edTPA Online Module 6. Addressing English Language Learners


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edTPA Online Module 6. Addressing English Language Learners

  1. 1. 1   Module  6:    Addressing  English  Language  Learners   Hunter  College  School  of  Education     
  2. 2. 2   Objectives  for  this  Learning  Module     Orient  you  to  the  legal  mandates  for  English  as  a  second  language  services  in  the  US  and  New   York  State     Situate  ELL  academic  achievement  na=onally  and  locally     Describe  the  types  of  ESL  instruc=onal  models  which  exist  in  New  York  City  public  schools     Provide  an  overview  of  the  types  of  ESL  learners  you  might  encounter  in  your  classrooms     Discuss  basic  myths  and  reali=es  of  second  language  teaching  and  learning     Point  you  to  key  strategies  for  providing  learning  supports  for  ELLs  to  access  content     Review  principles  of  English  language  development  as  you  design  your  language  func=on  for   your  learning  segment  with  explicit  aEen=on  to  craFing  language  objec=ves;  and       Direct  you  to  key  readings  and  resources  for  further  learning.  
  3. 3. 3   What  linguistic  and  cultural  awareness  is  needed  to  begin   to  work  effectively  with  ELLs?   Imagine  spending  every  class  at  Hunter  struggling   to  understand  the  content  while  instruction  is   delivered  in  a  foreign  language.   •  hat  strategies  or  resources  would  you  call   W upon?       •  hat  effect  would  it  have  on  your  motivation?   W Now  imagine  that  you  were  able  to  make  some   sense  of  what  was  being  taught...but  the  only   way  to  demonstrate  that  understanding  was   through  extended  essay  responses,  in  the  foreign   language.      
  4. 4. 4   What  does  the  term  “ELL”  mean?   An  English  Language  Learner  (ELL)  is  a   student  that  speaks  a  language  other   than  English  at  home  and  scores  below  a   state-­‐designated  level  of  proficiency  in   English  upon  entering  the  New  York  City   public  school  system.  While  New  York   City  refers  to  these  students  as  ELLs,   New  York  state  refers  to  them  as  Limited   English  Proficient  (LEP).    They  are  legally   entitled  to  specialized  English  language   development  services.    
  5. 5. 5   Identification  and  Testing  of  ELLs   •  How  are  ELLs  identified?       •  Where  can  I  find  information  on  my   ELLs  such  as  level  of  proficiency,   prior  education,  and  biographical   information?   •  How  are  ELLs  designated  as  English   Proficient?   •  What  about  accommodations  for   ELLs  on  state  exams?      
  6. 6. 6   A  brief  legal  history     Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964,  especially  Title  VI       Elementary  and  Secondary  Education  Act  (ESEA)     The  Bilingual  Education  Act  of  1968  (Title  VII  of  the  ESEA)     Lau  v.  Nichols,  1974     Aspira  Consent  Decree,  1975     New  York  State  CR  Part  154   All school districts and therefore all teachers have a dual obligation in the law to serve English learners by: Developing students’ English proficiency •  English Language Development (ELD) Providing meaningful access to academic content instruction •  Sheltered Instruction
  7. 7. 7   What  is  the  US  ELL  population?   ①  About  5  million  students  in  the  United  States  —  1  in  10  of   all  those  enrolled  in  public  schools  —  is  an  ELL,  a  60%   increase  from  1996  to  2006  (versus  a  3%  overall   increase).   ②  States  with  the  largest  percentages  of  ELLs:  California   (24.7%),  Texas  (14.8%),  Arizona  (13.8%),  Colorado   (10.6%),  Illinois  (9.0%),  Florida  (8.7%)  and  New  York   (7.6%)   ③  The  highest  growth  has  been  in  the  Southeastern  U.S.,   where  the  ELL  population  has  experienced  a  200%   increase  over  the  past  15  years.  
  8. 8. 8   Poverty  and  ELLs   ①  The  majority  of  ELLs  in  the  U.S.   come  from  families  in  poverty   (below  the  poverty  threshold)  or   families  with  low  income  (below   200%  of  the  poverty  threshold).     ②  ELLs  are  more  likely  to  have   parents  with  less  than  a  high   school  education,  and  in  2007   over  25%  of  immigrant  children   lived  in  households  in  which   parents  did  not  have  a  high   school  diploma.     ③  21%  of  children  in  immigrant   families  lived  in  poverty  in  2007,   and  49%  lived  in  families  with   low  incomes.  
