1 Overseas Exploration

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1 Overseas Exploration

  1. 1. What is History? <ul><li>The systematic study of the past </li></ul><ul><li>Radical and revolutionary change versus continuity </li></ul>
  2. 2. Historiography <ul><li>The writing of history </li></ul><ul><li>Historiography is always subjective </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why the term “Western Civilization”? <ul><li>Term first used by 18 th century historians </li></ul><ul><li>Located to the West of the other great ancient civilizations: China and India </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the gradual movement westward: Mesopotamia/Egypt…Greece… Rome …Western Europe…the Americas </li></ul>
  4. 4. Trade Networks - Timeline <ul><li>Before 1500 – European, Asian, African, Central and Southern American trade well established </li></ul><ul><li>At 1500 – European traders establish a connection between Western and Eastern Hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>After 1500 - Europeans attempt to subordinate pre-existing systems of trade from their own European headquarters </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overseas Exploration: Causes <ul><li>Break the Islamic-Italian cartel </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the availability of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Geoeschatology </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of new technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better shipbuilding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astrolabe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic compass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunpowder </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Top Left: Shipbuilding Bottom Left: Quadrant Bottom Right: Astrolabe
  7. 8. <ul><li>By 1511 the Portuguese mastered the Spice routes </li></ul><ul><li>By 1513 Portuguese trade extends to China and Japan </li></ul>
  8. 9. Christopher Columbus <ul><li>Born in Genoa, Italy 1451 </li></ul><ul><li>Sailed for Spain in 1492, reached the Caribbean islands </li></ul><ul><li>Voyages by Spain and Portugal follow; Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 </li></ul>
  9. 10. Amerigo Vespucci map 1507 <ul><li>Born in Florence, Italy 1454 </li></ul><ul><li>Medici business agent </li></ul>
  10. 11. Rare map sells for record $1M at auction (April, 2005)
  11. 12. <ul><li>Spain and Portugal original holders of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal’s holding will be edged away by France, Britain and the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>British colonies will end up being most successful in the Western Hemisphere </li></ul>
  12. 15. Circumnavigation of the World
  13. 16. Overseas Exploration: Consequences <ul><li>European diseases decimate native populations in West. Hem. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Institution of the African slave trade as replacement labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied through inter-tribal warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stifled progress of emerging African economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instilled in Europeans a sense of racial superiority </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Europe on the Eve of Exploration <ul><li>Young: 45% under 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Poor, malnurished, sick, anemic </li></ul><ul><li>High rate of infant mortality and birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of liquid capital </li></ul><ul><li>Stagnation of the internal consumer market </li></ul><ul><li>Society fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Scholasticism as a logical tool dominated intellectual life…placing things in already existent and static categories </li></ul>
  15. 18. Europe Post-Exploration: Economy <ul><li>Gold and silver arriving from the Western Hemisphere – Spanish Conquistadors and Mining </li></ul><ul><li>When the amount of currency increases, the value of salaries and rents drops </li></ul><ul><li>The Price Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>No longer advantageous to hold currency, best to be in trade </li></ul><ul><li>Land-holders no longer the dominant economic class </li></ul>
  16. 19. Europe Post-Exploration: Food <ul><li>New plants from the new world allowed for a more balanced diet </li></ul><ul><li>Caloric Revolution: the potato </li></ul><ul><li>Protein Revolution: corn </li></ul><ul><li>Variety: tomato, squash, beans, peppers, pumpkins </li></ul><ul><li>More food meant lower food price, everyone eats more </li></ul><ul><li>Corn and potatoes introduced to China and Africa and affected those populations </li></ul>
  17. 20. Industrial Materials <ul><li>Long term significance </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials that will later be used to fuel the Industrial Revolution </li></ul>
  18. 21. Europe Post-Exploration: Knowledge <ul><li>Reports from “New World” of animals and plants that did not fit neatly into categories </li></ul><ul><li>Turned from logical investigation (deduction) to observing, recording, measuring and testing (induction) </li></ul>
  19. 22. Impact on European Society <ul><li>Italy loses her trading monopoly </li></ul><ul><li>Increased demand creates worldwide capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity and Western values will become global </li></ul>

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