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ASSIMILATION, PERCEPTION AND RELATION:A QUALITATIVE STUY OF THE CHINESE IN ACCRA, GHANA<br />Jinghao Lu<br />April 28, 201...
Introduction<br />Importance of studying Chinese Migrants in Africa<br />Increasing Chinese involvement in Africa<br />A n...
Chinese Temporary Labor Migrants<br />From 1949-1979: China’s ideological aid to Africa<br />Since 1979, increasing econom...
Chinese Entrepreneurial Migrants<br />China’s Open Door Policy (1979) and Go Out Policy (1999)<br />Entrepreneurial Migran...
General Characteristics of the Chinese immigrants in Africa<br />A lack of reliable data<br />Money as a major incentive f...
Theoretical Framework<br />Assimilation Theories<br />Alba and Nee (1997).<br />Waters and Jiménez (2005).<br />The assimi...
Research Methods<br />Site Selection: 			Accra, Ghana<br />Sampling Methods: 		Convenience Sampling<br />Data Collection: ...
Demographic Characteristics<br />Estimated Number: 30,000<br />From various Origin<br />Two major occupations: <br />SOE e...
Results<br />Overall degree of assimilation of the Chinese immigrants  in Ghana are very low.<br />Language, living and wo...
Results (continue)<br />Overall attitudes and perceptions to Ghanaians are negative more than positive.<br />Generally spe...
Conclusions<br />This research is only explorative. More research should be encouraged in the future.<br />The Chinese imm...
Question and Comments?<br />Please contact Jinghao Lu (jxl5106@psu.edu) if you are interested in reading the thesis. <br />
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Jinghao's Honors Thesis Presentation

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Jinghao's Honors Thesis Presentation

  1. 1. ASSIMILATION, PERCEPTION AND RELATION:A QUALITATIVE STUY OF THE CHINESE IN ACCRA, GHANA<br />Jinghao Lu<br />April 28, 2010<br />Photo from http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/images/Hu%20in%20Liberia%20cropped.jpg <br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Importance of studying Chinese Migrants in Africa<br />Increasing Chinese involvement in Africa<br />A new trend: lack of research, especially about the life and assimilation of the immigrants<br />Partial media depictions from both sides<br />Source: Park, Y. (2009).Chinese migration in Africa. South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) Occasional Paper Number 24.<br />
  3. 3. Chinese Temporary Labor Migrants<br />From 1949-1979: China’s ideological aid to Africa<br />Since 1979, increasing economic relationships between China and Africa<br />2000, 2006 Forum for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC)<br />In Ghana: a series of projects, including a hydroelectric dam, two stadia, buildings, roads and fiber-optic cable<br />A large influx of the temporary labor migrants<br />Employees of State-owned enterprises (SOEs)<br />Government sent workers<br />Increasing contract workers for the Chinese private companies<br />
  4. 4. Chinese Entrepreneurial Migrants<br />China’s Open Door Policy (1979) and Go Out Policy (1999)<br />Entrepreneurial Migrants<br />Traders: wholesalers and retailers of Chinese goods<br />Other types of businesses: Chinese clinics, restaurants, manufacturing, etc. <br />Family networks and chain migration<br />
  5. 5. General Characteristics of the Chinese immigrants in Africa<br />A lack of reliable data<br />Money as a major incentive for the decision of migration or stay<br />Do not form Chinese community; keep themselves<br />Do not seek integration with the local society<br />
  6. 6. Theoretical Framework<br />Assimilation Theories<br />Alba and Nee (1997).<br />Waters and Jiménez (2005).<br />The assimilation of overseas Chinese in different countries<br />My Research Questions:<br />Do assimilation patterns vary among different groups of Chinese immigrants in Accra? <br />How assimilation of Chinese explains their positive versus negative perceptions and attitudes towards Ghanaian locals? <br />How does assimilation affect the relationship between Chinese and Ghanaians? <br />Research Model<br />
  7. 7. Research Methods<br />Site Selection: Accra, Ghana<br />Sampling Methods: Convenience Sampling<br />Data Collection: In-depth interviews Observation<br />Number of Interviewees: 29 Chinese<br /> 12 Ghanaians<br />Length of Interviews: 0.5 to 2 hours<br />
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  10. 10. Demographic Characteristics<br />Estimated Number: 30,000<br />From various Origin<br />Two major occupations: <br />SOE employees <br />Private Company owner/workers<br />Restaurant<br />Wholesalers/ Individual traders<br />Others<br />Money as a main reason of migration<br />Many migrants age from 20-30<br />Interaction with Ghanaians depends on occupations.<br />
  11. 11. Results<br />Overall degree of assimilation of the Chinese immigrants in Ghana are very low.<br />Language, living and work context, recreational and health options and social organizationsare good indicators of assimilation<br />Assimilation patterns are different among different occupational groups.<br />Living and work contexts appear to influence the willingness of assimilation<br />Positive Indicators: longer length of stay, ambition to improve English and company policies on encouraging intergroup interactions<br />Negative Indicators: tough workload, short-term labor contract, good health care provision, minimum opportunities to go out and frequency in use of internet for entertainment<br />With obvious indication: younger age, language ability and frequent contact with Ghanaians; English (?)<br />
  12. 12. Results (continue)<br />Overall attitudes and perceptions to Ghanaians are negative more than positive.<br />Generally speaking, Chinese immigrants tend to think Ghanaians are not diligent, not honesty, greedy and simple-minded.<br />whether assimilation may relate to the perceptions and attitudes towards Ghanaians is uncertain.<br />The relationship between Chinese immigrants and Ghanaians<br />Only a small number of Ghanaians have interactions with Chinese.<br />Friendship and brotherhood do exist. <br />Tension also exists:<br />Bad labor practices of Chinese<br />Unfair competition in markets<br />Conflicts with the government workers<br />Discrimination from Chinese towards Blacks in general<br />Conflict escalation due to recent Chinese immigrants<br />Efforts to improve the situation are sporadic.<br />
  13. 13. Conclusions<br />This research is only explorative. More research should be encouraged in the future.<br />The Chinese immigration to Ghana will continue.<br />At least among the immigrant generation, Chinese tend not to assimilate in Ghana, but some occupations have relatively higher degree of assimilation.<br />The perception from Chinese to Ghanaians are generally negative.<br />There are both good and bad relationships between Chinese and Ghanaians. Generally, it tends to deteriorate.<br />Both Chinese and Ghanaian government should be responsible to change the situation.<br />
  14. 14. Question and Comments?<br />Please contact Jinghao Lu (jxl5106@psu.edu) if you are interested in reading the thesis. <br />

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