  9. 9. 9   The  ELL  Achievement  Gap   ①  An  early  and  persistent  achievement  gap   exists  between  ELLs  and  their  non-­‐ELL   peers.   ②  The  achievement  gap  between  ELLs  and   their  non-­‐ELL  peers  in  NYC  has  been   evident  for  many  years  in  the  state’s  grade   3-­‐8  math  and  ELA  tests.   ③  In  2011,  only  12.4%  of  ELLs  in  grades  3-­‐8   were  proficient  (scoring  a  3  or  4)  on  the   state  ELA  test.   ④  In  2011,  only  34.5%  of  ELLs  in  grades  3-­‐8   were  proficient  (scoring  a  3  or  4)  on  the   state  math  test.  
  10. 10. 10   The  Need  for  Content  to  be  Made  Accessible   Persistent  gap  in  academic  achievement  for  those   from  culturally  and  linguistically  diverse  groups:   "  Many  teachers  are  underprepared  to  make  content   comprehensible  for  ELLs.     "  Few  teachers  trained  to  teach  initial  literacy  or   content-­‐area  literacy  to  secondary  ELLs.   "  ELLs  are  tested  in  all  subject  areas  well  before  they   reach  proficiency  in  English   "  ELLs  take  6-­‐8  years  to  develop  academic  English  and   during  that  time  cannot  lose  years  of  content-­‐area   learning  
  11. 11. 11   Who  are  ELLs  in  New  York  City?  
  12. 12. 12   What  are  the  characteristics  of  different  types  of  ELLs?   Student  Subpopulation  Type   Key  Characteristics  of  the  Subpopulation   ①  The  accelerated  student   •  •  •  In  U.S.  4  years  or  fewer   Schooling  in  native  country  excellent   Highly  literate  in  L1   ②  The  newcomer   •  •  •  In  U.S.  3  years  or  fewer   May  be  on  or  behind  grade  level   Difficulty  achieving  proficiency  milestones   ③  Students  with  Interrupted  Formal  Education   (SIFE)   •  •  •  •  In  U.S.  4  years  of  fewer   Schooling  in  native  country  was  disjointed  or  has  no  formal   schooling   3  or  more  grade  levels  behind  in  math   Slow  acquisition  of  English   ④  The  long-­‐term  ELL  (LTELL)   •  •  •  •  In  U.S.  7  or  more  years   Usually  orally  proficient  but  struggle  in  reading/writing   Low  literacy  in  L1   Lack  of  credits  earned  per  age  (over-­‐age  student)   ⑤  The  ELL  in  special  education  (ELLSE)   •  •  May  or  may  not  be  born  in  US   May  receive  special  education  for  physical,  social,  emotional,  or   learning  differences   May  have  difficulties  with  social  interaction,  speech  and  hearing,  or   cognitive  processing   • 
  13. 13. 13   Bilingual  Ed  and  Dual  Language:  Subtractive  vs.  Additive   Bilingual  Education  Programs   Transitional  or   1-­‐3  years  of  native  language  instruction  for  a  small  percentage  of  the   One-­‐way  Bilingual   school  day.  Fairly  rapid  phase-­‐out  of  student’s  native  language.   Education  (TBE)   Studies  have  shown  that  English  is  the  effective  medium  of  instruction   from  72  to  92%  of  the  time  in  TBE.   Maintenance  or   Native  language  instruction  continues  alongside  English  50-­‐50   Two-­‐way  Bilingual   throughout  grades  K-­‐5  and  occasionally  continues  on  to  secondary   Education  (BLE)   school.  Goal  is  full  bilingualism/biliteracy.  BLE  is  an  additive  model.   Dual  Language   Education  (DL)  or   Two-­‐way   Immersion   Language  majority  and  minority  students  learn  together  as  both   languages  alternate  as  the  medium  of  instruction  in  the  content  areas.   May  be  implemented  as  alternate  days  or  as  a  greater  percentage  in   early  years  and  decreasing  to  50-­‐50.  Additive  model.  
