Cell Structure And Function


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Cell Structure And Function

  1. 1. Cell Structure and Function Chapter Seven www.nerdscience.com
  2. 2. The Discovery of the Cell <ul><li>Robert Hooke – first to see and identify cork “cells.” </li></ul>7-1 www.nerdscience.com
  3. 3. The Cell Theory <ul><li>Cell Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>All living things are composed of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. </li></ul><ul><li>New cells are produced from existing cells. </li></ul>Schleiden Schwann Virchow 7-1 www.nerdscience.com
  4. 4. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes <ul><li>Nucleus – large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell’s genetic information. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes – cells that do not contain nuclei. (Bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes – cells that contain nuclei. (All other organisms) </li></ul>7-1 www.nerdscience.com
  5. 5. Eukaryotic Cell Structure <ul><li>Organelles – structures in a cell that act like “little organs.” </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm – the jelly-like fluid where the organelles “float.” </li></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  6. 6. Inside the Nucleus <ul><li>Nuclear Envelope – membrane that surrounds the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin – consists of DNA wrapped around proteins. “Ball of string” </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes – condensed string-like structure that forms from DNA just before the cell divides. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus – structure within the nucleus that makes ribosomes. </li></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  7. 7. Inside the Nucleus Nuclear Envelope Chromatin Nucleolus 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  8. 8. Ribosomes <ul><li>Ribosomes – made of RNA and protein. Make Proteins! </li></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  9. 9. Ribosomes Ribosome 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  10. 10. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum – internal membrane system of the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids, proteins, and other products are made here. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER – has ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER – no ribosomes </li></ul></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  11. 11. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough ER Smooth ER 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  12. 12. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Golgi Apparatus – modifies, sorts, and packages proteins. </li></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  13. 13. Golgi Apparatus Golgi Apparatus 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  14. 14. Lysosomes <ul><li>Lysosomes – small organelles filled with enzymes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digest molecules to be used by the cell. </li></ul></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  15. 15. Vacuoles <ul><li>Vacuoles – store materials. </li></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  16. 16. Vacuoles Vacuoles 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  17. 17. Mitochondria <ul><li>Mitochondria – organelle that converts chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Powerhouse of the Cell!” </li></ul></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  18. 18. Mitochondria Mitochondria 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  19. 19. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Chloroplasts – organelles that capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy. ( Photosynthesis ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found only in plants. </li></ul></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  20. 20. Chloroplasts Chloroplast 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  21. 21. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Cytoskeleton – helps cell to maintain shape, move, and move organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Centrioles – help organize cell division. Not found in plants. </li></ul>7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  22. 22. Cytoskeleton 7-2 www.nerdscience.com
  23. 23. Cell Boundaries <ul><li>Cell membrane – thin, flexible membrane that surrounds the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls – rigid layer around the membrane found only in bacteria, fungi and plants. </li></ul>7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  24. 24. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Controls what enters/leaves cell, provides support/protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid Bilayer – double-layered sheet of phospholipids. </li></ul>Two layers! 7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  25. 25. Diffusion and Osmosis <ul><li>Diffusion – movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>Osmosis – the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water will move into/out of a cell to equalize concentrations. </li></ul></ul>7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  26. 26. Osmosis Practice Cell 90% H2O 10% NaCl 90% H2O 10% NaCl 7-3 www.nerdscience.com Concentrations are equal, so no net movement of water!
  27. 27. Osmosis Practice Cell 90% H2O 10% NaCl 80% H2O 20% NaCl 7-3 www.nerdscience.com www.nerdscience.com Concentration of water is greater in the cell than out, so water will move out!
  28. 28. Osmosis Practice Cell 80% H2O 20% NaCl 90% H2O 10% NaCl 7-3 www.nerdscience.com Concentration of water is greater outside the cell than in, so water will move In!
  29. 29. Facilitated Diffusion and Active Transport <ul><li>Facilitated diffusion – when the plasma membrane “helps” particles pass through protein channels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No energy used. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active transport – when the plasma membrane uses energy to move particles against a concentration gradient. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Transport Proteins </li></ul></ul>7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  30. 30. Facilitated Diffusion and Active Transport 7-3 www.nerdscience.com
  31. 31. Organization in Multicellular Organisms Tissues Organs Organ System Organism Cells 7-4 www.nerdscience.com