Lattice Energy LLC
      Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy


          Low Energy Nuclear Re...
Lattice Energy LLC
Fusion and fission are not predominant in LENR systems
     Fundamental concepts of condensed matter we...
Lattice Energy LLC
      Neutron-capture transmutations on earth via LENRs
Miley et al. began with an ordinary Nickel cath...
Lattice Energy LLC
Transmutations in nature: element nucleosynthesis in stars

  •   Except for Big Bang hydrogen/deuteriu...
Lattice Energy LLC
Astrophysics: neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in stars

Partial details of s-process in stars          ...
Lattice Energy LLC
Vast isotopic parameter space may be accessible to LENRs
 ‘Map’ of stable and unstable isotopes that co...
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LENR Transmutations on Earth vs Nucleosynthesis in Stars

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Very brief, semi-technical comparison of LENR transmutations of elements/isotopes on Earth versus nucleosynthesis of elements in stars. You don't need a star or a fission reactor to make neutrons, transmute elements/isotopes, and under the right conditions, release large amounts of clean, 'green' nuclear binding energy.

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LENR Transmutations on Earth vs Nucleosynthesis in Stars

  1. 1. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs) Weak interaction LENR transmutation reactions on Earth versus nucleosynthesis in stars Brief Semi-Technical Overview “Energy, broadly defined, has become the most important geostrategic and geoeconomic challenge of our time.” Thomas Friedman New York Times, April 28, 2006 February 07, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 1
  2. 2. Lattice Energy LLC Fusion and fission are not predominant in LENR systems Fundamental concepts of condensed matter weak interactions in Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs are illustrated below: No strong interaction fusion or heavy 1. E-M radiation on metallic hydride surface element fission taking place below increases mass of surface plasmon electrons (radiation) + e− → e − ~ 2. Heavy-mass surface plasmon polariton 1. electrons ( ~ − react directly with surface e) e − + p+ → n + ν + ) or deuterons (d+) to produce ultra protons (p ~ low momentum (ULM) neutrons (nulm or 2nulm, ulm e 2. respectively) and an electron neutrino (νe) e − + d + → 2nulm + ν e ~ 3. Ultra low momentum neutrons (nulm) are nulm + (Z , A) → (Z , A + 1) captured by nearby atomic nuclei (Z, A) representing some element with charge (Z) 3. Unstable or Stable and atomic mass (A). ULM neutron absorption produces a heavier-mass isotope (Z, A+1) via (Z , A + 1) → (Z + 1, A + 1) + e− + ν e transmutation. This new isotope (Z, A+1) may itself be stable or unstable Unstable Isotope New element – stable 4. 4. Unstable isotopes beta decay, producing: or unstable transmuted new element with increased ‘Green’ weak interaction β- decays (above), charge (Z+1), ~ same mass (A+1) as “parent” alpha decays (not shown), and gamma-shielded nucleus; β particle (e- ); and antineutrino ( ν e ) neutron captures produce most of the energy February 07, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 2
  3. 3. Lattice Energy LLC Neutron-capture transmutations on earth via LENRs Miley et al. began with an ordinary Nickel cathode - two weeks later, ended-up with experimentally observed LENR transmutation product spectrum that looked like it had been created in a star Start – Nickel (Ni) cathode placed in current-driven electrolytic chemical cell current- Finish - Mass spectrum of LENR transmutation products in cathode See: “Nuclear Abundances in Metallic Hydride Electrodes of With no fitting, simple two-parameter ‘optical’ model of ULM two- Electrolytic Chemical Cells” arXiv:cond-mat/0602472 (Feb 2006) arXiv:cond- neutron absorption based on W-L theory of LENRs predicts W- Widom and Larsen product isotopic abundance peaks shown in yellow above February 07, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 3
  4. 4. Lattice Energy LLC Transmutations in nature: element nucleosynthesis in stars • Except for Big Bang hydrogen/deuterium and helium, astrophysicists believe that most elements in the Universe lighter than Iron (Fe) were created by charged-particle fusion Artist’s conception: red giant star from reactions inside stars surface of an orbiting planet • Elements heavier than Fe thought to be According to Widom-Larsen, • similar to condensed matter created via neutron capture (absorption) LENR systems where neutron nucleosynthesis reactions in stars. Two types flux can be 109 – 1016 cm2/sec of such neutron capture processes thought to occur in hot stellar plasmas: Difference is that neutrons in • LENR systems can be ultra low – s-process (slow) occurs in stars, e.g., red momentum; vastly larger giants; neutron flux 105 – 1011 cm2/sec absorption cross-sections Also unlike stars, little gamma • – r-process (rapid) occurs in supernova photodissociation; sometimes explosions; neutron flux > 1022 cm2/sec net rate of nucleosynthesis can be higher in LENR systems than • Heavier elements (A > Fe) are formed in in some stellar environments successive cycles of neutron creation, neutron absorption, neutrino production, beta decays of unstable neutron-rich isotopes, and stable element production Supernova remnant February 07, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 4
  5. 5. Lattice Energy LLC Astrophysics: neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in stars Partial details of s-process in stars Overall r-process in stars Colored arrows in chart show a portion of the s-process s- r-process pathway is thin, pathway in stars jagged bright red line above Note: stellar s- and r-process element abundance r- Above r-process figure is from Sneddon and Cowen, peaks generally differ somewhat from those “Genesis of the Heaviest Elements in the Milky Way Galaxy” Science 299, 70 (2003) produced in LENR experimental systems on earth February 07, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 5
  6. 6. Lattice Energy LLC Vast isotopic parameter space may be accessible to LENRs ‘Map’ of stable and unstable isotopes that could be produced in LENR condensed matter systems ‘Valley of stability’ (nuclei of stable elements) shown in black This vast neutron-rich isotopic region may be accessible to LENRs LENR neutron-catalyzed weak interaction transmutations – involve combination of neutron production, neutron capture, and energetic beta decays of neutron-rich isotopes. LENRs can move back neutron and forth between producing stable products in the (black) valley of stability to unstable β-decay valley isotopes located in neutron-rich (greenish) regions to the right of it. This is very similar to s- and r- neutron- process neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in stars, only at vastly lower temperatures/pressures Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 February 07, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 6

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