  14. 14. 14   ESL  Programs     English  Language  Development  (ELD)  Programs  (ESL/ESOL  Programs)   Pull-­‐out   ESL   ELLs  attend  classes  with  mainstream  students  except  for  designated  periods  of   English  language  instruction.  ELLs  are  removed  from  their  general  education/ mainstream  classroom  to  work  with  the  ESL  teacher.  Communication  between   mainstream  and  ESL  teacher  is  essential.   Push-­‐in   ESL   Same  as  pull-­‐out,  except  that  the  ESL  lesson  occurs  in  the  mainstream  classroom.   Collaboration  with  class  teacher  may  follow  several  models.   Co-­‐ teaching   ELLs  receive  lessons  alongside  mainstream/general  education  peers  as  classroom/ content  teacher  and  ESL  teacher  team  teach.   ESL  stand-­‐ alone/self-­‐ contained   In  elementary  schools,  ELLs  may  be  grouped  together  and  receive  all  of  their   instruction  from  a  dually  certified  teacher.  In  secondary  schools,  ELLs  may  receive  a   period  of  ELD  a  day  from  an  ESL  teacher,  often  as  their  ELA  (English  Language  Arts)   class.  
  15. 15. Mandated  State  Services     Students  in  bilingual  programs  or  free-­‐standing  ESL  programs  must  receive  a  certain   number  of  periods  of  ESL  a  week  based  on  their  language  and  grade  level  as  follows:         K-­‐8    Beginner—2  periods  a  day  (360  minutes  per  week)    Intermediate—2  periods  a  day   (360  minutes  per  week)    Advanced—1  period  a  day  (180  minutes  per  week)           9-­‐12    Beginner—3  periods  a  day  (540  minutes  per  week)    Intermediate—2  periods  a  day   (360  minutes  per  week)    Advanced—1  period  a  day  (180  minutes  per  week)           Students  in  bilingual  programs  must  also  receive  1  period  of  Na=ve  Language  Arts  (NLA)   per  day.   However,  students  in  many  elementary  se^ngs  do  not  receive  their  mandated  minutes   due  to  ESL  teachers  being  pulled  into  tes=ng  and  serving  as  covering  teachers.             15  
  16. 16. 16   Agree  or  Disagree?   1.  Learning  two  languages  during  the  early  childhood  years  is  confusing  to  young  children  and   should  be  avoided.   2.  Children  are  faster  language  learners  than  adolescents  or  adults.   3.  A  great  way  for  parents  to  support  their  ELL  children  is  to  try  to  use  English  at  home  as  much   as  possible.   4.  Teachers  need  to  know  the  native  language  of  students  in  order  to  be  able  to  effectively   instruct  them.     5.  Students  being  able  to  speak  in  English  is  a  good  indication  of  their  proficiency  level  in  English.   6.  English  is  one  of  the  easier  languages  to  learn.   7.  Teachers  should  avoid  simplifying  reading  materials  for  ELLs  since  the  state  tests  will  have   very  challenging  reading  passages.   8.  Effective  teaching  of  ELLs  is  really  just  good  teaching.  
  17. 17. 17   These  are  all  common  myths  that  can  lead  to     unsound  instructional  decisions     1.  Learning  two  languages  during  the  early  childhood  years  is  confusing  to  young  children  and   should  be  avoided.   2.  Children  are  faster  language  learners  than  adolescents  or  adults.   3.  A  great  way  for  parents  to  support  their  ELL  children  is  to  try  to  use  English  at  home  as  much   as  possible.   4.  Teachers  need  to  know  the  native  language  of  students  in  order  to  be  able  to  effectively   instruct  them.     5.  Students  being  able  to  speak  in  English  is  a  good  indication  of  their  proficiency  level  in  English.   6.  English  is  one  of  the  easier  languages  to  learn.   7.  Teachers  should  avoid  simplifying  reading  materials  for  ELLs  since  the  state  tests  will  have   very  challenging  reading  passages.   8.  Effective  teaching  of  ELLs  is  really  just  good  teaching.  
  18. 18. 18   Access  to  Content  and  Language  Learning   Sheltering  opens  the  door   for  ELLs  to  content   learning.       Language  teaching  gets   students  through  the  door  and   beyond.   Sheltering  Involves:   •  ontent  objectives   C •  nowledge  of  the  linguistic   K demands  of  the  content   •  iscourse  adaptations   D •  ext  modifications   T Language  Teaching  involves:   •  anguage  objectives   L •  nowledge  of  the  linguistic   K demands  of  the  required   student  activity   • nstruction  in  grammar,   I vocabulary,  L-­‐S-­‐R-­‐W  as  they   relate  to  the  content  demands  
  19. 19. 19   Sheltered  Content  Instruction   1)  Understanding  the  linguistic  and  background  knowledge   2)  3)  4)  5)  demands  of  the  content   Adapting  Materials   Modifying  Teacher  Talk   Building  Background  Knowledge   Seeking  Cultural  Connections  
  20. 20. 20   Sheltered  Content  Instruction   1.    Understanding  the  demands  of  content-­‐area  materials  and  tasks   Each  content  area  has  unique  discourse  features   that  make  comprehension  challenging     Effective  presentation  of  content  to  ELLs  requires   teachers  to  consider  what  will  be  challenging   about  the  content  area  materials  and  task         Be  aware  of  common  patterns  that  make  learning  difficulty  for  ELLs  in   this  content  area:             Social  Studies:    rushing  through  material  to  “cover”  large  time   bands   Science:    extensive  use  of  “definitions”  copied  down  but  not  used  in   student  language  production   Math:  requests  to  solve  word  problems  without  recognition  of   multiple  meanings  of  words   Literature:  lexical  density  of  readings  which  make  texts   incomprehensible     The  language  of  the   content  area  is  often   invisible  to  those  who  live   in  it.  
