Anatomy and physiology2007


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Anatomy and physiology2007

  1. 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY<br />rlgbautista,rn<br />
  2. 2. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM*** External Structures ***<br />8/14/2010<br />2<br />
  3. 3. SCROTUM<br />Rugated, skin covered muscular pouch suspended from the perineum.<br />Supports the testes<br />Helps regulate the temperature of sperm<br />8/14/2010<br />3<br />
  4. 4. TESTES<br />Two ovoid glands, 2-3 cm wide that lie in the scrotum.<br />Each is encased by a protective white fibrous capsule composed of lobules, with each lobule containing the following:<br /><ul><li>Interstitial cells or Leydig’s Cells – responsible for the production of testosterone
  5. 5. Seminiferous tubules – responsible for the production of spematozoa</li></ul>8/14/2010<br />4<br />
  6. 6. PENIS<br />Glans – located at the distal end, a bulging and sensitive ridge of tissue.<br />Prepuse – a retractable skin casing that protects the nerve-sensitive glans at birth.<br />Composed of three cylindrical mass of erectile tissue in the shaft where the urethra passes:<br /><ul><li>2 Corpus cavernosa
  7. 7. 1 corpus spongiosum</li></ul>8/14/2010<br />5<br />
  8. 8. 8/14/2010<br />copyright (your organization) 2003<br />6<br />
  9. 9. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM*** Internal Structures ***<br />8/14/2010<br />7<br />
  10. 10. EPIDIDYMIS<br />A tightly coiled tube responsible for conducting the sperm from the seminiferous tubule to the vas deferens<br />Over 20 feet long<br />Serves as the storage for sperm <br />A portion of the seminal fluid is secreted by the cells lining it.<br />8/14/2010<br />8<br />
  11. 11. VAS DEFERENS<br />A hollow tube surrounded by arteries and veins and protected by a thick fibrous coating.<br />Carries sperm from the epididymis through inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity ending at the seminal vesicles and the ejaculatory duct<br />At this level, sperm matures but are immobile because of the fairly acidic medium of the semen.<br />Blood vessels + vas deferens = spermatic cord<br />8/14/2010<br />9<br />
  12. 12. SEMINAL VESICLES<br />Two convoluted pouches that lie along the lower portion of the posterior surface of the bladder and empty into the urethra by way of the ejaculatory ducts<br />Secretes a viscous alkaline liquid high in sugar, protein and prostaglandin<br />Sperm are motile at this point<br />8/14/2010<br />10<br />
  13. 13. EJACULATORY DUCTS<br />Two ducts that pass through the prostate gland and joins the seminal vesicles to the urethra.<br />8/14/2010<br />11<br />
  14. 14. PROSTATE GLAND<br />A chestnut sized gland that lie below the bladder<br />Secretes a thin alkaline fluid which will protect the sperm from the acidic medium of the urethra<br />8/14/2010<br />12<br />
  15. 15. BULBOURETHRAL GLAND<br />Also called Cowper’s Gland<br />Lies beside the prostate gland and empty via short ducts into the urethra<br />Also secretes an alkaline fluid that helps counteract the acid secretion of the urethra and ensures safe passage of the spermatozoa.<br />8/14/2010<br />13<br />
  16. 16. URETHRA<br />Lined with mucous membrane, it is a hollow tube leading from the base of the bladder, which after passing through the prostate gland continues to the outside through the shaft and glans penis<br />Approximately 8 inches (18-20cm) long<br />8/14/2010<br />14<br />
  17. 17. 8/14/2010<br />15<br />Semen is derived from:<br />60% prostate gland,<br /> 30% seminal vesicles, <br />5% epididymis, <br />5% bulbourethral glands<br />
  18. 18. 8/14/2010<br />copyright (your organization) 2003<br />16<br />
  19. 19. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM*** External Structures ***<br />8/14/2010<br />17<br />
  20. 20. 8/14/2010<br />18<br />VULVA – the collective term used to refer to the structures that form the female external genitalia (derived from the Latin word for “covering”)<br />
  21. 21. MONS VENERIS<br />A pad of adipose tissue located over the symphysis pubis<br />Covered by a triangle of coarse, curly hairs<br />Protects the junction of the pubic bone from trauma<br />8/14/2010<br />19<br />
  22. 22. LABIA MINORA<br />Two hairless folds of connective tissue<br />Folds are pink, the internal surface is covered with mucous membrane and the external surface with skin.<br />Area is abundant with sebaceous glands<br />8/14/2010<br />20<br />
