The impact of Cultural Context on the
Perception of Sound and Musical Language
(and its relevance for the development of C...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Outline
•  Human listening comprises many layers of information analysis and processing.
•  From th...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
Sensation
•  neurological process by which we become...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
“Kids are encouraged to have fun outdoors, playing i...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
“Kids are encouraged to have fun outdoors, playing i...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
“Unattended kids may become extremely violent when p...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
“Unattended kids may become extremely violent when p...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
Dogs in the Western Culture
Source: http://www.sagep...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
Dogs in the Eastern Culture
Source: http://www.sagep...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
What do you (can you!) “see” here?
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
Humans (independent of their cultural context) devel...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
Or, maybe you know what a saxophone looks like, and ...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
What if you never left your native tribe, deep in th...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
Or maybe you are a kid with strong “cultural” refere...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
•  Nisbett (2003) has demonstrated that:
•  humans s...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Sensing and Perceiving the World around us
A World of Sounds
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
A World of Sounds
Sound production and propagation
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
A World of Sounds
Sound propagation – waves of energy
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
A World of Sounds
Sound sensors: the Human Ear THE HUMAN AUDITORY SYSTEM
Figure 1: A sketch of the ...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
A world of Sounds
Sound sensors: the Human Ear
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
A World of Sounds
Beyond sensing: higher order Auditory processes and their interactions
MUSIC LIST...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
A World of Sounds
Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA) - The lake analogy…
Source: http://www.cns.nyu.edu/...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
A World of Sounds
Auditory Scene Analysis – The Cocktail Party Effect
Source: http://online.wsj.com...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
A World of Sounds
Auditory Scene Analysis - Polyphonic, multitimbral, complex musical compositions
...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Perception Principles
The Gestalt Theory of Perception
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Perception Principles
The Gestalt Theory of Perception
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Perception Principles
Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA)
- the Perceptual Organization of Sound
http://w...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Perception Principles
Segregation of a melody from interfering tones
•  Bottom-up VS Top-Down appro...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Music Perception
How is Similarity defined, for Music?
(And what impact has cultural context and ba...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Music Perception
How is Similarity defined, for Music?
(And what impact has cultural context and ba...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Music Perception
How is Similarity defined, for Music?
(And what impact has cultural context and ba...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Music Perception
How is Similarity defined, for Music?
(And what impact has cultural context and ba...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Music Perception
How is Similarity defined, for Music?
(And what impact has cultural context and ba...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Music Perception
“Music is different things and does different things in different cultures; the
bu...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Music Perception
How is Similarity defined, for Music?
(And what impact has cultural context and ba...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Effects of Culture on Music Perception
•  Perception of Pitch (Wong et al., 2012)
•  Studies on Chi...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Effects of Culture on Music Perception
•  Memory and Musical Expectation for Tones (Curtis and Bhar...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Effects of Culture on Music Perception
•  A cross cultural study on Music Mood Perception (Hu and L...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis
Typical Pipeline
Hearing
Representation
Analys...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis
Different perspectives involved
Source: h"p://...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis
Technological Perspective:
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis
Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural ...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis
Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural ...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis
Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural ...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis
Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural ...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
compmusic
Music information modeling
Sound and Music Computing
Music Information Processing
Computa...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
References
•  Richard Nisbett, “The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Different...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
References
•  Xavier Serra, Michela Magas, Emmanouil Benetos, Magdalena Chudy, Simon Dixon, Arthur ...
CATÓLICA'PORTO+
ARTES+
THANK YOU!
Luís Gustavo Martins
lmartins@porto.ucp.pt
http://lgustavomartins.wordpress.com/about/
h...
