Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

         Low Energy Nuclear React...
Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

                                 ...
Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

  Preview of Nucleosynthetic Path...
Lattice Energy LLC
          Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy


    Preview of Nucleosynthe...
Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

                               Ov...
Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

                             Over...
Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

                              Ove...
Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

                             Over...
Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

                             Over...
Lattice Energy LLC
     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy


 W-L theory and carbon-seed nucl...
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                             ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - I
ULMN capture on carbon,...
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                  ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - II
                               Ne...
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   ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - III
   Here is how fusion-based carbon cycles are t...
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   ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - IV

      Discussion of ULM neutron captures starti...
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   ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - V

      Discussion of ULM neutron captures startin...
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   ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - VI

     Nine different ‘carbon cycle’ pathways can...
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  ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - VII

        ULM neutron fluxes and traversing the F...
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  ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - VIII

   β decays of neutron-rich isotopes can relea...
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     Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy

        Review and discussion of ...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - I
   SRI replicates 1998 Case experiment – mea...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - II
  SRI replication of 1998 Case experiment i...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - III
                      Central results of S...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - IV
                  Central results of SRI’s ...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - V

            Initial discussion of SRI’s rep...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - VI

       MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s repli...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - VII
        MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s repl...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - VIII
      MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s repli...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - IX
     MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s replicat...
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1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - X

      MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s replica...
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009
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Ultra low momentum neutron (ULMN) capture on Carbon (C) nuclei: Widom-Larsen theory, model LENR nucleosynthetic networks, and review of selected LENR experiments

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Lattice Energy LLC-Technical Overview-Carbon Seed LENR Networks-Sept 3 2009