  21. 21. 21     In  social  studies,  long  sentences  with  multiple   embedded  clauses  are  common.     Frequent  use  of  pronouns  it  and  they  as   referents.     Use  of  non-­‐referential  “There  are”     Cause  and  effect  statements  are  frequent.     Because  there  will  be  more  people  in  the   world  in  the  future,  we  will  need  more  land   on  which  to  build  towns  and  cities.   Discourse  Features     Various  verb  forms  are  used:     “I  found  Rome  a  city  of  bricks  and  left  it  a   city  of  marble.”    Augustus  is  supposed  to   have  spoken  these  words  as  he  lay  dying.     He  was  Rome’s  first  emperor,  and  started   the  first  of  its  great  building  programs.    He   claimed  that  he  had  had  over  80  temples   rebuilt.   Social  Studies   C o n t   e n t     Consideration:       ELLs  may  have  no   background  “schema”  to   draw  on  to  make  sense  of   topics,  such  as  the   American  Revolution   Asset:   ELLs  may  bring  personal   geographical,  political,   and  societal  experiences   that  can  be  related  to  the   topic  being  taught  
  22. 22. 22     Use  of  passive  voice     Nominaliza=on  (turning  ac=ons  into   noun  forms,  e.g.  the???     Discourse  Features     Long  noun  phrases  serving  as  subjects  or   Science   objects     If…then  construc=ons  and  logical   connectors  (if,  because,  however,   consequently)     The  Calvin  cycle  is  some=mes  referred   to  as  the  “light-­‐independent  reac=ons” because,  unlike  the  light  reac=ons,  it   does  not  require  light  to  begin.     However,  this  does  not  mean  that  the   Calvin  cycle  can  con=nue  running  in  a   plant  kept  in  the  dark.    The  Calvin  cycle   requires  two  inputs  supplied  by  the  light   reac=ons,  ATP  and  NADPH." C o n t   e n t     Consideration:   ELLs  greatly   benefit  from   experiments  and   demonstrations   that  are   witnessed  and   then  transposed   into  writing,  and   the  opportunity  to   talk  with  partners  
  23. 23. 23       Compara=ves:     6  is  greater  than  4     María  earns  six  =mes  as  much  as  Peter     Lin  is  as  old  as  Roberto   Preposi=ons:       (divided)  into,  divided  by,       2  mul=plied  by  6  and  X  exceeds  2  by  7     Passive  voice:       X  is  defined  as  a  number  greater  than  7.         Reversals:  The  number  a  is  five  less  than  b.     Logical  connectors:  if…then     If  a  is  posi=ve  then  -­‐a  is  nega=ve.   Discourse  Features   Mathematics   C o n t   e n t     Students  are   taught  different   ways  of  setting  up   and  solving   problems  around   the  world—look   out  for   opportunities  for   your  ELLs  to   share  the  ways   they’ve  learned  to   approach   problems  
  24. 24. 24     Less-­‐used  Vocabulary     Use  of  dialects  and  regional   voice     Discourse  Features   Heavy  use  of  idiomatic   expressions,  cliches,  aphorisms     Time  and  voice  shifts,  differing   points  of  view       Direct  and  reported  speech   Literature   C o n t   e n t     ELLs  comprehend   more  readily   when  the  story  is   culturally  familiar   or  relevant  
  25. 25. 25   Sheltered  Content  Instruction   2.    Modifying  Materials   Making  reading  and  listening  materials  comprehensible  so  that  ELLs  gain   access  to  the  core  content  concepts  is  essential  to  promoting  ELLs   academic  progress.   Some  modifications  include:                     Adding  a  glossary   Adding  visuals   Reducing  text  length  (Abridging)   Editing  out  portions  of  the  text   Creating  a  summary  of  key  points   Shortening  sentence  length   Expanding  in  sections  which  require  more  explanation   Providing  native  language  translation   Audio  versions  of  text  
  26. 26. 26   Sheltered  Content  Instruction   3.  Adapting  Teacher  Talk   It’s  always  clear  when  a  content  teacher  makes  their  talk   comprehensible  to  their  ELL  audience.   Ques8ons  to  ask  yourself   Considera8ons   What  will  I  do  when  I  speak  to  make  my   speech  more  easily  understood  and   meaningful  for  my  learners?   Modify  your  speech  through  text  support,   visual  aids,  gestures,  expressions,  body   language,  slower  rate,  repe==on,  re-­‐ phrasing,  facing  students  rather  than  the   board,  and  word  choice.   How  will  I  know  my  input  is   comprehensible?     Assessment  checks  such  as  circula=ng,   thumbs  up/down,  pencils  up,  response   boards.  