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The impact of Cultural Context on the Perception of Sound and Musical Language (and its relevance for the development of Computational Models of Audition)

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Keynote talk at the Lisbon Consortium event (http://lisbonsummerschool.wordpress.com)

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The impact of Cultural Context on the Perception of Sound and Musical Language (and its relevance for the development of Computational Models of Audition)

  1. 1. The impact of Cultural Context on the Perception of Sound and Musical Language (and its relevance for the development of Computational Models of Audition) The Lisbon Consortium Luís Gustavo Martins lmartins@porto.ucp.pt Lisbon, June 26th 2013
  2. 2. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  3. 3. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Outline •  Human listening comprises many layers of information analysis and processing. •  From the transduction of low-level auditory stimuli in the ears… •  … to their organization in the brain, •  higher-level factors take an important role in the auditory process: •  Memory •  Attention •  Experience •  Culture •  Context •  … •  As a result, listening in general is influenced by a large number of variables interacting, cooperating and competing with each other in a rather complex network. •  Recent research in the field of computational sound and music analysis is now more aware of the impact of the cultural background in the perception of sound and music.
  4. 4. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? Sensation •  neurological process by which we become aware of our environment (Jandt, 2012). •  You are not directly aware of what is in the physical world… •  … but, rather, of your own internal sensations. •  Is variation in human sensation attributable to culture? Source: h"p://www.sagepub.com/upm1data/45975_Chapter_3.pdf=
  5. 5. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception?
  6. 6. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? “Kids are encouraged to have fun outdoors, playing in the nature.”
  7. 7. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? “Kids are encouraged to have fun outdoors, playing in the nature.”
  8. 8. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? “Unattended kids may become extremely violent when playing outdoors!”
  9. 9. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? “Unattended kids may become extremely violent when playing outdoors!”
  10. 10. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? Dogs in the Western Culture Source: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/45975_Chapter_3.pdf domesticated animal life—probably into animals used for recreation, and pets. Look at the picture of the puppy and c Most of us see this puppy in the category of pet, for whic loving feelings. Puppies are cute, cuddly, warm, loving crea of a man holding u capture your feeling this picture uncomf people eat dogs? The on where you catego cultures and food in o acceptable as watchd not kept in the home unclean and a low fo is an insult among Ar strong ideas about human consumptio some countries think of eating corn on th food is fit only for p salo, raw pig fat wit might cause nausea horse meat from Cal Belgium, France, and Many consider dogs as pets. (The author’s first dog, Smokey.)
  11. 11. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? Dogs in the Eastern Culture Source: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/45975_Chapter_3.pdf CHAPTER 3 Culture’s Influence on Perception 67 Your reaction of disgust to the picture is a culturally learned interpretation—and that inter- pretation can be quite strong. In 1989, California made it a misdemeanor for any person to Can you explain your feelings about this photograph? As China’s economy boomed and affluence spread, attitudes toward dogs changed. Traditional Chinese may have eaten dog meat because it was thought to improve blood circulation. Urban Chinese today are more likely to have dogs as pampered companions.
  12. 12. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? What do you (can you!) “see” here?
  13. 13. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? Humans (independent of their cultural context) develop, from early ages, a “model” for “the human face”... So maybe, you see a face...
  14. 14. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? Or, maybe you know what a saxophone looks like, and how it is (usually) played...
  15. 15. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? What if you never left your native tribe, deep in the African savana? Can you still perceive something from the figure?
  16. 16. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? Or maybe you are a kid with strong “cultural” references from cartoons? (and a large imagination)
  17. 17. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Can Culture and Context affect our Perception? •  Nisbett (2003) has demonstrated that: •  humans sense and perceive the world in ways unique to their environments •  by contrasting Eastern and Western cultures. •  Perception and thought are not independent of the cultural environment •  therefore, our brains are both shaped by the external world and shape our perception of the external world. •  Sensation is the neurological process of becoming aware of our environment and is affected by our cultures (Jandt, 2012). Source: h"p://www.sagepub.com/upm1data/45975_Chapter_3.pdf=
  18. 18. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Sensing and Perceiving the World around us A World of Sounds
  19. 19. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ A World of Sounds Sound production and propagation
  20. 20. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ A World of Sounds Sound propagation – waves of energy
  21. 21. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ A World of Sounds Sound sensors: the Human Ear THE HUMAN AUDITORY SYSTEM Figure 1: A sketch of the peripheral region of the human auditory system (adapted from [Beranek, 1990]). a pre-processing of the acoustical signal, the most notable aspect being frequency analysis.
