Design & Technology

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Hi, this deck is mainly meant to help with my Design Studies lessons to undergraduate students at NABA, Media Design and Multimedia Arts School, Milan.These slides are supposed to come with a live commentary for the class, so sorry if you wish to have more explicit context and liaisons. Please see referred sources to this purpose.
Slides on Norman, Salen and Zimmerman, Haraway are based on the articles by these authors included in Design Studies.A reader. Edited by Hazel Clark and David Brody, Berg, Oxford and New York, 2009. Please see all other sources at the bottom of the slides and at the end of each section.
Images are all credited to their creators and copyright holders, to the best of my knowledge and care. If you are unhappy with the fact that they are used here, of if you think that someone’s rights have not been fully respected in any manner, please mail me to lgalli at pobox dot com and I will promptly remove them

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Design & Technology

  1. 1. Design & Technology L.Galli (2008-2012)Copyright of this presentation is by referred sources for quoted/reproduced content (text & images) and/or Luca Galli for original content.Original content by Luca Galli is released as Creative Commons License BY-NC-ND 2.0
  2. 2. Hi, this deck is mainly meant to help with my Design Studieslessons to undergraduate students at NABA, Media Design andMultimedia Arts School, Milan. These slides are supposed to comewith a live commentary for the class, so sorry if you wish to havemore explicit context and liaisons. Please see referred sources tothis purpose.Slides on Norman, Salen and Zimmerman, Haraway are based onthe articles by these authors included in Design Studies. A reader.Edited by Hazel Clark and David Brody, Berg, Oxford and NewYork, 2009. Please see all other sources at the bottom of the slidesand at the end of each section.Images are all credited to their creators and copyright holders, tothe best of my knowledge and care. If you are unhappy with thefact that they are used here, of if you think that someone’s rightshave not been fully respected in any manner, please mail me tolgalli at pobox dot com and I will promptly remove them.
  3. 3. L.Galli Design & Technology “Alongside the old idea of design as the drawing of objects that are then to be built or manufactured, there are many ideas, all very different” (Jones 1984)Image retrieved on http;//www.designrelated.com from Le Corbusier le grand, Phaidon 2008 used here with no prior permission requestQuote from John Chris Jones, Essays in Design, Wiley 1984
  4. 4. “Designing as the process of devising not individual products but whole systems or environments such as airports, transportation, hypermarkets, educational curricula, broadcasting schedules, welfare schemes, banking systems, computer networks” (Jones 1984)John Chris Jones, Essays in Design, Wiley 1984
  5. 5. L.Galli Design & TechnologyPhoto credit: screenshot of online course “iPhone User Interface Design” from Apple Developer Connection, used here with no prior permission request
  6. 6. L.Galli Design & Technology Projects get a green light at the start, and go directly to engineering where they are built. The next phase is when they ship--usually late, with bugs, over budget, and missing functionality (Buxton 2007)Bill Buxton, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann 2007Photo retrieved on http://www.billbuxton.com credit Microsoft Research 2007
  7. 7. Computer Human InteractionL.Galli Design & Technology Interaction DesignUX IxD User Research Human Factors Usability User ExperienceDesign Research
  8. 8. L.Galli Design & Technology We recommend three principles of design [...] Early focus on Users and Tasks [...] Empirical Measurement [...] Iterative Design [Gould and Lewis 1985]Gould and Lewis 1985 Designing for Usability: Key Principles and What Designers Think
  9. 9. L.Galli Design & Technology Donald NormanPhoto credit: “Donald Norman” (2005) by jordanfischer, retrieved on Wikipedia Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic
  10. 10. L.Galli Design & Technology The PC is hardly a technological blessing; it as much as a curse as a wonder, and it is attacked as much as it praised [Norman 1998]Norman 1998 The Invisible Computer, quoted from Norman “What’s wrong with the PC?” inDesign Studies. A reader, ed. by Clark and Brody, Berg 2009
  11. 11. L.Galli Design & TechnologyPhoto credit: “XP BSOD Evening” by Chris Pirillo, retrieved on Flickr Creative Commons License BY-NC-ND 2.0
  12. 12. L.Galli Design & Technology Rather than trying to make a complex machine easy, the better way would be to make a simple machine in the first place [Norman 1998]Norman 1998 The Invisible Computer, quoted from Norman “What’s wrong with the PC?” inDesign Studies. A reader, ed. by Clark and Brody, Berg 2009
  13. 13. L.Galli Design & Technology Alan Kay’s Dynabook (1968)Source: paper "A personal computer for children of all ages" presented at the ACM National Conference, Boston; image retrieved onWikipedia, where it is published under the following terms: “This work is copyrighted (or assumed to be copyrighted) and unlicensed. [...]However, it is believed that the use of this work in the [Wikipedia] article "Dynabook" [...] qualifies as fair use under United Statescopyright law. Any other uses of this image, on Wikipedia or elsewhere, may be copyright infringement. “
