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Jackson for slideshare


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Jackson for slideshare

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Unit 5 – Growing Nation<br />Spring 2009<br />
  3. 3. America under Andrew Jackson<br /><br />
  4. 4. Who is Andrew Jackson?<br />War of 1812 Hero<br />Orphan – family “killed by British” <br />Frontiersman<br />Horse racer<br />Indian fighter<br />Land speculator <br />“Old Hickory” – one tough cookie<br />“self-made man”<br />Not from Virginia or Adams<br />
  5. 5. Campaign of 1824 - 1828<br />1824 - Major Sectionalism – people couldn’t pick a winner <br />1824 – went to HR – Picked John Quincy Adams<br />1828 – Ruthless campaign – Adams vs. Jackson<br />Jackson Wins<br />
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  7. 7. Spoils System<br />Informal practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party<br />As opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity.<br />The term was derived from the phrase "'to the victor belong the spoils…” <br />Westerners/Jackson supporters, came to DC expecting pres. to give them jobs<br />
  8. 8. Jacksonian Democracy <br />Tried to get ‘regular people’ more involved in democracy<br />Example, all white men can now vote, not just land owners<br />Want for the ‘common man’ to have more of a say in his government – <br />Supported Manifest Destiny<br />Avoid Slavery argument <br />
  9. 9. Changes in Elections<br />Does away with caucus system, creates nominating conventions<br />
  10. 10. The Tariff Debate – North vs. South<br />1828 – high tariff placed on European Imported manufactured goods<br />North – loved tariff, made European goods more expensive, people bought North produced products<br />South – Hated the tariff, meant higher prices for them<br />Group of Southern states decided to protest – they felt they should be able to nullify, or “undo,” the law<br />
  11. 11. South Protests <br />Some Southerners, including the VP, wanted to secede from the union <br />South’s argument: since the states decided to join the union, they should get to decide if they leave<br />Two senators, Webster and Hayne, got into major debates about this in the Senate. Became known as Webster-Hayne Debate<br />
  12. 12. What did Jackson do?<br />He was invited to speak at a dinner with Southerners who wanted to secede. <br />Said, “Our federal union…must be preserved!”<br />He did not support states leaving<br />In response, his VP said, “The union—next to our liberty, most dear,” and resigned from the VP job to be elected into the Senate to debate<br />
  13. 13. Nullification Crisis<br />The state of South Carolina passed a law saying they would not pay the high tariff<br />In response, Jackson passed the Force Bill, saying he would use the army to make South Carolinians pay the tariff<br />They compromised and created a lower tariff – no side was truly happy about this<br />
  14. 14. Native American Relations<br />5 Native Tribes Involved:<br />Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations<br />Americans were eager for land to raise cotton, Jackson agreed<br />Some Peaceful negogations: 1814-24, natives traded land in east for land in the west <br />The tribes agreed to the treaties for strategic reasons. <br />They wanted to appease the government in the hopes of retaining some of their land, and they wanted to protect themselves from white harassment. <br />US took control of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky and North Carolina. <br />This was voluntary Indian migration, however, and only a small number of Creeks, Cherokee and Choctaws actually moved<br />
  15. 15. Indian Removal Act - 1830<br />president got the power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. <br />Natives who stayed had to become citizens of the US State they lived in <br />Supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, but the southeastern nations resisted, and Jackson forced them to leave.<br />
  16. 16. Trail of tears<br />The Cherokee were tricked with a bad treaty. <br />Cherokee given 2 yrs. to migrate voluntarily<br />By 1838 only 2,000 had migrated; 16,000 remained <br />U.S. sent in troops<br />forced the Cherokees into stockades at bayonet point. They were not allowed time to gather their belongings, and as they left, whites looted their homes. <br />Began the march known as the Trail of Tears<br />4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and disease on their way to the western lands. <br />
  17. 17. Results:<br />By 1837, the Jackson administration had removed 46,000 Native American people from their land east of the Mississippi, <br />opening 25 million acres of land to white settlement and to slavery.<br />
