Kuhlthau's ISP PowerPoint in PDF format


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Kuhlthau's ISP PowerPoint in PDF format

  1. 1. Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process (ISP) LI 810XD Spring Semester 2009 Lori Franklin, SLIM Ph.D. student, Emporia State University
  2. 2. Some information about me: • ESU SLIM doctoral student. • 13 years experience as school lib i i h l librarian. • Have worked at all K-12 levels. • Earned M.L.S. degree from Florida State University in 1996 1996. • Research interest: adolescents and the experiences they report occurring in school library media centers. • Will probably do a mostly qualitative research study • Currently interesting in using case studies, interviews, focus groups and survey data for methodology. • My research questions are important because the perceptions adolescents retain regarding their school library experiences may affect their later use of public, academic and special libraries. • Married with three children: ages 22, 19, and 17. • Contact: lfrankli@emporia.edu Visit my school library website: http://teachers.olatheschools.com/oelibrary/
  3. 3. Information Searching Models • Help us to understand how p p g about finding p people go g information. • May be from a cognitive point of view – what is the brain doing that d i th t causes th i f the information-seeking b h i ti ki behaviors t to appear? • Might also be from a strictly process view aimed towards the practitioner – a sort of recipe for information searching. • St di about i f Studies b t information searching first dealt with user ti hi fi t d lt ith behaviors, with the goal of improving systems design. If you are already working in a library you have personally witnessed a wide variation in library, the ways people seek and find information. Can you think of any examples that stand out? You may have also seen similar behaviors in other types of jobs.
  4. 4. Some of the information-seeking models: g • Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process (ISP) ( ) Model (7 stages at differing levels) • Ann Irving’s Model for Completing Assignments (9 steps) Ai t ) • Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz’ Big6 Model (3 or 6 steps) • Barbara Stripling and Judy Pitts’ REACTS Model for term paper p epa at o (10 steps) ode o te pape preparation ( 0 When I was earning my M.L.S. degree, the Big6 Information Seeking model was very popular. For more on this model, see: http://www.big6.com When I was earning my MLS, the Big6 Model was very popular.
  5. 5. Also included: • Marjorie Pappas and Ann Tepe’s Pathways to Tepe s Knowledge Model (6 non-linear stages) • Marilyn Joyce and Julie Tallman’s I-Search y y Model (4 steps) • Alice Yucht’s Flip It! Model (4 stages) p ( g) • Bob Grover, Carol Fox, and Jackie Lakin’s Handy 5 Model (5 steps) For an in depth discussion of the different information searching models, see Nancy P in-depth models P. Thomas’ Information Literacy and Information Skills Instruction: Applying Research to Practice in the School Library Media Center. Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, 2004.
  6. 6. Why focus on Kuhlthau? • Considered a seminal contributor to LIS. • Only model that has been empirically tested. • Only model that addresses “holistic” view of holistic information transfer, examining thoughts and feelings as well as actions. g • Her model has created a common vocabulary for researchers looking at information searching processes. As you progress through your own M.L.S. program of study, you will discover many other seminal figures in LIS; some of these may influence your own conceptual outlook on what libraries are, and how we as librarians work with our clientele.
  7. 7. In the beginning • Kuhlthau began her career as a first grade teacher in the 1960s. 1960 • While teaching, she became “intrigued with the way children learn to read.”1 read. • After five years, she considered working towards a master’s degree as a reading specialist, but a friend suggested lib d library school. K hl h earned h MLS h l Kuhlthau d her degree at Rutgers University. • Studied the learning processes of students in her high school library for her dissertation – this work formed the basis for the ISP model. 1 From personal e-mail correspondence, July 2008.
  8. 8. Dewey- Phases of Reflective Thinking Phases Doubt – incomplete situation Suggestion Conceptualizing the problem Intellectualization Tentative interpretation Guiding Idea (hypothesis) Interpretation with more precise facts Reasoning Idea tested by overt or imaginative action Action Kelly – Five Phases of Construction Confusion and Doubt New experiences Mounting Confusion/Possible Threat Inconsistent information Tentative hypothesis yp Provides direction for pursing information p g Testing and Assessing Assessing outcome Reconstruing Assimilating new construct Bruner – The Interpretive Tasks Perception Encountering new information Selection Recognizing patterns Inference If Joining l t J i i clusters and categories dt i Prediction Going beyond information given Action Creating “products of the mind”
  9. 9. Study #1 • Kuhlthau’s research questions: q – Do users have common experiences in the process of information seeking that can be articulated and described? d ib d? – Do users’ experiences resemble the phases in the process of construction? The studies discussed here were performed over a 10-year period.