  27. 27. 27   Sheltered  Content  Instruction   4.  Building  Background  Knowledge   Sejong is a well known Daewang in Korea. Every Korean school child knows about him.
  28. 28. 28   Rather  than  assume  prior  knowledge,  build  it   Sejong  is  a  well  known  Daewang  in   Korea.    Every  Korean  school  child   knows  about  him. Henry  the  VIII  is  a  well  known   Daewang  in  England.    Every  British   school  child  knows  about  him.   Questions  to  ask  yourself   Considerations   What  do  my  students  already  know  about  this   topic?  Do  they  have  cultural  knowledge  or   experiences  that  can  bridge  this  content?   Look  into  and  learn  cultural  references  that  can   bridge  your  students’  learning.   What  visual,  graphic,  video,  music,  map,   drawing,  etc.  can  convey  important  background   information  without  words?   Always  have  visuals!  
  29. 29. 29   Sheltered  Content  Instruction   5.  Seeking  Cultural  Connections   How  can  students’  cultural  “funds  of  knowledge”  be  accessed  for   student  learning?   Consider:                 Finding  out  the  home  countries  and  language  heritage  of  your  ELLs   Learning  to  pronounce  names  and  asking  to  be  taught  some  expressions  in   students’  home  languages   Posting  word  walls  and  classroom  signage  in  multiple  languages   Finding  materials/websites/dictionaries/translations  of  materials  in  students’   home  languages   Drawing  students  into  conversations  about  cultural  practices  that  differ  (beyond   food  and  holidays),  to  include  notions  of  time,  politeness,  attitudes  towards  the   elderly,  family  obligations,  male/female  role  expectations   Purposefully  finding  authors,  stories,  and  texts  that  feature  the  home  countries   and  neighborhoods  of  your  ELLs    
  30. 30. 30   English  Language  Development   English  Language  Development   1)  Understanding  the  linguistic  demands  of  the  performance  tasks   2)  Targeting  a  language  function   3)  Developing  Language  Objectives   4)  Structuring  activities  for  student  output   5)  Designing  vocabulary  instruction  
  31. 31. 31   English  Language  Development:   1.    Understanding  the  linguistic  demands  of  the  performance  task   Consider  the  oral  and  wriEen   language  by  which  students  develop   and  express  content  understandings.     “Bricks  and  Mortar”   Bricks  are  the  nouns,  verbs,  adverbs  and  adjec=ves  that   are  rela=vely  easy  to  explain  to  language  learners.  They   convey  most  of  the  mee=ng  of  a  text,  we  can  usually   show  pictures  or  ac=ons  that  illustrate  them,  and  they   are  the  most  easily  learned.  However,  a  text  cannot  be   comprehended  without  mastery  of  the  mortar,  the   language  that  holds  the  brick  together  and  conveys  the   message.        
  32. 32. 32   English  Language  Development:   2.    Targeting  a  Language  Function     Savignon  (1983)  describes  a  language  function  as  “the  use  to  which  language   is  put”.     Most  of  what  we  say  is  for  a  specific  purpose.  Whether  we  are   apologizing,  expressing  a  wish  or  asking  permission,  we  use  language  in   order  to  fulfill  that  purpose.  Each  purpose  can  be  known  as  a  language   function.     These  functions  require  particular  language  forms  to  be  enacted.    For   example,  what  language  is  involved  in  the  function  of  “Making   suggestions”?       In  addition  to  creating  situations  that  demand  the  function  be  used,   teachers  must  also  be  prepared  to  explain  and  show  students  that  there   may  be  a  large  number  of  possible  ways  to  fulfill  each  function  of   language.  
