. Retrieved August 2, 2011 from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-irish-blessing.html<br />Haggerty, Bridget. Aran Isle Sweaters - how a dropped stitch gave rise to a popular myth (2011, March 4th). Retrieved July 28th, 2011, from Irish Culture and Customs.com: http://www.irishcultureandcustoms.com/aemblem/sweaters.html<br />Handwerk, Brian. Winter solstice 2009: facts on shortest day of the year (2009, December 1st). Retrieved August 5th, 2011 from http://newsnationalgeographic.com/news/2009/12/091221-winter-solstice-2009-first-day-winter-shortest-day-year.html<br />Ireland Fun Facts, (2011). Retrieved on August 7th, 2011, from IrelandFunFacts.com: www.ireland-fun-facts.com/irelandfacts.html<br />Ireland Society and Culture Complete Report. 2010. Petaluma: WorldTrade Press.<br />Irish Traditional Clothing Old and New (2010, January). Retrieved July 26th, 2011, from The Irish Path.com: http://www.the-irish-path.com/irish-traditional-clothing.html<br />Irish Kilt-History (2011, July). Retrieved July 26th, 2011, from Gaelicclothing.com: http://www.gaelicclothing.com/irishkilts.htm<br />Paul, William JF. Slaint: Celebrating St. Patrick’s Day (2011, March 17th). Retrieved on July31st, 2011, from The Faster Times.com: http://thefastertimes.com/news/2011/03/17/slainte-celebrating-st-patricks-day/<br />Stewart, A.T. Q. (2001). Shape of Irish History. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.<br />Traditional Dress of Ireland (2006, December). Retrieved July 26th,2011, from Go Wealthy.com: http://www.gowealthy.com/gowealthy/wcms/en/home/articles/travel/culture/Traditional-dress-of-Ireland-MdehXbCxQa.html<br />

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