  14. 14. L.Galli Design & Technology I dont’ want to use a computer, I want to accomplish something [Norman 1998]Norman 1998 The Invisible Computer, quoted from Norman “What’s wrong with the PC?” inDesign Studies. A reader, ed. by Clark and Brody, Berg 2009
  15. 15. L.Galli Design & Technology I propose an alternative approach: a human-centered development process coupled with a set of disruptive technologies, the better to yeld a family of information appliances designed to fit human tasks, tailored for human needs and abilities [Norman 1998]Norman 1998 The Invisible Computer
  16. 16. L.Galli Design & TechnologyPhoto credit: “iPad” by FHKE, retrieved on Flickr Creative Commons License BY-SA 2.0
  17. 17. L.Galli Design & Technology Product-service development process R&D Design Engineering Sales Management and MarketingAdapted from Bill Buxton, Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann 2007
  18. 18. L.Galli Design & Technology Needs & wants Interaction & UI Design funnel Creative & Visual Requirements & Specifications
  19. 19. L.Galli Design & Technology Quick fix Quick fix Quick fix Quick fix Small/medium Small/medium build build Large-scale development
  20. 20. L.Galli Design & Technology J.J.Garrett’s Elements of User Experience The Elements of User Experience Jesse James Garrett jjg@jjg.net A basic duality: The Web was originally conceived as a hypertextual information space; 30 March 2000 but the development of increasingly sophisticated front- and back-end technologies has fostered its use as a remote software interface. This dual nature has led to much confusion, as user experience practitioners have attempted to adapt their terminology to cases beyond the scope of its original application. The goal of this document is to define some of these terms within their appropriate contexts, and to clarify the underlying relationships among these various elements. Web as software interface Concrete Completion Web as hypertext system Visual Design: visual treatment of text, Visual Design: graphic treatment of interface elements (the "look" in "look-and-feel") Visual Design graphic page elements and navigational components Interface Design: as in traditional HCI: Navigation Design: design of interface design of interface elements to facilitate elements to facilitate the users movement user interaction with functionality Interface Design Navigation Design through the information architecture Information Design: in the Tuftean sense: designing the presentation of information Information Design Information Design: in the Tuftean sense: designing the presentation of information to facilitate understanding to facilitate understanding Interaction Design: development of Interaction Information Information Architecture: structural design time application flows to facilitate user tasks, defining how the user interacts with Design Architecture of the information space to facilitate intuitive access to content site functionality Functional Specifications: "feature set": detailed descriptions of functionality the site Functional Content Content Requirements: definition of content elements required in the site must include in order to meet user needs Specifications Requirements in order to meet user needs User Needs: externally derived goals User Needs: externally derived goals for the site; identified through user research, ethno/techno/psychographics, etc. User Needs for the site; identified through user research, ethno/techno/psychographics, etc. Site Objectives: business, creative, or other internally derived goals for the site Site Objectives Site Objectives: business, creative, or other internally derived goals for the site task-oriented Abstract Conception information-oriented This picture is incomplete: The model outlined here does not account for secondary considerations (such as those arising during technical or content development) that may influence decisions during user experience development. Also, this model does not describe a development process, nor does it define roles within a user experience development team. Rather, it seeks to define the key considerations that go into the development of user experience on the Web today. © 2000 Jesse James Garrett http://www.jjg.net/ia/Copyright Jesse James Garrett, slide reproduced here with no prior permission request
  21. 21. L.Galli Design & TechnologyLego People Photography by Joe Shlabotnik 2006 CC by 2.0 retrieved on Flickr
  22. 22. L.Galli Design & Technology About users “Within the HF [human factors] approach, the human is often reduced to being another system component” (Bannon 1991) “the very idea of ‘the user’ reconfigures a multifaceted human being as an adjunct to a piece of hardware or software” (Satchell-Dourish 2009)Liam Bannon, From Human Factors to Human Actors 1991Christine Satchell, Paul Dourish, Beyond the User: Use and Non-Use in HCI 2009
  23. 23. L.Galli Design & Technology User Research / Design ResearchBook covers are copyright of respective publishers, used here with no prior permission request
  24. 24. L.Galli Design & Technology Understanding context Developing insights Defining opportunities Setting strategies Creating tangible (digital) design expressions Sharing the vision Helping in the go to market / go public Observing adoption and usage Redesigning
  25. 25. L.Galli Design & Technology Bill Buxton (2007) Sketching User Experiences, Morgan Kaufmann John D. Gould and Clayton Lewis (1985) Designing for Usability: Key Principles and What Designers Think, in Communications of the ACM, vol. 28-3 Donald Norman (1998) The Invisible Computer, MIT Press