  1. 1. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs) Ultra low momentum neutron (ULMN) capture on Carbon (C) seed nuclei: W-L theory, model LENR nucleosynthetic networks, and review of selected LENR experiments Technical Overview Lewis Larsen, President and CEO “Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored.” Aldous Huxley in “Proper Studies” 1927 Studies” September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 1
  2. 2. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Contents Preview of nucleosynthetic pathways …………………………………… 3-4 Overview - I through V …………………………………………………………… 5-9 W-L theory and carbon-seed nucleosynthetic networks ……………… 10 - 18 Review and discussion of selected LENR experiments: Metallic Palladium (substrate for nuclear-active sites) with Carbon: 1999: SRI replication of 1998 Case/D2 gas; McKubre et al……. 19 - 37 Primarily non-metallic Carbon substrates hosting nuclear-active sites: 1994: Texas A&M carbon-arc/H2O; Sundaresan and Bockris … 38 - 44 1994: BARC carbon-arc/H2O; Singh et al. ……………………..… 45 - 56 Are LENRs connected with hydrogenated fullerenes/graphene? ……….. 57 - 60 Final comments …………………………………………………………………… 61 - 64 Ending quotation: Erwin Schrödinger (1944) ……………………………….. 65 September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 2
  3. 3. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Preview of Nucleosynthetic Pathways - I Begin at Carbon (C) Vector of LENR nucleosynthetic pathway in red End-up at Nickel (Ni) End- September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 3
  4. 4. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Preview of Nucleosynthetic Pathways - II Begin at While they differ Carbon (C) from stellar The neutron- neutron- catalyzed “r- process” process” ‘Map’ of the Isotopic Nuclear Landscape environments in many important (see path on aspects, LENR chart) that R-process pathway systems can astrophysicists Valley of stability produce large believe occurs fluxes of a wide mainly in stellar variety of supernova extremely neutron- neutron- explosions is rich nuclei from thought to produce low to very high most of the nuclei values of A. Thus, heavier than Iron they may someday (Fe). It operates in be able to provide the neutron-rich neutron- nuclear physics region of the Nickel with a new and nuclear landscape Neutron ‘dripline’ ??? exciting, much to the right of the lower-cost lower- valley of stability to In this presentation, we will apply W-L W- experimental tool beta- decay. theory and examine LENR experiments for exploring the Extremely neutron- neutron- in the yellow triangular region from the far reaches of the rich isotopes have a valley of stability (small black squares) nuclear landscape much wider variety and boundaries of thru neutron-rich, beta- decay isotopic neutron- beta- nuclear stability. of available decay channels in addition regions that lie to the ‘right’ of stability right’ This possibility to ‘simple’ β-. simple’ Carbon between Carbon (C) and Nickel (Ni) deserves further careful study. September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 4
  5. 5. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Overview - I For more detailed explanation of information underlying this presentation, please refer to 78-slide Lattice SlideShare Technical Overview dated June 25, 2009. Recapping - under nonequilibrium conditions in surface patches of hydrogenous ions and heavy electrons that are ‘cooked’ with large fluxes of ULM neutrons, over time large steady-state populations of unstable, extremely neutron-rich ‘halo’ nuclei tend to build-up. Neutron halos first discovered in Li in 1985; ‘hot’ R&D area today. Herein - using Widom-Larsen theory, we will explore part of the vast nuclear landscape of LENRs (see previous slide) via ULM neutron- catalyzed LENR nucleosynthetic networks: starting with neutron captures on Carbon seed nuclei; production of very neutron-rich, unstable intermediate products; ending with an array of stable transmutation products that extend ‘upward’ to Nickel. September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 5
  6. 6. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Overview - II At this point in our understanding of nuclear physics, please note that extremely neutron-rich ‘halo’ nuclei that comprise intermediate products created in condensed matter LENR ULMN nucleosynthetic networks are, in many respects, still little understood and poorly characterized. For example: neutron capture cross-sections are unknown for many; short half-lives can be very difficult to measure accurately; true location of neutron ‘dripline’ unclear at higher A. In condensed matter LENRs, neutron-rich halo isotopes continue to absorb ULM neutrons as long as capture Q-values remain favorable (prompt and delayed capture gammas are converted into infrared by heavy electrons) and as long as they are unable to decay via a variety of available channels that include emission of β- electrons (fermions) and/or shedding low-energy neutrons (fermions) into unoccupied states in local continuum. Compared to ions in hot stellar plasmas or neutron-rich fragments made in radioactive-ion beam colliders, LENR systems usually have much higher local densities of occupied states. September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 6