  10. 10. Study #1, continued: • Administered a questionnaire before research – designed to determine perceptions; 5-point Likert scale • Attempted to develop stages along with 6 categories for each stage: - task, thoughts, feelings, actions, strategies, and mood See a copy of the questionnaire from Study #1 on p. 36 of Seeking Meaning.
  11. 11. Study #1, continued: • Task Initiation – students here expressed feelings of p g uncertainty • Topic Selection – eased uncertainty to a degree • Prefocus Exploration – can be most difficult stage if there is not a focus • Focus Formulation – for many this is the turning point in the research effort • Information Collection – renewed confidence • Search Closure – beginning writing Kuhlthau’s work has created a working vocabulary for researchers in this area.
  12. 12. Study #1, continued: Major findings: 1. Patterns experienced by students matched those described in the process of construction. 2. Information seeking process model developed. 3. Problems with study: conflict between students understanding of t k v. actual experiences; students d t di f task tl i td t didn’t perceive librarians as more than locators of resources; the initial study group was small, and not yg p diverse. One value in performing a study is discovering ways to make the next study better!
  13. 13. Stages Task Topic Prefocus Focus Information Search Starting Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Closure Writing Feelings F li Uncertainty U tit Optimism O ti i Confusion, Cfi Clarity Cl it Sense of direction, S f di ti Relief R li f Satisfaction S ti f ti or frustration, doubt confidence dissatisfaction Thoughts Ambiguity Specificity Increased interest Actions Seeking relevant information Seeking pertinent information Initiation = awareness of need for knowledge Selection = general topic defined Exploration = inconsistent information encountered at this point Formulation = focus is developed Collection = information gathered/interest increased Presentation = search is complete, with new understanding gained Kuhlthau identifies the stages of the information search process and ties in the affective states of the information seeker, noting the change from uncertainty to confidence as understanding is achieved.
  14. 14. Study #2 arge-scale verification g ore diverse study (low, middle, and high-achieving tudents) ix of qualitative and quantitative ongitudinal piece sed process surveys conceptual maps and perception surveys, uestionnaire.
  15. 15. Study #2, continued ajor findings: j g . Model of information search process verified – showed that learning began with vague ththoughts, low confidence and ht l fid d progressed to clarification and increased confidence . Inability to collect data from low-achieving students (absenteeism) ion and the ability to generalize study findings are a very important part of . Even as Kuhlthau continues to verify her hypotheses, she also discovers parts
  16. 16. Study #2, contd. light correlation found between an increase in g onfidence and teacher assessments of learning ccurring. iscovered: quality of i f i d lit f information search process h ti h has ore impact on learning than the quantity of resources. hat does this say about the role of the school librarian? ’s findings on the importance of the information search process and impact on s are especially pertinent with today’s fiscal situation – the quality of the learning
  17. 17. Study #2, continued: lso examined users at academic, public and school ,p ibraries. ublic library users more confident at initiation. College t d t more confident at closure than high school tudents fid t t l th hi h h l tudents. -depth study of undergraduate perceptions of their library experiences, see the
  18. 18. Study #2, continued: his study is important because it further verified the y p nformation search process in other settings (academic, ublic). howed that uncertainty and lack of confidence occurred efore a research focus was developed. howed implications for mediation! eeded ways t gather d t on more di dd to th data diverse groups – ncluding low-achievers.
  19. 19. Study #2 – Longitudinal work ooked at small group of college students (her former igh school students) to determine the ISP at the college evel. uantitative and qualitative. gain – verified th ISP model. i ifi d the dl iscovered that over time, students changed their earch process expectations to meaning-making p p g g rocesses – there was an innate expectation that they ould become more interested in the topic as the search rogressed. g probably think of times in your life when your own need for information caused al searching for information to become meaningful for you. You might think of omparing the act of finding out which generic prescription brands are covered by lth insurance company, to a more simple act of “Googling” a local telephone
  20. 20. Uncertainty Principle ncertainty is a cognitive state causing symptoms such s anxiety and low confidence. It can be expected early confidence the information search process. uilt upon earlier theories that information may cause ore uncertainty than answers answers. ncertainty is not necessarily a bad thing – it causes ynamic processes to occur as learning evolves. rchers informing theories of uncertainty and information seeking include: , Whittemore & Yovits, Shannon & Weaver, Van Rysbergen, and Foulk.
