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Classical Conditioning


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Classical Conditioning

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  2. 2. Operant vs.. Classical Conditioning<br />April 2, 2008<br />
  3. 3. Definition of Learning<br />Permanent change<br />Change in behavior or knowledge<br />Learning is the result of experience<br />Learning is not the result of maturation or temporary conditions (illness)<br />© Allyn & Bacon 2007<br />
  4. 4. Contiguity Learning<br />Learning by simple associations: Pairing<br />Stimulus ? Response<br />Examples:<br />Golden Arches = McDonalds<br />Times tables (7 X 8 = 56)<br />States & capitals (Lansing, MI)<br />© Allyn & Bacon 2007<br />
  5. 5. Ivan Pavlov<br />The Russian scientist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born in 1849 in Ryazan, where his father worked as a village priest<br />Studied the underlying mystery of the digestive system in mammals<br />Was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904 in the Physiology of Medicine<br />
  6. 6. Pavlov’s drooling dogs<br /> While Ivan Pavlov worked to unveil the secrets of the digestive system, he also studied what signals triggered related phenomena, such as the secretion of saliva. When a dog encounters food, saliva starts to pour from the salivary glands located in the back of its oral cavity. This saliva is needed in order to make the food easier to swallow. The fluid also contains enzymes that break down certain compounds in the food. In humans, for example, saliva contains the enzyme amylase, an effective processor of starch.<br />Pavlov became interested in studying reflexes when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to lab coats. Every time the dogs were served food, the person who served the food was wearing a lab coat. Therefore, the dogs reacted as if food was on its way whenever they saw a lab coat.<br />
  7. 7. In a series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked. For example, he struck a bell when the dogs were fed. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal, the dogs learnt to associate the sound of the bell with food. After a while, at the mere sound of the bell, they responded by drooling.<br />
  8. 8. What is Classical Conditioning<br />Classical conditioning involves learning by association, that is associating two events which happen at the same time.<br /><br />
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning<br />Unconditioned<br />Response<br />Unconditioned<br />Stimulus<br />© Allyn & Bacon 2007<br />
  10. 10. Classical Conditioning<br />Unconditioned<br />Stimulus<br />Unconditioned<br />Response<br />Neutral<br />Stimulus<br />Unconditioned<br />Response<br />Unconditioned<br />Stimulus<br />© Allyn & Bacon 2007<br />
  11. 11. Classical Conditioning<br />Unconditioned<br />Stimulus<br />Unconditioned<br />Response<br />Neutral<br />Stimulus<br />Unconditioned<br />Response<br />Unconditioned<br />Stimulus<br />Repeat pairing US with NS<br />© Allyn & Bacon 2007<br />
  12. 12. Classical Conditioning<br />Unconditioned<br />Stimulus<br />Unconditioned<br />Response<br />Neutral<br />Stimulus<br />Unconditioned<br />Response<br />Unconditioned<br />Stimulus<br />Repeat pairing US with NS<br />Conditioned<br />Stimulus<br />Conditioned<br />Response<br />© Allyn & Bacon 2007<br />
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  14. 14. Classical Conditioning<br />Can you think of any examples of classical conditioning in your life?<br />Can you think of any classical conditioning examples in school’s today?<br />
  15. 15. Classical Classroom Examples<br />A first grader feels ill when recess time approaches because he was beat up on the playground the last 3 days in a row.<br />Certain smells that can elicit nauseous sensations <br />Speech phobia: cold sweat, shaking <br /> knees and hands<br />Phobias in general<br />© Allyn & Bacon 2007<br />