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The Dilemma of Dr. Frankenstein: The Legal and Moral Status of Body Parts   Prof. Linda MacDonald Glenn, Bioethicist Canad...
Linda MacDonald Glenn, JD, LLM <ul><li>Former Senior Fellow, Institute for Ethics, American Medical Association.* </li></u...
Purpose of Presentation <ul><li>Ethical  and  Legal implications and developments in the Management of Tissue and Body Par...
Part 1 – Tissue Samples and Research <ul><ul><li>John Moore Case  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commodification </li></ul></u...
Patenting of DNA sequences and genetically-altered material <ul><li>USPTO prohibition of humanzee  </li></ul><ul><li>Canad...
Part 2 – From Property to Quasi-Property? <ul><li>Dead Bodies – court rulings that dead bodies are more than mere property...
Part 2 – From Property to Quasi-Property? <ul><li>Frozen embryos – from Tennessee to Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Canad...
Canadian Bill C- 6 <ul><li>Passed March 9, 2004 - Short title 1. This Act may be cited as the Assisted Human Reproduction ...
Canadian Bill C- 6 <ul><li>(e)    for the purpose of creating a human being, perform any procedure or provide, prescribe o...
Part 3 – Organ Trafficking <ul><li>Body Parts for Sale </li></ul><ul><li>Theft and Mutilation  </li></ul><ul><li>Need for ...
Sources of Body Parts
Tissue Engineering—An alternative to Organ Transplantation
Why Tissue Engineering? <ul><li>One person added to wait list every 14 min </li></ul><ul><li>One patient dies every 85 min...
Goal of Tissue Engineering <ul><li>To replicate to the greatest extent possible the in vivo function of the tissue/organ b...
“Holy Grail” of Tissue Engineering In vitro culture Expand cells Vascularize tissue Implant Cells Patient cells Stem cells...
Mike Sefton,   http://www.utoronto.ca/IBBME/research/tissue.htm Tissue Engineering Requires Multidisciplinary Cooperation
Characteristics of the Liver <ul><li>1.5 kg in average adult </li></ul><ul><li>Blood throughput 1450 ml/min </li></ul><ul>...
Leading Bioartificial Liver (BAL) Devices <ul><li>Circe Biomedical  </li></ul><ul><li>HepatAssist™ </li></ul><ul><li>Phase...
Primary Cells vs. Cell Lines Primary cells are used for most tissue engineering applications.
Further Classification of Cell Types
The Promise of Stem Cells Human embryonic stem cell colony
Stem Cells: The Answer?
Part 4. Future Trends
 
 
NBIC – the synergistic combination of 4 major areas of science and technology <ul><li>Nanoscience and Nanotechnology </li>...
 
 
 
Dr. Farwell tests Terry Harrington, who is in prison for murder. The test proved that the record in Harrington’s brain did...
 
 
 
Summary…. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Currently the laws are national and generated on a case-by-case basis. </li></ul><ul...
 
Thank you for your attention!   <ul><li>A Special Thank You to Sonia E. Miller, Attorney-at-law, President of the Convergi...
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Dr Frankenstein Legal And Moral Status Of Body Parts

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Dr Frankenstein Legal And Moral Status Of Body Parts