  7. 7. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Overview - III Key consequences of this unique situation in LENR systems (very dense occupation of local fermionic states) are that: (a) effective half-lives of very neutron-rich intermediates can sometimes be significantly longer than measured ‘textbook’ half-lives of comparatively isolated nuclei; and (b) % branching ratios for alternative β--delayed decay channels that are normally ‘available’ to such isotopes may change markedly compared to those of isolated nuclei – ratios may shift if certain decay channels are ‘blocked’ and unavailable. Thus certain types of decays can be ‘frustrated’ in LENR systems until unoccupied states ‘open-up’ for whatever reason. From low (better understood) to high values of A, unstable neutron-rich isotopes far from the valley of stability have a richer variety of decay channel ‘choices’ than many types of nuclei. These are β- decays followed by related beta-delayed emissions of gammas, neutrons (up to 3), alpha particles, tritons (Tritium), and deuterons (Deuterium). Although their production cross-sections are generally small, certain isotopes have very substantial β-delayed branches, e.g. ~12% of N-18 decays also emit alphas. September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 7
  8. 8. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Overview - IV “Excited states of nuclei formed in beta decay, for example, can show other types of radioactive behavior. In such beta-delayed radioactivity, the excited nuclear states can emit other particles ... If, however, the excitation [of the ‘daughter’ nucleus] is high enough, then it is possible that an alpha particle, a neutron or a proton are emitted from this state… This radioactivity is beta-delayed because the particles are only emitted after a time equal to the half-life of the beta particle [emission].” W. Scharf, “Particle Accelerators and Their Uses,” pp. 726 Taylor & Francis 1991. Few observations of beta-delayed particles published prior to 1965 12 types of beta-delayed particle emissions have been observed Over 100 beta-delayed particle radioactivities are known today Theoretically, perhaps >1,000 isotopes could exhibit such decays September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 8
  9. 9. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Overview - V We will first examine a model ULM neutron-catalyzed LENR nucleosynthetic network that begins with neutron captures on stable Carbon isotopes (A=12, mass; Z=6, # of protons; N=6, # of neutrons). This region of LENR nucleosynthetic parameter space is very interesting because, although the values of A are not large here, certain Nitrogen (N) isotopes have β--delayed alpha (He-4)-decay channels that have significant He-4 production cross-sections. Role played by neutron-rich N isotopes is somewhat similar to that of Be-8 in LENR cycle beginning with ULMN captures on Lithium that was outlined in Equations 30 - 32 in our 2006 EPJC paper. This implies LENR experiments involving ULMN captures on Carbon seed ‘targets’ may produce significant quantities of He-4 without any Lithium being present and importantly, without any need to invoke questionable D-D “cold fusion” processes to explain such data. September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 9
  10. 10. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy W-L theory and carbon-seed nucleosynthetic networks September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 10
  11. 11. Lattice Energy LLC ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - I ULMN capture on carbon, neutron-rich isotope production, and related decays Increasing values of A [BR = 12.2 %] 2He-4 ‘Pool’ 7.7 Branching ratios of beta-delayed beta- Stable 99.99% [BR = 0.0025 %] ‘Boson sink’ decays will be discussed further; 2.3 [BR = 0.001 %] data sources differ on some of them 3.3 5.0 8.2 1.2 4.3 0.8 4.2 0.6 2.9 6C-12 6C-13 6C-14 6C-15 6C-16 6C-17 6C-18 6C-19 Stable 98.7% Stable 1.3% HL=5.7x103 y HL= 2.5 sec HL=747 msec HL=193 msec HL=92 msec HL=46 msec 5.5 7.3 9.0 11.2 0.2 9.8 8.0 13.2 11.8 16.6 13.6 Legend: Increasing values of Z 10.8 2.5 5.9 2.8 5.3 2.2 ULM neutron captures 7N-14 7N-15 7N-16 7N-17 7N-18 7N-19 Stable 99.6% Stable 0.4% HL=7.1 sec HL=4.2 sec HL=622 msec HL=271 msec proceed from left to right; Q- Q- 4.5 5.9 8.6 value of capture reaction in 10.4 8.7 13.9 12.5 10.4 MeV is on top of green Beta-delayed alpha Beta- 7.5 horizontal arrow: decays are denoted 8O-16 4.1 8O-17 8.0 8O-18 4.0 8O-19 7.6 by orange arrows Stable 99.76% Stable 0.04% Stable 0.20% HL=26.5 sec Beta decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted w. blue with decay energy 4.8 vertical arrow with Q-value in Q- in MeV: 7.5 Well-accepted reports documenting beta-delayed alpha Well- beta- MeV in blue to left: Beta-delayed Beta- 9F-19 6.6 