Norma lateralis

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Norma lateralis

  1. 1. Norma LateralisThe Lateral View of the Skull
  2. 2. The Bones Involved in Norma Lateralis1. Temporal Bone2. Parietal Bone3. Occipital Bone4. Frontal Bone5. Zygomatic Bone6. Maxilla7. Mandible8. Nasal Bone9. Sphenoid Bone10. Lacrimal Bone.
  3. 3. The Two Divisions of the Skull in Norma Lateralis1. Cerebral Portion - located above the zygomatic arch.2. Facial Portion - located below the zygomatic arch.
  4. 4. THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THECEREBRAL PORTION
  5. 5. 1. Temporal Lines2. Supramastoid Crest3. Temporal Fossa4. Zygomatico-temporal foramen5. Zygomatic arch6. Infratemporal fossa7. Suprameatal triangle8. Pterion9. Asterion.
  6. 6. Pterion- the thinnest part of the lateral wall of the skull. - an important area because it overlies the anterior division of the middle meningeal artery and vein.
  7. 7. Asterion- point where the posteroinferior angle of the parietal bone meet the occipital bone and the mastoid part of the temporal bone.
  8. 8. THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURESOF THEFACIAL PORTION
  9. 9. 1. Zygomatic arch2. Articular tubercle3. External acoustic meatus4. Mandibular fossa5. Styloid process6. Mastoid temporal7. Mastoid process8. Mastoid foramen9. Gonion.
  10. 10. 10. Pterygo-maxillary fissure11.Pterygo-palatine fossa12.Spheno-palatine foramen.
  11. 11. THE TEMPORAL BONE
  12. 12. Four Parts of the Temporal Bone• 1. Squamous part• 2. Mastoid part• 3. Tympanic part• 4. Petrous part
  13. 13. THE THREE FOSSAE INNORMA LATERALIS 1. Temporal Fossa 2. Infratemporal Fossa 3. Pterygopalatine Fossa
  14. 14. THE TEMPORAL FOSSA
  15. 15. A flat, fan-shaped depression on the lateral surface of the skull.Bones involved:1. Zygomatic Bone2. Frontal Bone3. Greater Wings of Sphenoid4. Temporal Bone5. Parietal Bone
  16. 16. BOUNDARIES OF THE TEMPORALFOSSA
  17. 17. Boundaries StructureSuperior Inferior Temporal LineAnterior Frontal Process of Zygomatc BoneMedial Surface of parietal bone,Temporal Bone, frontal bone and GWS
  18. 18. Lateral Zygomatic ArchInferior Infratemporal Crest of Sphenoid BonePosterior Inferior Temporal line
  19. 19. Contents of the Temporal Fossa1. Temporalis muscle is attached to its floor.2. Pterion – a small circular area where the frontal, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bones are close together.
  20. 20. THE INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA
  21. 21. - A paired depression that is inferior to anterior part of the temporal fossa.- Divided from the temporal fossa by the crest of the greater wings of sphenoid.
  22. 22. BOUNDARIES OF THEINFRATEMPORAL FOSSA
  23. 23. Boundaries StructureSuperior Greater wings of sphenoidAnterior Maxillary tuberosityMedial Lateral pterygoid plate
  24. 24. Lateral Mandibular ramus and zygomatic archInferior No borderPosterior No border
  25. 25. Contents of the Infratemporal Fossa1. The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve,2. Contains pterygoid plexus and the pterygoid muscles,3. Maxillary artery and its branches, middle meningeal artery,4. Inferior alveolar artery,5. Posterior alveolar artery.
  26. 26. THE PTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA
  27. 27. A cone-shaped depression, deep into the infratemporal fossa.
  28. 28. It is located between the pterygoid process and the maxillary tuberosity near the apex of the orbit.
  29. 29. BOUNDARIES OF THEPTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA
  30. 30. Boundaries StructureSuperior Inferior surface of the body of the sphenoidAnterior Maxillary tuberosityMedial Vertical plate of the palatine bone
  31. 31. Boundaries StructureLateral Pterygomaxillary fissureInferior Pterygopalatine canalPosterior Pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone
  32. 32. Contents of the Pterygopalatine Fossa1. Maxillary artery and its branches,2. Pterygopalatine ganglion,3. Maxillary nerve.
  33. 33. The Temporomandibular Joint