  33. 33. 33   Language  Function  chosen  for  the  unit   Could  be  drawn  from:       the  task  (what  language  will  kids  need  to   use  when  they  do  the  ac=vity  in  this   lesson?)     student  language  learning  needs  (what   language  have  I  been  no=cing  kids  need  to   work  on?)     the  language  func=on  targeted  in  Common   Core  (what  language  will  kids  need  to  work   towards  the  specified  language  demand?)     Bloom’s  Taxonomy  and  Webb’s  Depth  of   Knowledge  are  good  places  to  find   Language  Func=ons  
  34. 34. 34   English  Language  Development:   3.    Identifying  Language  Objectives   Imagine  the  content  objective  is  for  students  to  understand  the  differences  between  two:    Characters  (English),   Problem-­‐solving  approaches  (Math),  Plant  forms  (Science),  or  Governments  (Social  Studies).   Then  think  about  the  language  students  will  need  to  use  in  order  to  express  that  understanding.    The  best  thing  is  to   try  to  do  the  performance  task  yourself  and  then  look  back  at  the  language  there.   Language  Objec8ves  are  not  “created”  but  EXTRACTED  from  the  tasks  students  need  to  perform  in  the  lesson.   Language  Objec8ves:       Used  to  help  focus  the  instruc=on  and  assessment  on  students’  understanding  or  produc=on  of  language.       Breaks  down  the  language  func=on  and  makes  it  concrete  for  the  teacher  and  the  students.     Useful  for  clarity  around  what  language  the  teacher  wants  to  see  kids  using  in  the  lesson     Useful  for  clarity  around  what  language  the  teacher  should  be  modeling  and  promo=ng  in  the  lesson   Receptive  language  goals  (listening  or  reading):   Students  will  (listen  or  read)  to  identify  X  (language  structure)  such  as  Z  (vocabulary)  in  Y  (language  function).   Example:    Students  will  read  to  identify  transition  words  of  contrast  such  as  whereas,  on  the  other  hand  in  a   descriptive  paragraph.   Expressive  language  (speaking  or  writing  goal):   Students  will  (speak  or  write)  using  X  (language  structure)  to  Y  (language  function)  using  Z  (vocabulary).   Example:  Students  will  write  using  transition  words  of  contrast  to  describe  using  whereas  and  on  the  other  hand.  
  35. 35. 35   Language  Objective  Examples   Problema8c  Language  Objec8ves:     Students  will  listen,  speak,  read  and  write  for  informa4on.    (too  broad)     Students  will  apply  their  knowledge  of  the  reading.    (not  developed  enough)     Students  will  write  a  persuasive  essay.  (too  large  for  a  lesson)     Students  will  write  down  four  interes4ng  facts  on  post-­‐its.  (an  ac4vity  not  a  learning  goal)     Students  will  analyze  characteriza4on  in  two  short  stories.  (ELA  not  ESL)     Students  will  learn  the  difference  between  famous  and  infamous.  (vocab  only)     Examples  of  Language  Objec8ves:     SWBAT  to  tell  a  friend  they  like  their  ouoit  using  a  variety  of  compliments  such  as  “I  love  that   sweater”  “that  color  looks  great  on  you”.       SWBAT  use  their  knowledge  of  word  roots  to  guess  meaning  of  a  group  of  words  all  star=ng  with   “inter”  in  a  reading  passage.       SWBAT  talk  to  a  partner  about  their  predic=ons  for  a  story  using  the  phrases  “I  predict  that…”   and  “I  think  that…”  and  the  future  “will”  tense.       SWBAT  write  in  the  condi=onal  form/  If  then  statements  of  “If  I  were  the  _____  then  I   would________  ”  and  “If  I  were  the  _____  then  I  would  not_____”  in  order  to  develop  a   persuasive  speech.       SWBAT  use  listening  skills  to  iden=fy  the  quali=es  of  tenement  apartments  such  as  “dank”,   “cramped”  and  “crowded”.       SWBAT  read  in  order  to  define  the  steps  of  how  sound  is  produced  using  the  words:    waves,   vibra=on,  loud,  soF.    
  36. 36. 36   English  Language  Development:   4.    Structuring  activities  for  student  output  of  target  language     Once  you  are  clear  about  the  language   forms  you  wish  to  hear  students  using  in   their  talk  or  see  students  using  in  their   wri=ng,  you  will  beEer  be  able  to  model   those  forms  in  your  examples,  and   require  their  use  in  students’  ac=vi=es.     Sentence  starters,  vocabulary  banks,   prompts,  and  models  are  ways  to  make   your  expecta=ons  about  language  use   explicit  to  students  and  to  support  them     You  will  then  be  able  to  assess  their  use   and  provide  correc=ve  feedback  on  not   just  content  but  language  as  well.  