  23. 23. LABIA MAJORA<br />Two folds of adipose tissue covered by loose connective tissue and epithelium that are positioned lateral to the labia minora<br />Covered with pubic hair, it serves as a protection for the external genitalia and the distal urethra and vagina<br />8/14/2010<br />21<br />
  24. 24. VESTIBULE<br />Flattened smooth surface inside the labia where the opening to the bladder (urethra) and opening to the uterus (vagina) arise.<br />8/14/2010<br />22<br />
  25. 25. CLITORIS<br />A small rounded organ of erectile tissue at the forward junction of the labia minora<br />Covered by a prepuce<br />Approximately 1-2 cm<br />Sensitive to touch and temperature and is the center of sexual arousal and orgasm in a woman.<br />Arterial blood supply is also plentiful causing muscular contraction leading to clitoral erection<br />8/14/2010<br />23<br />
  26. 26. SKENE’S GLANDS (paraurethral gland)<br />Located lateral to the urinary meatus, one on each side<br />Ducts open into the urethra<br />BARTHOLIN’S GLANDS (vulvovaginal gland)<br />Located lateral to the vaginal opening on both sides<br />Ducts open into the distal vagina<br />8/14/2010<br />24<br />
  27. 27. FOURCHETTE<br />A ridge of tissue formed by the posterior joining of the two labia minora and the labia majora<br />The structure that is sometimes cut during childbirth to enlarge the vaginal opening (episiotomy)<br />8/14/2010<br />25<br />
  28. 28. PERINEAL MUSCLE/PERINEAL BODY/PERINEUM<br />Located posterior to the fourchette<br />A muscular area that is easily stretched during childbirth to allow for enlargement of the vagina and passage of the fetal head<br />8/14/2010<br />26<br />
  29. 29. HYMEN<br />Tough but elastic semi circle of tissue that covers the opening to the vagina in childhood<br />Often torn during the time of first sexual intercourse.<br />8/14/2010<br />27<br />
  30. 30. 8/14/2010<br />28<br />Blood supply – mainly from the pudendal artery and a portion of the inferior rectus artery<br />Venous return – through the pudendal vein<br />Nerve supply – the anterior portion is from the ilioinguinal and genitofemoral nerves (L1 level)<br /><ul><li>The posterior portion of the vulva and vagina are supplied by the pudendal nerve (s3 level)</li></li></ul><li>8/14/2010<br />copyright (your organization) 2003<br />29<br />
  31. 31. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM*** Internal Structures *** <br />8/14/2010<br />30<br />
  32. 32. OVARIES<br />Approximately 4cm long by 2 cm in diameter and approximately 1.5cm thick<br />Almond shaped, grayish white and appears pitted or with minute indentations on the surface.<br />The following can be observed on its surface:<br />Unruptured, glistening, clear fluid filled graafian follicle (an ovum about to be discharged)<br />A miniature yellow corpus luteum (a structure left behind after the ovum has been discharged)<br />8/14/2010<br />31<br />
  33. 33. Ovaries...<br />Located close to and on both sides of the uterus in the lower abdomen<br />Produces estrogen and progesterone, regulates and initiates menstrual cycles.<br />Produce, matures and discharge ova<br />Necessary for maturation and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics in females<br />Held suspended and in close contact with the fallopian tube by three supporting ligaments attached to the uterus or the pelvic wall.<br />8/14/2010<br />32<br />
  34. 34. Ovaries...<br />Has three principal divisions:<br />Protective layer of surface epithelium<br />Cortex where immature oocytes mature into ova and large amounts of estrogen and progesterone are produced<br />Central medulla, which contains the nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic tissues and some smooth muscle tissue.<br />8/14/2010<br />33<br />
  35. 35. FALLOPIAN TUBES<br />Arise from each upper corner of the uterine body and extend outward and backward until each opens at its distal end, next to an ovary.<br />Approximately 10cm long<br />Conveys the ovum from the ovaries to the uterus <br />Provides a place for fertilization of the ovum by the sperm<br />8/14/2010<br />34<br />
  36. 36. Fallopian tube...<br />Anatomically divided into four parts:<br />Interstitial – the most proximal portion, the part of the tube that lies within the uterine wall; 1 cm in length, lumen is 1mm in diameter.<br />Isthmus – the next distal portion; approximately 2 cm in length; the portion of the tube that is cut or sealed in a tubal ligation<br />Ampulla – the longest portion of the tube; approximately 5 cm in length; the portion where fertilization occurs<br />Infundibulum – the most distal; approximately 2cm long and is funnel shaped; the rim is covered by a fimriae that help guide the ovum into the fallopian tube<br />8/14/2010<br />35<br />
