Training Adaptations


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Training Adaptations

  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>During a training session, acute responses to exercise occur </li></ul><ul><li>These occur in response to the demands placed on the body </li></ul><ul><li>During a training program, long term changes are noticeable after many training sessions </li></ul><ul><li>A long-term (chronic) physiological change in response to training that allows the body to meet new demands is called an adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>The SAID principle states that the specific demands of training will impose specific changes on the body that will allow it to meet these demands </li></ul><ul><li>S pecific A daptation I mposed D emand </li></ul>
  3. 3. KEY KNOWLEDGE / KEY SKILLS <ul><li>Chronic adaptations of the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems to training </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how chronic adaptations to the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems lead to an improved performance </li></ul>
  4. 4. GLOSSARY <ul><li>Haemoglobin : a pigment in red blood cells that binds to and carries O₂ </li></ul><ul><li>Myoglobin : a pigment in muscle cells that binds to and transports O₂ </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal volume : the volume of air inhaled and exhaled at each breath </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke volume : the amount of blood circulated by the hear per beat </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output : the amount of blood circulated by the heart per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy : increase in size </li></ul><ul><li>HDL : high-density lipoprotein – helps transport lipids like cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli : membranous air sacs where gaseous exchange occurs in lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Arterioles : small blood vessels carrying blood to muscles </li></ul>
  5. 5. GLOSSARY <ul><li>Venules : small blood vessels carrying blood away from muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries : the smallest blood vessels which helps exchange nutrients and wastes with cells </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria : small compartments within cells that allow for chemical reactions involved with aerobic respiration to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes : molecules that bind to substrates and help increase the rate of reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Substrates : the molecules ‘used up’ in a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion : the natural movement of substances from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration </li></ul>
  7. 7. CARDIAC ADAPTATIONS <ul><li>Hypertrophy of the left ventricle (increase in volume) </li></ul><ul><li>This means the stroke volume increase, therefore a greater cardiac output is achieved at maximal levels </li></ul><ul><li>Resting and submaximal heart rate decreases because less beat are needed to provide the same cardiac output (due to increased stroke volume) </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke volume: SV </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate: HR </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output: Q </li></ul><ul><li>Q = SV x HR </li></ul>
  8. 8. VASCULAR ADAPTATIONS <ul><li>Increased muscle capillarisation - increases distribution of blood to muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Increased haemoglobin levels in blood vessels - more oxygen can be carried to muscles. Blood plasma and red blood cell levels also increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased blood pressure at sub-maximal levels due to increased capillarisation, increased elasticity of vessels and increased levels of HDL (aids fluidity) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased a-VO₂ diff: the difference in oxygen concentration between the arterioles and venules, a direct measure of how much oxygen muscles are using - more oxygen extracted by muscles </li></ul>
  9. 9. RESPIRATORY ADAPTATIONS <ul><li>Increased tidal volume (and hence lower respiration rate at rest and sub-maximal levels) </li></ul><ul><li>Because there are less breaths at submaximal levels, air stay in the lungs longer, allowing more oxygen extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ventilation at maximal levels </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased use of oxygen by respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm frees oxygen for use by other skeletal muscles involved in exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar-capillary surface area increases resulting in increased pulmonary diffusion – more oxygen is absorbed by red blood cells </li></ul>
  10. 10. SLOW-TWITCH FIBRE ADAPTATIONS <ul><li>Hypertrophy of slow-twitch fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Increased mitochondria size and number </li></ul><ul><li>Increased oxidative capacity due to increased levels of oxidative enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased myoglobin concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Increased muscle glycogen stores and glycogen synthase levels </li></ul><ul><li>Increased stores and use of intramuscular triglycerides - glycogen sparing occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of fat during sub-maximal exercise </li></ul>
  12. 12. HOW DOES PERFORMANCE IMPROVE? <ul><li>Aerobic adaptations lead to improved oxygen delivery and utilisation. This, in turn, increases the aerobic capacity of an individual, improving their ability to respire aerobically </li></ul><ul><li>Increased fat metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced carbohydrate use during sub-maximal exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen is spared – allows for higher rate of energy liberation later on </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic training helps increase the Lactate Inflection Point </li></ul><ul><li>VO ₂ max increases – more oxygen can be utilised </li></ul><ul><li>Improved removal of metabolic by-products </li></ul><ul><li>Increased capacity to sustain a contractile level in fibres </li></ul>
  14. 14. CARDIAC ADAPTATIONS <ul><li>Increase in thickness of ventricular wall </li></ul><ul><li>This does not increase stroke volume significantly, instead it improves the hearts ability to circulate blood </li></ul><ul><li>A thicker wall produces a more forceful contraction which helps push blood through partially occluded (blocked) arteries (e.g.. when muscles are contracting and have a low oxygen supply) </li></ul>
  15. 15. FAST-TWITCH FIBRE ADAPTATIONS <ul><li>Hypertrophy of fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Increased contractile proteins (actin and myosin) in muscles - greater force can be generated </li></ul><ul><li>Increased energy substrate levels in muscle (ATP, PC, creatine and glycogen) – more fuel readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Increased glycolytic capacity due to increased glycolytic enzymes – increased energy from lactic acid system </li></ul><ul><li>Increased myosin ATPase – increased rate of contractions due to quicker energy release </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ATP-PC splitting and resynthesis of enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated muscle buffering capacity – changes in pH due to fatiguing by-products can be averted for longer due to chemical buffer stores </li></ul>
  16. 16. HOW DOES PERFORMANCE IMPROVE? <ul><li>Anaerobic adaptations lead to the ability to perform high-intensity exercise for longer periods </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular ‘equipment’ helps the muscle produce more force – muscle fibre size increases and movements become more powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes help increase the rate of force production </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel store increases allow for higher rates of energy liberation </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic by-products can be tolerated for longer </li></ul>
  17. 17. REVERSIBILITY <ul><li>Adaptations are reversible. If the stimulus (training) stops or decreases significantly the body will start returning to an untrained state </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as the principle of reversibility or detraining </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic adaptations are lost more quickly than anaerobic adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance training programs are recommended to athletes for the off-season, so they do not lose their condition </li></ul>