  1. 1. The Dilemma of Dr. Frankenstein: The Legal and Moral Status of Body Parts Prof. Linda MacDonald Glenn, Bioethicist Canadian Association of Pathologists Montreal, Quebec, Canada July 6, 2004
  2. 2. Linda MacDonald Glenn, JD, LLM <ul><li>Former Senior Fellow, Institute for Ethics, American Medical Association.* </li></ul><ul><li>LL.M. in Biomedical Ethics from McGill University, Montreal, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Writer and Lecturer. Recent publications: Ethical Issues in Transgenics and Genetic Engineering at www.actionbioscience.org and Neuroethics, Criminal Responsibility and the Law, Summer 2004 ASBH Exchange, and Biotechnology at the Margins of Personhood: An Evolving Legal Paradigm , available at www.jetpress.org </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant professor, trial lawyer and advocate . </li></ul><ul><li>Director, Board of the Converging Technologies Bar Association </li></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose of Presentation <ul><li>Ethical and Legal implications and developments in the Management of Tissue and Body Parts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Part 1 – Tissue Samples and Research <ul><ul><li>John Moore Case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commodification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charitable Trusts </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Patenting of DNA sequences and genetically-altered material <ul><li>USPTO prohibition of humanzee </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian’s prohibition on patenting “higher life forms” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Part 2 – From Property to Quasi-Property? <ul><li>Dead Bodies – court rulings that dead bodies are more than mere property – they are “quasi-property”. </li></ul><ul><li>Ted Williams saga (Bioethics meets Jerry Springer) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Part 2 – From Property to Quasi-Property? <ul><li>Frozen embryos – from Tennessee to Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Bill C-6 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Canadian Bill C- 6 <ul><li>Passed March 9, 2004 - Short title 1. This Act may be cited as the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>5. (1) No person shall knowingly </li></ul><ul><li>(a)   create a human clone by using any technique, or transplant a human clone into a human being or into any non-human life form or artificial device; </li></ul><ul><li>(b)   create an in vitro embryo for any purpose other than creating a human being or improving or providing instruction in assisted reproduction procedures; </li></ul><ul><li>(c)    for the purpose of creating a human being, create an embryo from a cell or part of a cell taken from an embryo or foetus or transplant an embryo so created into a human being; </li></ul><ul><li>(d) maintain an embryo outside the body of a female person after the fourteenth day of its development following fertilization or creation, excluding any time during which its development has been suspended </li></ul>
  9. 9. Canadian Bill C- 6 <ul><li>(e)   for the purpose of creating a human being, perform any procedure or provide, prescribe or administer any thing that would ensure or increase the probability that an embryo will be of a particular sex, or that would identify the sex of an in vitro embryo, except to prevent, diagnose or treat a sex-linked disorder or disease; </li></ul><ul><li>(f)    alter the genome of a cell of a human being or in vitro embryo such that the alteration is capable of being transmitted to descendants; </li></ul><ul><li>(g)   transplant a sperm, ovum, embryo or foetus of a non-human life form into a human being; </li></ul><ul><li>(h)    for the purpose of creating a human being, make use of any human reproductive material or an in vitro embryo that is or was transplanted into a non-human life form; </li></ul><ul><li>(i)     create a chimera, or transplant a chimera into either a human being or a non-human life form; or </li></ul><ul><li>(j)   ) create a hybrid for the purpose of reproduction, or transplant a hybrid into either a human being or a non-human life form. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Part 3 – Organ Trafficking <ul><li>Body Parts for Sale </li></ul><ul><li>Theft and Mutilation </li></ul><ul><li>Need for high end diagnostics of parts (Rabies incident) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources of Body Parts
  12. 12. Tissue Engineering—An alternative to Organ Transplantation
  13. 13. Why Tissue Engineering? <ul><li>One person added to wait list every 14 min </li></ul><ul><li>One patient dies every 85 min waiting for transplant </li></ul>United Network for Organ Sharing/ Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network
  14. 14. Goal of Tissue Engineering <ul><li>To replicate to the greatest extent possible the in vivo function of the tissue/organ being replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved through hybrid approach, utilizing both natural and synthetic materials </li></ul>=
  15. 15. “Holy Grail” of Tissue Engineering In vitro culture Expand cells Vascularize tissue Implant Cells Patient cells Stem cells Animal cells Seed on scaffold
  16. 16. Mike Sefton, http://www.utoronto.ca/IBBME/research/tissue.htm Tissue Engineering Requires Multidisciplinary Cooperation
  17. 17. Characteristics of the Liver <ul><li>1.5 kg in average adult </li></ul><ul><li>Blood throughput 1450 ml/min </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly vascularized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High oxygen demand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 cell types present </li></ul><ul><li>Many varied functions performed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of homeostasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose uptake/release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia clearance through urea production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bile formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xenobiotic metabolism </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Leading Bioartificial Liver (BAL) Devices <ul><li>Circe Biomedical </li></ul><ul><li>HepatAssist™ </li></ul><ul><li>Phase III trials </li></ul><ul><li>50 g porcine HCs, microcarrier-attached, extracapillary </li></ul><ul><li>Charcoal filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma circulation </li></ul><ul><li>VitaGen ELAD™ </li></ul><ul><li>(Acquired by </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Therapies, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>10/03) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II trials </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor-derived human HC line, fiber attached, extracapillary </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Algenix LIVERx </li></ul><ul><li>Phase I trials </li></ul><ul><li>80 g porcine HCs, collagen-entrapped, fiber lumen </li></ul><ul><li>Whole blood perfusion </li></ul>
  19. 19. Primary Cells vs. Cell Lines Primary cells are used for most tissue engineering applications.
  20. 20. Further Classification of Cell Types
  21. 21. The Promise of Stem Cells Human embryonic stem cell colony
  22. 22. Stem Cells: The Answer?
  23. 23. Part 4. Future Trends
  24. 26. NBIC – the synergistic combination of 4 major areas of science and technology <ul><li>Nanoscience and Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology/ Biomedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Science </li></ul>
  25. 30. Dr. Farwell tests Terry Harrington, who is in prison for murder. The test proved that the record in Harrington’s brain did not match the crime and did match his alibi. Harrington is appealing for a new trial. Brain Fingerprinting was found admissible in court in the case Dr. Farwell tests suspected serial killer JB Grinder. The test proved the record in Grinder’s brain matched the murder of July Helton. Grinder then pled guilty and was sentenced to life in prison. BRAIN FINGERPRINTING
  26. 34. Summary…. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Currently the laws are national and generated on a case-by-case basis. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a Need for Internationally-agreed upon Standards of Conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps, develop an International Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the Issue of Commercialization versus the Common Good, create Charitable Trusts. </li></ul>
  27. 36. Thank you for your attention! <ul><li>A Special Thank You to Sonia E. Miller, Attorney-at-law, President of the Converging Technologies Bar Association ( www.ctba.us ) and </li></ul><ul><li>C. Chris Hook, MD, Director of Biotech Ethics at the Mayo Clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. J.S. Boyce, Professor, Computer Science, Montgomery College, MD. </li></ul><ul><li>For further info, references contact me at [email_address] </li></ul>

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