  26. 26. L.Galli Design & Technology Cybernetics play Game Studies Game Theory Game Design
  27. 27. L.Galli Design & TechnologyImage from Doom retrieved on Wikipedia, uploaded from User:Fredrik, published under the following terms: “This is a screenshot of anon-free copyrighted video game or computer game, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the company or person that developedthe game. It is believed that the use of a limited number of web-resolution screenshots for identification and critical commentary on thecomputer or video game in question [...] qualifies as fair use under United States copyright law, as such display does not significantlyimpede the right of the copyright holder to sell the copyrighted material, is not being used to generate profit in this context, and presentsideas that cannot be exhibited otherwise.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Doom_gibs.png
  28. 28. L.Galli Design & TechnologyImage from The Sims retrieved on Wikipedia, uploaded from ClonedPickle, published under the following terms: “This is a screenshot of anon-free copyrighted video game or computer game, and the copyright for it is most likely held by the company or person that developedthe game. It is believed that the use of a limited number of web-resolution screenshots for identification and critical commentary on thecomputer or video game in question [...] qualifies as fair use under United States copyright law, as such display does not significantlyimpede the right of the copyright holder to sell the copyrighted material, is not being used to generate profit in this context, and presentsideas that cannot be exhibited otherwise.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SimsSS.jpg
  29. 29. L.Galli Design & Technology Inputs are how the systems monitor the environment - they allow the environment to influence the system. Outputs are the ways that the systems take action - they are how the system influences the environment [Salen and Zimmerman 2003]Salen and Zimmerman 2003 Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, quoted from Salen and Zimmerman “Introducing CyberneticSystems” in Design Studies. A reader, ed. by Clark and Brody, Berg 2009
  30. 30. L.Galli Design & Technology A cybernetic system contains three elements [...] The sensor senses something about the environment or the internal state of a system. The comparator decides whether or not a change to the system needs to made as a result of the sensor’s reading, and the activator activates the change [Salen and Zimmerman 2003]Salen and Zimmerman 2003 Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, quoted from Salen and Zimmerman “Introducing CyberneticSystems” in Design Studies. A reader, ed. by Clark and Brody, Berg 2009
  31. 31. L.Galli Design & TechnologyThe scoring function is the system’s sensor that measures some aspects of the game state. The controller is the comparator,which looks at the sensor’s reading and makes the decision whether or not to take action. The game mechanical bias is the activator,a game event or set of events that can be turned on or off depending on the decision of the comparator [Salen and Zimmerman 2003]Salen and Zimmerman 2003 Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, quoted from Salen and Zimmerman “Introducing CyberneticSystems” in Design Studies. A reader, ed. by Clark and Brody, Berg 2009
  32. 32. L.Galli Design & Technology Jeesper Juul (2003) Half-Real:Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds, The MIT Press Joost Raessens and Jeffrey Goldstein (edited by) (2005) Handbook of Computer Game Studies, The MIT Press Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman (2003) Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, The MIT Press Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman (edited by) (2005) The Game Design Reader: A Rules of Play Anthology, The MIT PressCredit for Game Studies selected readings above: Cristiano Poian http://www.poian.org
  33. 33. PhilosophyL.Galli Design & Technology Critical Theory alt Politics Cyborg Cyberculture Cyberpunk Gender studies Feminism
  34. 34. L.Galli Design & Technology Donna HarawayPhoto credit: “Donna Haraway” (2010) by jeanbaptisteparis - Jean-Baptiste LABRUNE retrieved on Flick Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic(CC BY-SA 2.0)
  35. 35. L.Galli Design & TechnologyPhoto credit: “Chimera. Apulian red-figure dish, ca. 350-340 BC.” by Jastrow (2006) retrieved on Wikipedia released in Public Domainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chimera_Apulia_Louvre_K362.jpg
  36. 36. L.Galli Design & Technology By the late twentieth century, our time, a mythic time, we are all chimeras, theorized and fabricated hybrids of machine and organism; in short, we are cyborgs [Haraway 1991]Haraway 1991 A Cyborg Manifesto, quoted from Haraway “A Cyborg Manifesto” inDesign Studies. A reader, ed. by Clark and Brody, Berg 2009
  37. 37. L.Galli Design & Technology Late twentieth-century machines have made thoroughly ambiguous the difference between natural and artificial, mind and body, self-developing and externally designed, and many other distinctions that used to apply to organisms and machines [Haraway 1991]Haraway 1991 A Cyborg Manifesto, quoted from Haraway “A Cyborg Manifesto” inDesign Studies. A reader, ed. by Clark and Brody, Berg 2009
  38. 38. #designL.Galli Design & Technology technologytnx @lga11i GAME OVER

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