  37. 37. UTERUS<br />A hollow muscular, pear shaped organ located in the lower pelvis posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum<br />At childhood, it is approximately the size of an olive<br />With maturity, it is approx. 5-7cm long, 5cm wide and in its widest part 2.5cm deep.<br />Weighs 60g in a non pregnant state<br />8/14/2010<br />36<br />
  38. 38. Uterus...<br />Function is to (1) receive the ovum from the fallopian tube; (2) provide a place for implantation and nourishment; (3) furnish protection to a growing fetus; (4) at maturity of the fetus, expel it from the woman’s body <br />After pregnancy it never returns to its non pregnant size and is 80g in weight<br />8/14/2010<br />37<br />
  39. 39. Consists of 3 divisions:<br />Body or corpus – uppermost part and forms the bulk of the organ; the portion that expands to contain the growing fetus.<br />Fundus – the portion between the points of attachment of the fallopian tubes; can be palpated abdominally to (1) determine the amount of uterine growth during pregnancy; (2) measure the force of uterine contractions during labor; (3) assessing the return of the uterus to its non-pregnant state after childbirth<br />Isthmus – a short segment between the body and the cervix; the portion that greatly enlarges to accommodate the growing fetus; the portion that is cut if the fetus is born via CS<br />8/14/2010<br />38<br />
  40. 40. UTERINE LININGS<br />Endometrium<br />Formed by two layers of cells, the basal layer and the glandular layer<br />The layer that is shed off as the menstrual flow<br />8/14/2010<br />39<br />
  41. 41. Myometrium<br />Muscle layer, composed of 3 interwocen layers of smooth muscle and fibers arranged longitudinally, transverse, and oblique<br />Constricts the tubal junctions and prevents regurgitation of menstrual blood into the tubes<br />Holds the internal cervical os closed during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth<br />8/14/2010<br />40<br />
  42. 42. Perimetrium<br />The outermost layer, serves to add strength and support to the uterus<br />8/14/2010<br />41<br />
  43. 43. UTERINE BLOOD SUPPLY<br />Came from the descending aorta, where it divides to form two iliac arteries whose main divisions are the hypogastric arteries, further dividing to form the uterine arteries that supplies the uterus.<br />8/14/2010<br />42<br />
  44. 44. UTERINE NERVE SUPPLY<br />Both by afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerves<br />Efferent – T5 throuh T10 spinal ganglia<br />Afferent – hypogastric plexus and enters the spinal column at T11 and T12<br />8/14/2010<br />43<br />
  45. 45. POSITIONAL DEVIATIONS OF THE UTERUS<br />Anteversion – tipped far forward<br />Retroversion – tipped backwards<br />Anteflexion – body of the uterus bent sharply forward at the junction with the cervix<br />Retroflexion – body is bent sharply backwards just above the cervix<br />8/14/2010<br />44<br />
  46. 46. 8/14/2010<br />copyright (your organization) 2003<br />45<br />
  47. 47. CERVIX<br />The lowest portion of the uterus<br />1/3 of the total uterus size approx 2-5cm long<br />2 openings:<br /><ul><li>Internal cervical os – opening of the canal at the junction of the cervix and isthmus
  48. 48. External cervical os – the level of the ischial spine</li></ul> <br />8/14/2010<br />46<br />
  49. 49. cervix ...<br />Endocervix – the mucous membrane lining the cervix and is continuous with the endometrium. These secretes (alkaline) mucous to provide a lubricated surface so that spermatozoa can readily pass through the cervix<br />During pregnancy it becomes plugged with mucus (operculum/mucus plug) forming a seal to keep out ascending infections <br />8/14/2010<br />47<br />
  50. 50. VAGINA<br />Hollow musculomembranous canal located posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum<br />Acts as the organ of intercourse <br />Conveys sperm to the cervix so that sperm can meet with the ovum in the fallopian tube<br />With childbirth, it expands to serve as the birth canal<br />8/14/2010<br />48<br />
  51. 51. The walls are rugated that lie in close approximation with each other that makes the vagina elastic and able to expand at the end of pregnancy to allow a full term baby to pass through without tearing<br />Mucus produced by the lining is rich in glycogen and with the action of a bacteria that frequents the vagina (Doderlein’s bacillus) lactic acid is formed, that makes the vaginal pH acidic<br />8/14/2010<br />49<br />
  52. 52. 8/14/2010<br />copyright (your organization) 2003<br />50<br />
  53. 53. 8/14/2010<br />51<br />