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  19. 19. Jackson Leaves Presidency<br />His VP, Martin Van Buren – 1 term<br />Whigs, William Harrison– 1 term<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Stephen Austin and <br />Sam Houston<br />
  22. 22. How did people get to Texas? Tension Rises <br />Given major pieces of land by Mexican government<br />But, you had to promise to speak Spanish, become Mexican citizen, etc.<br />By 1830, most people in Texas were from the United States<br />US offered to buy TX twice<br />
  23. 23. Texas Revolution Hi-lights<br />1835 - Battle at San Antonio – Texans win, think the war is won <br />1836 - Alamo – many TX and Mexicans killed – Mexican victory – but Santa Anna Captured<br />Texas Declares Independence <br />1836 - San Jacinto – TX victory <br />Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – sets TX/Mexican border along the Rio Grande river<br />
  24. 24. Missouri Compromise and Texas – Texas doesn’t become a state until 1844<br />Free/Slave<br />Arkansas and Michigan both Came in and kept the balance<br />Jackson, Van Buren ignored TX, WHY?<br />
  25. 25. BAV: annex<br />to attach, append, or add, especially to something larger or more important<br />
  26. 26. The Mexican American War<br />New Mexico was the territory between Texas and CA<br />Native Americans lived there, but Mexico formally owned <br />Mexico tried to keep Americans out but had a hard time enforcing that<br />
  27. 27. Santa Fe Trail<br />Went from Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM<br />Trade route – mostly flat, so wagons worked well<br />Used until the RR came in<br />Made lots of Americans come into Mexican territory<br />
  28. 28. California’s Spanish Culture<br />Missions established by Spanish <br />CA became a state in Mexico <br />1833 Mexico abolished missions, missions bought by Mexican wealthy<br />Americans visited CA for years and began settling it<br />Pres. Polk offered to buy 2x, along with NM <br />
  29. 29. Conflict<br />James Polk determined to get CA and NM<br />Wanted to fulfill Manifest Destiny<br />Polk believed these territories rightfully belonged to the US<br />Mexico became even more angry when TX became part of US<br />General Taylor was attacked after setting up a fort in NM<br />Lincoln, senator from IL, wanted to know exactly where attack happened…if war happened on Mexican soil, we shouldn’t go to war….<br />But, we did  <br />
  30. 30. James Polk’s Plan for the Mex-Am War<br />Drive Mex. Forces out of Texas border area<br />Seize New Mexico Region and California<br />Conquer Mexico City <br />
  31. 31. 1. Drive Mex. Forces out of Texas border area<br />First goal met quickly…by Zachery Taylor and troops<br />At last major battle of stage 1, they lowered the Mexican flag and raised the American flag Monterrey (NM)<br />
  32. 32. 2. Seize New Mexico Region and California<br />While Taylor was securing border, General Stephen Kearney leads troops from Ft. Leavenworth to Santa Fe to meet goal #2<br />Mexican governor fled when he was 1,500 Calvary troops<br />Santa Fe was captured without one shot fired (by Aug. 1846)<br />Troops head across AZ into modern day Arizona and eventually California<br />Eventually, American Navy captures San Francisco and the US flag replaces the “Bear Flag”<br />
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  34. 34. Meanwhile: California and the Bear Flag Republic<br />1846, group of Americans decided that CA would be an “independent republic” <br />CA residents didn’t know US was at war with Mexico already when they began revolting against Mexico<br />
  35. 35. 3. Conquer Mexico City<br />Assigned to Gen. Winfield Scott<br />Land on coat of Gulf of Mexico (by Veracruz)<br />300 mile march to Mexico City<br />March included fighting not only army but armed citizen militias<br />After 6 months, reached Mexico City<br />Took Mexico city within a <br />month<br />
  36. 36. Cost of War:<br />1,721 casualties<br />11,000 died of disease<br />Cost = $100 million<br />
  37. 37. Peace Treaty: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo<br />Mexico gave up all claims to Texas<br />Agreed Rio Grande as border between TX and Mex.<br />Included the “Mexican Cession:” <br />Mexico ceded California and New Mexico<br />In return, US paid $15 million<br />After the war: Gadsden Purchase <br />Bought a strip of land along southern edge of present day AZ and NM (final piece of current size besides Hawaii and Alaska)<br />
  38. 38. California Gold Rush <br />Once CA was officially a member of the US, Americans moved in massive numbers<br />1849 was a major year for immigration to CA<br />People who moved that year became known as the 49-ers<br />