  21. 21. Mediators ormal - librarians, professors, teachers nformal - family, friends, colleagues, subject experts member – in Kuhlthau’s studies, librarians were ’ erceived primarily as information locators. p proach ppeers first, then family and/or colleagues. They will seek out someone y g y ceive to be a subject expert before they will ask a librarian for help! As you learn
  22. 22. Kuhlthau s Kuhlthau’s Levels of Mediation rganizer – no intervention, self service searching g , g ocator – ready-reference intervention, single fact or ource search dentifier – standard reference intervention; roblem/interview/sources dvisor – pattern intervention; roblem/negotiation/sequence ounselor – process intervention, constructive search; roblem/dialog/strategy/sources/sequence
  23. 23. Zones of Intervention eeds determine differing levels of intervention. g ypical interventions might include: interviewing (for larity), determining the problem statement, finding out h user’s b k he ’ background on th t i di d the topic, diagnosis using a i i heory base (product or process), and completing the ntervention. wn efforts to help other people (a relative, or colleague, for example) find
  24. 24. Instructional activities and zones rvention Zone Student Need Instructional Activity No assistance needed – student is e1 Organizer working on his/her own. Library orientation; reference e2 Lecturer assistance. Help with locating and using relevant e3 Instructor resources for a specific need. Identification and use of relevant e4 Tutor resources in a sequence (looks like one-on-one help). Assistance in understanding the e5 Counselor process, in the development of searching strategies, in the formulation of the focus, and in determining relevance of retrieved items, etc. out those students (especially at the high school level) who only formally use
  25. 25. Kuhlthau s Kuhlthau’s other studies orkplace ISP awyers – discovered that information search process as familiar; noted need for information providers ocating and communicating complex background nformation at project initiation. Librarians also helpful at initiation idpoint, when resource “explosion” may be verwhelming. uhlthau calls for intense preparation of information orkers to provide invention and collaboration in both rganizational and library settings. er work h i f k has informed many i f d information search process i h tudies (both in education and in the work force) erformed since the 1990s.
  26. 26. Burdick s Burdick’s work with gender ollowed up Kuhlthau’s ISP work ender differences occur at affective level. irls – more likely to: seek assistance, work together, be ptimistic at task initiation and doubtful and uncertain at p ompletion; be reflective; explore and focus topics; be ess optimistic overall in abilities. oys – more likely to: not ask for help; express onfidence; be active; be more emphatic in collecting f ata and completion; more comfortable expressing ersonal opinions. References list for a citation of Burdick’s 1996 study with students in grades 10-
  27. 27. Your assignment, Part A. ase post your answers to ONE of the questions below on the ckboard discussion list for: Discussion Questions Set 1 1. m looking forward to reading your comments. I also encourage you to vide cross-commentary – read your classmates’ comments and e feedback. This sharing of discussion will enrich your own derstanding of this topic topic. estion 1: Now that you have a concrete example of how LIS earch informs our understanding of learning, and how librarians play art in that process, please think of an example from your own life ere K hlth ’ fi di Kuhlthau’s findings might b h l f l i ht be helpful. estion 2: If students in high schools tend to perceive teacher- rarians as information resource locators, how will this affect their rception and use of library services at academic and p p y public levels? estion 3: What are some of your own research questions regarding raries in general? Be creative! Your answer might come from your own rk experiences or from interactions you have had in libraries. on answers are to be posted between Feb. 1 and Feb. 14, 2009.
  28. 28. Your assignment, Part B. here are five articles in Blackboard available in pdf ormat, under the heading: Di t d th h di Discussion Set 1. i S t1 lease choose ONE article to read and provide, via the lackboard discussion group, your thoughts about what he article means to you personally – you might respond h ti l t ll i ht d rom the viewpoint of someone who is already working in library setting, or someone who works in another etting. etting lease share your impressions, information you have leaned from this presentation that helped you read the rticle, rticle or how well you think this article fits in with the mportance of research in LIS. Please cite the article in our discussion. Your response should be no longer than ne page. pg on answers are to be posted between Feb. 1 and Feb. 14, 2009.
  29. 29. Blackboard Discussion Rubric No evidence Required Required actions are provided, and student shows extended provided of actions effort (following classmates’ comments beyond one interaction, actions. are providing additional reading suggestions from their own reading, provided. sharing concrete examples that describe their understanding of Kuhlthau’s work, etc.). sponds to 0 5 10 nt, Part A , sponds to 0 5 10 nt, Part B ovides cross- 0 5 10 with classmates able to make 0 5 10 s between research and real- tions. erical i di t i l indicators are provided h id d here f an example. G d will not b t lli d per participant. Thi rubric allows f a for l Grades ill t be tallied ti i t This b i ll for of zero points and a maximum of 40 points for an assignment. When teachers facilitate higher-order thinking a rubric helps students understand the extension required to achieve the highest score. ckboard Discussion Rubric is provided to help you ascertain the level of on that I expect. You will not be receiving a grade from this rubric; rather, it is
  30. 30. References urdick, T.A. (1996). Success and Diversity in Information Seeking: Gender , ( ) y g and the Information Search Styles Model. School Library Media Quarterly, 25(1), 19-26. reer, R. C., Grover, R. J., & Fowler, S. G. (2007). Introduction to the library and information professions. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. U li it d arada, V. (2002). Personalizing the information search process: A case study of journal writing with elementary-age students. School Library Media Research, 5, 62. arada, V & Y hi d V., Yoshina, J (2004) I J. (2004). Inquiry l i learning th i through librarian – h lib i teacher partnerships. Worthington, Ohio: Linworth Publishing. oward, J.K., & Eckhardt, S.A. (2005). Action Research: A Guide for Library Media Specialists. Worthington, OH: Linworth. Howard, J.K., & Eckhardt, S.A. (2005). Why action research? The leadership role of the library media specialist. Library Media Connection, 24(2), 32-35.