  37. 37. 37   English  Language  Development:   5.    Designing  Vocabulary  Instruction   Why  do  so  many  ELLs  struggle  to  acquire  academic  language?   •  Lack  of  opportunity  to  develop  literacy  in  their  first  language   •  Lack  of  opportunity  to  learn  and  develop  academic  language   in  classrooms  due  to  insufficient:   School  “reverence”  for  instructional  time  for  ELLs   Collaboration  between  ESL  and  classroom  teachers   Discourse  adaptations  made  by  classroom  teachers   Development  of  language  objectives  within  lessons   Text  modifications  for  ELLs   Attention  to  vocabulary  
  38. 38. 38   Why  focus  on  vocabulary   In  order  for  teachers  to  make  principled  choices  about   teaching  vocabulary,  we  need  to  understand:     what  “vocabulary”  is     how  words  are  learned     what  “knowing”  a  word  means     how  to  select  vocabulary  to  teach     ways  to  provide  vocabulary  instruc=on  
  39. 39. 39   What  is  “a  vocabulary”?   Vocabulary  can  consist  of:     Variable  phrases:    It  has  come  to  ___attention  that…     Phrasal  verbs:  throw  +  up     Idioms:  let  the  cat  out  of  the  bag,  kind  of     Single  words:    tablecloth  –  coffee  cup     Set  phrases:    ladies  and  gentlemen  
  40. 40. 40   How  words  are  learned     Multiple  neural  pathways  to   “retrieve”  the  word  must  be   constructed-­‐the  more  different   pathways,  the  better     These  neural  pathways  are   deeply  connected  to  personal   encounters  and  experiences   with  the  words     Multiple  neural  pathways  to   “retrieve”  the  word  must  be   traveled  frequently.    10-­‐12   active  retrievals  are  necessary   for  word  learning.  
  41. 41. 41   Why  “knowing”  a  word  in  English  is  so  complex   Knowing  a  word  means  knowing  its:     •  ultiple  meanings   M •  onnotations   C •  pelling   S •  ronunciation   P •  art  of  speech   P •  requency   F •  sage   U •  ollocations   C And  it  needs  to  function  in  receptive   and  productive  skills  (listening,   speaking,  reading  and  writing)  
  42. 42. 42   Thinking  about  your  ELLs  in  your  edTPA:       Writing  the  Instructional  Context   ①  Make  sure  to  find  out  about  which  students  in  your  class  are  currently  receiving  ESL  services,  and   which  ones  have  recently  exited  ESL.   ②  For  those  receiving  services,  find  out  their  language  proficiency  profile:    emergent  through  advanced.     Determine  whether  they  are  stronger  in  speaking  or  writing  skills.    Find  out  their  native  language   proficiency  levels.           ③  For  each  ELL,  find  out  what  type  of  ELL  profile  they  fit:    accelerated,  newcomer,  SLIFE,  LTELL,  ELLSE,   etc.   ④  Find  out  about  the  linguistic,  cultural,  and  community  “funds  of  knowledge”  of  your  ELLs.    Your  ELLs   bring  in  a  wealth  of  knowledge  you  can  draw  out  for  the  benefit  of  your  curriculum  and  the  class   community.           ⑤  Complete  the  chart  with  rich  contextual  and  biographical  information  on  your  ELL  students.    This  will   convey  to  the  scorers  that  you  are  committed  to  knowing  and  supporting  these  students  in  your   instruction.  
