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Bio Ch. 9


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Bio Ch. 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9: Cell Reproduction 9.2 – Mitosis
  2. 2. Mitosis <ul><li>The cell’s replicated genetic material separates and the cell prepares to split into two daughter cells! </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to replace damaged cells. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mitosis in Onion cells
  4. 4. Prophase <ul><li>The stage during which a dividing cell spends the most time. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin tightens into chromosomes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prophase <ul><li>Chromosome – A single structure that contains the genetic material that was replicated in interphase. (x-shaped) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prophase <ul><li>Sister chromatids – Structures that contain identical copies of DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Centromere – The structure at the center of the chromosome where the sisters are attached. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Prophase <ul><li>Spindle Apparatus – Spindle fibers, centrioles, and aster fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Important in moving and organizing the chromosomes before cell division. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prophase <ul><li>Nuclear membrane disintegrates </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus disappear </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes condense </li></ul><ul><li>Mitotic spindle begins to form between the poles. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Metaphase <ul><li>Chromosomes attach to mitotic spindle and align along equator of the cell. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Anaphase <ul><li>Chromatids are pulled apart by the shortening of the microtubules, causing sister chromatids to separate into two identical chromosomes. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Telophase <ul><li>Chromosomes reach poles of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope re-forms </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus reappears </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes decondense </li></ul>
  12. 13. Cytokinesis <ul><li>In animal cells, cytokinesis begins with a furrow that pinches the cell apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells build a cell plate that divides the cell into daughter cells. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Section 9.3 – Cell Cycle Regulation
  14. 15. Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer <ul><li>Cancer – Uncontrolled growth and division of cells – A failure in the regulation of the cell cycle. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Causes of Cancer: <ul><li>Cancer can occur in healthy people from mutations in DNA chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogens - Agents that are known to cause cancer! (Sun, asbestos, smoke) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Cancer Genetics <ul><li>DNA must undergo many changes to develop cancer, thus the increase in having cancer at older ages. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual who inherits changes from a parent is at a higher risk. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Stem Cells <ul><li>Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain in an organism for many years while undergoing cell division. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Embryonic stem cells
  19. 21. Adult Stem Cells