  22. 22. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ A world of Sounds Sound sensors: the Human Ear
  23. 23. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ A World of Sounds Beyond sensing: higher order Auditory processes and their interactions MUSIC LISTENING ABSTRACT KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURES EVENT STRUCTURE PROCESSING EXTRACTION OF ATTRIBUTES AUDITORY GROUPING PROCESSES MENTAL REPRESENTATION OF SOUND ENVIRONMENT TRANSDUCTION TRANSDUCTION ATTENTIONAL PROCESSES Figure 2: The main types of auditory processing and their interactions (adapted from [McAdams and Bigand, 1993]). possible to extract perceptual attributes which provide a representation of each element in
  24. 24. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ A World of Sounds Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA) - The lake analogy… Source: http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~david/courses/perception/lecturenotes/localization/localization.html
  25. 25. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ A World of Sounds Auditory Scene Analysis – The Cocktail Party Effect Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303459004577361850069498164.html
  26. 26. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ A World of Sounds Auditory Scene Analysis - Polyphonic, multitimbral, complex musical compositions •  Listeners can still identify: •  Melodic lines •  Instruments (or groups of instruments playing) •  Harmony •  Beat •  Rhythm •  …
  27. 27. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Perception Principles The Gestalt Theory of Perception
  28. 28. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Perception Principles The Gestalt Theory of Perception
  29. 29. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Perception Principles Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA) - the Perceptual Organization of Sound http://webpages.mcgill.ca/staff/Group2/abregm1/web/
  30. 30. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Perception Principles Segregation of a melody from interfering tones •  Bottom-up VS Top-Down approaches Source: http://webpages.mcgill.ca/staff/Group2/abregm1/web/downloadstoc.htm “At the intermediate separations, familiarity with the melody can sometimes allow listeners to hear it out, but there is a still a tendency to hear runs of tones that group melodic and distractor notes.”
  31. 31. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Music Perception How is Similarity defined, for Music? (And what impact has cultural context and background on its definition?) Query: Similar Music?
  32. 32. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Music Perception How is Similarity defined, for Music? (And what impact has cultural context and background on its definition?) “- This all sounds like Fado to my hears…” “- Not to me… I’m a Fado singer…I can tell a difference!” =
  33. 33. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Music Perception How is Similarity defined, for Music? (And what impact has cultural context and background on its definition?) Saudades de Coimbra (Fado) - Verdes Anos Amália Rodrigues - Fado Português João Braga - Fado de Lisboa “- This all sounds like Fado to my hears…” “- Not to me… I’m a Fado singer…I can tell a difference!” =
  34. 34. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Music Perception How is Similarity defined, for Music? (And what impact has cultural context and background on its definition?) “- This all sounds like Techno to my hears…” “ – No to me… I’m a DJ… I can tell a difference!”