  34. 34. - is a complex articulation of the movable mandible and the base of the skull.Articulation takes place in two areas:1. Between maxillary and mandibular teeth ( interjaw dental occlusion ), and2. Between the mandibular condyle and the temporal bone.
  35. 35. Bones Involved in the TMJ1. Condylar process or condyle of the mandible2. Mandibular fossa3. Articular emminence of the temporal bone
  36. 36. COMPONENTS OF THE TMJ
  37. 37. 1. Articular or Fibrous Capsule2. Temporo- mandibular (lateral) Ligament
  38. 38. 3. Articular Disc4. Joint Cavities
  39. 39. 1. ARTICULAR OR FIBROUS CAPSULE
  40. 40. - encloses the jointsurfaces like a sleevethat runs from thetemporal bonesuperiorly, to thecondyle of themandible inferiorly.The enclosed spacebetween the articularsurfaces is the jointcavity
  41. 41. Superior attachment : area surrounding the mandibular fossa and articular eminence of the temporal bone. Inferior attachment: periphery of the mandibular condyle.
  42. 42. 2. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR (LATERAL)LIGAMENT
  43. 43. - is a lateral thickening of the joint capsule and is similar to the collateral ligaments of other joints.- It prevents posterior and inferior displacement of the condyle but allows limited anterior movements of the condyle.
  44. 44. 3. ARTICULAR DISC
  45. 45. - it is composed of dense fibrous tissues and lies within the jointcapsule, intervening between the condyle and the mandibular fossa.- It is a biconcave disc that serves to provide reciprocal articularsurfaces between its inferior surface and the condyle, and its superiorsurface and the mandibular fossa and eminence.
  46. 46. Three zones of the articular disc:1. Posterior thickening – sits atop the condyle and fills the mandibular fossa above when the mandible is at rest.2. Anterior thickening - lies just below the posterior slope of the articular eminence.3. Intermediate zone - lies between the two previous zones.
  47. 47. 4. JOINT CAVITIES
  48. 48. The disc effectively divides the joint cavity into two distinct upper andlower compartment that allow two types of joint movements. These cavities are also filled with synovial fluid which nourishes thearticular disc.
  49. 49. Joint Cavities
  50. 50. ACCESSORY LIGAMENTS
  51. 51. Two accessory ligaments span the joint but do not significantly limit mandibular movements:1. Sphenomandibular ligament - it runs from the spine of the sphenoid bone to the lingula of the mandible.2. Stylomandibular ligament - it runs from the styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle of the mandible.
  52. 52. THE SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
  53. 53. A layer of synovium lines the inner aspects of thejoint capsule. This relatively dense membrane does notline the actual articular surfaces of the joints becausesynovial joints are generally weight-bearing joints. The pressure in the TMJ is provided by the occludedmaxillary and mandibular teeth. Synovium secretes synovial fluids for lubricationand nourishment of the opposing articular surfaces.
  54. 54. Two Layers of the Synovial Membrane1. An intimal cellular layer - contains type A cells which are phagocytic, and type B cells which synthesize hyaluronate found in synovial fluid.2. A vascular subintimal layer - Contains blood vessels, and lymphatics within the loose connective tissue matrix.
  55. 55. NERVE SUPPLY OF THE TMJ
  56. 56. 1. Branches of the temporalis N.2. Branches of the auriculotemporal N.3. Branches of the masseteric N.
  57. 57. BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE TMJ
  58. 58. 1. Superficial temporal artery2. Muscular branches of the maxillary artery
  59. 59. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTIN ACTION
  60. 60. MUSCLES ACTING ON THE TMJ
  61. 61. 1. Masseter2. Temporalis3. Lateral Pterygoid4. Medial Pterygoid
  62. 62. Protrussion:1. Lateral pterygoid m.2. Medial pterygoid m.
  63. 63. Retraction1. Temporalis M.Synergists:a. Massetersb. Digastricc. Geniohyoid
  64. 64. Elevation1. Temporalis2. Masseter3. Medial pterygoid
  65. 65. Depression1. Lateral pterygoidSynergists:1. Digastric2. Geniohyoid3. Mylohyoid
  66. 66. Lateral movements1. Medial pterygoid m.2. Lateral pterygoid m.

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