  31. 31. References sbell, D., & Kammerlocher, L. (1998). Implementing Kuhlthau: A new model for library and reference instruction Reference Services Review instruction. Review, 26(3/4), 33-44. ulien, H.E. (1999). Barriers to adolescents’ information seeking for career decision-making. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(1), 38 48. Science 50(1) 38-48 racker, J. (2002). Research anxiety and students’ perceptions of research: an experiment. Part II. Content analysis of their writings on two experiences. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(4), 282-294. gy, ( ), racker, J., & Wang, P.L. (2002). Research anxiety and students’ perceptions of research: an experiment. Part I. Effect of teaching Kuhlthau’s ISP model. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(4), 295-307. uhlthau, C.C. (1987). An emerging theory of library instruction. School Library Media Quarterly, 16, 23-28. ulhthau, C.C. (Ed.). (1994). Assessment and the school library media center. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
  32. 32. References uhlthau, C.C. (1993). A principle of uncertainty for information seeking. Journal of Documentation 49(4) 339-355. Documentation, 49(4), 339 355 uhlthau, C.C. (1988). Developing a model of the library search process: Cognitive and affective aspects. RQ, 28(2), 232-233. uhlthau, C.C. (2001). Information search process of lawyers: A call for “just for me” information services Journal of Documentation 51(1) 25 43 me services. Documentation, 51(1), 25-43. uhlthau, C. C. (1999). Inside the search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective. Journal for the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 45(5), 361-371. uhlthau, C.C. (2004) Seeking meaning: A process approach to library and uhlthau C C (2004). information services, 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. uhlthau, C.C., Maniotes, L.K., & Caspari, A.K. (2007). Guided inquiry: Learning in the 21st century. Westport, C.T: Libraries Unlimited. unpe A T & Butler K (2002) The information seeking strategies of high unpe, A.T., Butler, K. (2002). school science students. Research in Science Education, 32(4), 549- 567.
  33. 33. References ills, J., & Lodge, D. (2006). Affect, emotional intelligence and librarian-user interaction. interaction Library Review 55(9) 87 97 Review, 55(9), 87-97. euman, D. (2003). Research in the school library media center for the next decade: Polishing the diamond. Library Trends, 51(4), 503-524. ors, N.O. (2008). Traditional use patterns? An analysis of high school students students’ use of libraries and information resources New Library World resources. World, 109(9/10), 431-443. adford, M. L. (2006). The Critical Incident Technique and the qualitative evaluation of the connecting libraries and schools project. Library Trends, 55(1), 46 64. Trends 55(1) 46-64 henton, A.K. (2008). Children’s conceptualizations of the word “information.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 40(3), 151-164. henton, A.K. (2004) Information-seeking research in schools: henton A K (2004). Information seeking Opportunities and pitfalls. Aslib Proceedings, 56(3), 180-186. homas, N. P. (2004). Information Literacy and Information Skills Instruction: Applying Research to Practice in the School Library Media Ce te ( d ed.). estpo t, CT: b a es Unlimited. Center (2nd ed ) Westport, C Libraries U ted
  34. 34. References odd, R.J. (2003). Adolescents of the information age: Patterns of information seeking and use and implications for information use, professionals. School Libraries Worldwide, 9(2), 27-46. odd, R. J. (2008). The evidence-based manifesto for school librarians: If school librarians can't prove they make a difference, they may cease to exist. exist School Library Journal 54(4) 38-43 Retrieved December 8 Journal, 54(4), 38 43. 8, 2008, from School Library Journal Web site: http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6545434.html odd, R. J. (2007). Evidence based practice: From advocacy to action. In V. H. Harada & S. Hughes-Hassell (Eds.), School Reform and the School g ( ), Library Media Specialist (pp. 57-78). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. odd, R.J. (1995). Integrated information skills instruction: Does it make a difference? School Library Media Quarterly, 23(2), 133-139. odd, R. J. (2008). A question of evidence. Knowledge Q , ( )q g Quest, 37(2), 17-21. , ( ), odd, R.J., & Kuhlthau, C.C. (2003). Student learning through Ohio school libraries: Background, methodology, and report of findings. Columbus: Ohio Educational Library Media Association (OELMA).