  35. 35. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Music Perception How is Similarity defined, for Music? (And what impact has cultural context and background on its definition?) “- This all sounds like Techno to my hears…” “ – No to me… I’m a DJ… I can tell a difference!” The Big Fake Traffic Signs (ELECTRO) Je T'aime (Digital Dog mix) Armand Van Helden (DEEP HOUSE) Exorcise (A1) Umek (TRANCE) Memories David Guetta (COMMERCIAL HOUSE)
  36. 36. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Music Perception “Music is different things and does different things in different cultures; the bundles of elements and functions which are music for any given culture may overlap minimally with those of another culture, even for those cultures where "music" constitutes a discrete and identifiable category of human activity in its own right.” (Cross, 2001) http://techno.org/electronic-music-guide/ -  Expert listeners in a genre, or in a given culture can perceive subtle variances in a music genre, and identify sub-genres, artist styles, etc. -  They make part of a “culture” around that musical genre / style -  “Music", like speech, is a product of both our biologies and our social interactions (Cross, 2001)
  37. 37. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Music Perception How is Similarity defined, for Music? (And what impact has cultural context and background on its definition?) •  It is an ill–posed question… •  It is multidimensional, may use different and simultaneous criteria, such as: •  Pitch •  Harmony •  Timbre •  Rhythm •  Genre •  Texture •  … •  It may depend on the context of the query •  Difficult to infer… •  It will certainly be culturally biased •  Difficult to match expectations
  38. 38. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Effects of Culture on Music Perception •  Perception of Pitch (Wong et al., 2012) •  Studies on Chinese and Canadian population with Amusia •  Amusia: a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing •  Contonese is a tone language, Canadian French and English are not tone languages •  Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English. •  This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. •  These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. •  Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture-to-perception influences. Source: http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0033424
  39. 39. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Effects of Culture on Music Perception •  Memory and Musical Expectation for Tones (Curtis and Bharucha, 2009) •  Explored how musical culture shapes one’s listening experience. •  Western participants heard a series of tones drawn from either: •  the Western major mode (culturally familiar) •  or the Indian thaat Bhairav (culturally unfamiliar) •  and then heard a test tone. •  They made a speeded judgment about whether the test tone was present in the prior series of tones. •  False alarm rates were higher for test tones congruent with the major mode than for test tones congruent with Bhairav. •  In contrast, false alarm rates were lower for test tones incongruent with the major mode than for test tones incongruent with Bhairav. •  These findings suggest that one’s internalized cultural knowledge may drive musical expectancies when listening to music of an unfamiliar modal system. Source: http://openscholar.purchase.edu/meagan_curtis/files/curtisbharucha2009musicperception.pdf
  40. 40. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Effects of Culture on Music Perception •  A cross cultural study on Music Mood Perception (Hu and Lee, 2012) •  People's cultural background is often assumed to be an important factor in music mood perception. •  This paper reports on a study comparing mood judgments on a set of 30 songs by American and Chinese people. •  Results show that mood judgments do indeed differ between American and Chinese respondents. •  Furthermore, respondents’ mood judgments tended to agree more with other respondents from the same culture than those from the other group. Source: http://ismir2012.ismir.net/event/papers/535-ismir-2012.pdf
  41. 41. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis Typical Pipeline Hearing Representation Analysis Understanding Acting Interaction Signal Processing Feature Extraction Machine Learning Analysis and Retrieval Human Computer Interaction
  42. 42. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis Different perspectives involved Source: h"p://mires.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Roadmap= TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE 2.1 Musically relevant data 2.2 Music representations Models 2.3 Data processing methdologies 2.4 Knowledge-driven methdologies 2.5 Estimation of elements related to musical concepts Estimated musical concepts Other estimated concepts 2.6 Evaluation methodologies SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE 4.1 Social aspects 4.2 Multiculturality USER PERSPECTIVE 3.1 User behaviour 3.2 User interaction EXPLOITATION PERSPECTIVE 5.1 Music distribution applications 5.2 Creative tools 5.3 Other exploitation areas
  43. 43. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis Technological Perspective:
  44. 44. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural Perspective? Source: h"p://mires.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Roadmap= TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE 2.1 Musically relevant data 2.2 Music representations Models 2.3 Data processing methdologies 2.4 Knowledge-driven methdologies 2.5 Estimation of elements related to musical concepts Estimated musical concepts Other estimated concepts 2.6 Evaluation methodologies SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE 4.1 Social aspects 4.2 Multiculturality USER PERSPECTIVE 3.1 User behaviour 3.2 User interaction EXPLOITATION PERSPECTIVE 5.1 Music distribution applications 5.2 Creative tools 5.3 Other exploitation areas
  45. 45. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural Perspective? •  Music Information Research (MIR) involves the understanding and modeling of music-related data in its full contextual complexity. •  Music is a communication phenomenon that involves people and communities immersed in specific social and cultural context. •  MIR aims at processing musical data that captures the social and cultural context and at developing data processing methodologies with which to model the whole musical phenomenon. Source: h"p://mires.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Roadmap=
  46. 46. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural Perspective? •  Music Computing research (IT in general) does not respond to the world's multi-cultural reality. •  Data models, cognition models, user models, interaction models, ontologies, ... are culturally biased. •  Music information is more than CDs and metadata. h"p://compmusic.upf.edu=;=h"p://mires.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Roadmap= ==
  47. 47. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural Perspective? •  Promote a multicultural approach to Music Computing research. •  Advance in the formalization and description of music, making it more accessible to computational approaches. •  Reduce the gap between audio signal descriptions and semantically/culturally meaningful music concepts. •  Develop information modelling techniques applicable to different music repertories. •  Develop computational models to represent culture specific music contexts. h"p://compmusic.upf.edu=;=h"p://mires.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Roadmap= ==
  48. 48. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ compmusic Music information modeling Sound and Music Computing Music Information Processing ComputationalMusicology Ontologies Cognition models Interaction models Data models User models Computational Approaches to Sound and Music Analysis Challenge: how to include the Social-Cultural Perspective? h"p://compmusic.upf.edu==
  49. 49. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ References •  Richard Nisbett, “The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently ... and Why”, New York: Free Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7432-1646-3 •  Fred E. Jandt, “An Introduction to Intercultural Communication”, Chapter 3 - “Culture’s Influence on Perception”, SAGE Publications, 2012, http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/45975_Chapter_3.pdf •  Ian Cross, “Music, cognition, culture and evolution”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Vol 930, 2001, pp 28-42. •  Wong PCM, Ciocca V, Chan AHD, Ha LYY, Tan L-H, et al. (2012) “Effects of Culture on Musical Pitch Perception.”, PLoS ONE 7(4): e33424. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033424 •  Meagan E. Curtis, Jamshed J. Bharucha, “Memory and Musical Expectation for Tones in Cultural Context”, Music Perception VOLUME 26, ISSUE 4, PP. 365–375, ISSN 0730-7829, ELECTRONIC ISSN 1533-8312 •  Xiao Hu, Jin Ha Lee, “A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF MUSIC MOOD PERCEPTION BETWEEN AMERICAN AND CHINESE LISTENERS”, 13th International Conference on Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR), 2012, Porto, Portugal •  Bregman, A. (1990). Auditory Scene Analysis -- The Perceptual Organization of Sound. •  Bregman, A., & Ahad, P. (1996). Demonstrations of Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound. •  Wang, W. (Ed.). (2010). Machine Audition - Principles, Algorithms and Systems. IGI Global.
  50. 50. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ References •  Xavier Serra, Michela Magas, Emmanouil Benetos, Magdalena Chudy, Simon Dixon, Arthur Flexer, Emilia Gómez, Fabien Gouyon, Perfecto Herrera, Sergi Jorda, Oscar Paytuvi, Geoffroy Peeters, Jan Schlüter, Hugues Vinet, Gerhard Widmer, “Roadmap for Music Information ReSearch”, Geoffroy Peeters (editor), 2013, Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 license, ISBN: 978-2-9540351-1-6 - http://mires.eecs.qmul.ac.uk •  Wang, D., & Brown, G. (2006). Computational Auditory Scene Analysis: Principles, Algorithms and Applications.
  51. 51. CATÓLICA'PORTO+ ARTES+ THANK YOU! Luís Gustavo Martins lmartins@porto.ucp.pt http://lgustavomartins.wordpress.com/about/ http://artes.ucp.pt http://artes.ucp.pt/citar http://artes.ucp.pt/ccd

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