  43. 43. 43   Thinking  about  your  ELLs  in  your  edTPA   Task  1-­‐Planning   ①  Use  a  lesson  planning  template  that  clearly  shows  your  content  AND  language  objectives  as  they  fit  within  a   single  language  function.   ②  Make  sure  that  your  language  objectives  do  not  simply  present  single  words  used  only  in  your  content  area.     Situate  the  vocabulary  in  usable  chunks  based  on  which  statements  students  will  need  to  make  in  speech  or   writing.   ③  Look  across  your  3-­‐5  lessons  and  make  sure  all  of  your  language  objectives  move  students  towards  a   particular  language  function,  and  recycle  rather  than  overload  vocabulary  that  doesn’t  get  used.       ④  Clearly  identify  the  modifications  and  supports  you  will  use  to  differentiate  the  learning  tasks  for  your  ELLs  in   your  plan—these  scaffolds  are  how  you  provide  language  supports  for  the  language  demands  placed  on   students  by  the  materials  and  tasks.   ⑤  Provide  access  to  ELLs  with  beginning  levels  of  English  proficiency  with  modified  materials,  especially   including  visuals  to  ensure  their  comprehension  of  the  content.   ⑥  Plan  assessments  that  can  enable  you  to  assess  your  ELLs’  understanding  of  your  content-­‐area  goals  as  well   as  moving  towards  the  language  function.   ⑦  In  your  planning  commentary,  be  prepared  to  cite  literature  on  the  teaching  of  your  content  area  to  ELLs  to   support  your  instructional  decisions.  
  44. 44. 44   Thinking  about  your  ELLs  in  your  edTPA:       Task  2-­‐Instruction   ①  Think  about  intentional  grouping  or  pairing  to  make  sure  you  can  circulate  to  support  your  ELLs  with   beginning  or  intermediate  English  proficiency.   ②  Ensure  that  the  language  you  want  your  ELLs  to  practice  using  is  modeled,  and  required  during  the   student  learning  tasks.   ③  Capture  how  you  encourage  the  development  of  content  ideas  as  well  as  language  skills.   ④  Try  to  get  video  of  student-­‐to-­‐student  talk  using  the  target  language  forms.     ⑤  Plan  to  provide  targeted  feedback  to  your  ELLs  as  they  are  engaged  in  the  learning  tasks  and  capture  that   on  your  video.   ⑥  In  your  Instruction  commentary,  be  prepared  to  cite  literature  on  the  teaching  of  your  content  area  to   ELLs  to  support  your  instructional  decisions.  
  45. 45. 45   Thinking  about  your  ELLs  in  your  edTPA:       Task  3-­‐Assessment   ①  Think  ahead  about  how  you  will  monitor  your  ELLs  progress  in  the  lesson  and  use  of  the  targeted  language   forms  during  the  lesson.   ②  Determine  what  evidence  of  both  content  learning  and  language  use  you  can  collect  at  the  end  of  your   learning  segment  for  analysis—remember  you  can  capture  written  as  well  as  spoken  artifacts  by  video  or   audio  recording  your  students.   ③  Ensure  that  you  include  ELL  learning  objectives  in  your  analysis  of  overall  class  performance  and  of  any   ELLs  that  you’ve  chosen  to  focus  on  as  your  target  learners.   ④  Remember  that  differentiated  assessments  (products)  are  sound  practice  for  ELLs  at  all  proficiency  levels.   ⑤  In  your  assessment  commentary,  be  prepared  to  cite  literature  on  the  assessment  of  your  content  area  to   ELLs  to  support  your  instructional  decisions.  
  46. 46. 46   Resources  for  English  Language  Learners     Up://schools.nyc.gov/Academics/ELL/default.htm   h   YC  DoE  Informa=on  and  resources  for  teaching  ELLs   N   ww.colorincolorado.org   w   ite  for  teachers  and  parents  in  English  and  Spanish   S   Up://wida.us   h   ome  of  “Can-­‐Do”  English  language  development  standards  and  PD  materials   H  hUp://www.teachthought.com/learning/50-­‐incredibly-­‐useful-­‐links-­‐for-­‐ell-­‐   educators/      helpful  list  of  many  ESL  teaching  resources  sites   A   Up://translate.google.com   h   ot  like  human  transla=on  but  great  for  a  start  and  easy  to  copy/paste  English  text   N into,  then  choose  an  output  language-­‐almost  all  NYC  languages  represented  
  47. 47. 47   Final  Tips  and  Take  Aways:     Collaborate  with  colleagues-­‐How  can  ESL  teachers  work  alongside  classroom   and  content  teachers?     Operate  from  a  strengths-­‐based  perspec=ve-­‐What  are  ELLs  bringing  to  the   classroom  and  what  are  they  able  to  do  in  more  than  one  language?     Consider  the  linguis=c  challenges  of  content-­‐area  materials—what  can  you   do  to  make  content  more  accessible?     Think  of  vocabulary  as  word  chunks  rather  than  single  words.    Plan  for   repeated  exposure  to  and  required  use  of  targeted  vocabulary/language     Integrate  language  goals  with  content  area  tasks—what  do  students  need  to   do  with  language  to  express  their  learning  of  your  content?    How  can  those   performance  tasks  shape  your  language  supports?