neutron- decays in neutron-rich Nitrogen (N) isotopes were first 7.5 neutron emissions ~Stable 100% published in major journals ca. 1992 - 1994 Totally stable isotopes are are denoted by pink indicated by green boxes; dotted lines with some with extremely long arrows; decay 7.5 A total of nine different ‘Carbon cycle’ pathways are possible in this region of cycle’ half-lives are labeled half- energy in MeV: the model LENR nucleosynthetic network; four of them are as follows: follows: “~stable”; natural ~stable” Gamma emissions (C-12 thru C-15) -> N-15 -> N-16 -> C-12 + He-4 ; total Qv = ~30 MeV/He-4 atom (C- C- N- N- C- He- MeV/He- abundances denoted in % are not shown here; (C-12 thru C-16) -> N-16 -> C-12 + He-4 ; total Qv = ~30.0 MeV/He-4 atom (C- C- N- C- He- MeV/He- Unstable isotopes are are automatically converted directly (C-12 thru C-17) -> N-17 -> C-13 + He-4 ; total Qv = ~35.0 MeV/He-4 atom (C- C- N- C- He- MeV/He- indicated by purplish boxes; when measured, half-lives are half- to infrared by heavy (C-12 thru C-18) -> N-18 -> C-14 + He-4 ; total Qv = ~43.2 MeV/He-4 atom (C- C- N- C- He- MeV/He- shown as “HL = xx” xx” SPP electrons Network continues onward to higher A September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 11
  12. 12. Lattice Energy LLC ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - II Neutron Please note this region of very high- 2.9 6C-20 0.0 - energy beta decays of neutron-rich Capture 13.6 HL= 14 msec Ends on C Nitrogen isotopes (N-20 through N-23) Network can continue further 15.8 to even higher values of A if 2.2 7N-20 4.6 7N-21 1.3 7N-22 1.7 7N-23 0.0 Neutron ULM neutron fluxes are large Capture 10.4 HL=100 msec HL= 85 msec HL= 24 msec HL=14.5 msec Ends on N enough and of sufficient 13.4 15.9 21.0 18.0 17.2 22.8 23.8 duration. This is similar to 7.6 8O-20 3.8 8O-21 6.9 8O-22 2.7 8O-23 3.6 8O-24 0.0 Neutron Capture stars, but with key differences HL= 13.5 sec HL= 3.4 sec HL= 2.3 sec HL= 82 msec HL= 61 msec Ends on O 1.3 3.8 7.7 3.8 8.1 6.5 11.3 11.5 Neutron 6.6 9F-20 8.1 9F-21 5.3 9F-22 7.5 9F-23 3.8 9F-24 4.4 9F-25 1.1 9F-26 1.4 9F-27 0.0 Capture HL= 11.0 sec HL= 4.2 sec HL= 4.2 sec HL= 2.2 sec HL= 0.3 sec HL= 59 msec HL=10.2 msec HL= 4.9 msec Ends on F 0.5 3.3 4.6 9.2 12.3 16.4 7.0 5.7 10.8 8.5 13.5 13.4 17.8 17.9 6.8 10.4 5.2 8.9 4.2 5.5 1.4 3.9 10Ne-20 10Ne-21 10Ne-22 10Ne-23 10Ne-24 10Ne-25 10Ne-26 10Ne-27 Network Stable 90.5% Stable 0.25% Stable 9.25% HL= 37.2 sec HL= 3.4 min HL= 602 msec HL= 197 msec HL= 32 msec continues 1.7 5.9 4.4 2.5 7.3 7.3 12.6 Note the large size of the Q-values for beta- Q- 7.0 9.0 5.6 6.7 3.5 11Na-23 11Na-24 11Na-25 11Na-26 11Na-27 Network decays of N-22 (22.8 MeV) and N-23 (23.8 MeV) N- N- Stable 100% HL= 15 hrs HL= 1 min HL= 1.1 sec HL= 301 msec continues 2.6 5.5 3.8 9.4 9.1 For comparison, here are some representative Q-values of ‘prosaic’ Q- prosaic’ hot fusion processes with high Coulomb barriers: 7.3 11.1 6.4 8.5 12Mg-24 12Mg-25 12Mg-26 12Mg-27 Network D + D -> He-4 + gamma (23.9 MeV) – minor D-D fusion branch ~10-5 % He- D- Stable 79% Stable 10% Stable 11% HL= 9.5 min continues D + T -> He-4 + 14.1 MeV neutron (17.6 MeV) He- 2.6 This data illustrates how LENRs may have the potential to be a much much D + D -> Triton + proton (4.03 MeV) – BR ~50% 7.7 better power generation technology than hot fusion; they release just 13Al-27 Network D + D -> He-3 + neutron (3.27 MeV) ) – BR ~50% He- as much energy without any energetic neutrons or gamma radiation Stable 100% continues September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 12
  13. 13. Lattice Energy LLC ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - III Here is how fusion-based carbon cycles are thought to operate in stars Cycle 1: stellar CNO nucleosynthetic cycle Cycles 1 – 4: CNO + 3 nucleosynthetic cycles thru Ne-18 and Ne-19 Ne- Ne- Starts at C-12 C- Starts at C-12 C- Produces one He-4 per cycle He- Comments: in the stellar CNO cycle only C-12 is recycled; in LENR-based carbon cycles, C-12, C-13, and C-14 Comments: C- LENR- C- C- C- are all potentially regenerated. In general, ULMN catalyzed nucleosynthetic networks involve production of nucleosynthetic substantially more neutron-rich isotopes 2007 stellar networks, e.g., C-14 C-20; N-14 N-23; O-19 O-24; F- neutron - 445, January 4, than Source of Graphic: Nature, 20; 23; 24; 19 F-27; and Ne-20 Ne-27. Alpha decays are far more common events in low-A stellar fusion processes 27; Ne- Ne- 27. low- September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 13
  14. 14. Lattice Energy LLC ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - IV Discussion of ULM neutron captures starting with Carbon ‘seeds’ Large Q-values for beta decays of neutron-rich isotopes (up to 23.8 MeV in this region of the nucleosynthetic network) created in LENR systems produce unstable ‘daughter’ nuclei in highly excited states; this environment is favorable to beta-delayed decay processes wherein nuclei have wider range of dynamic ‘choices’ for alternative decay channels As shown in Carbon-seed nucleosynthetic network diagrams, ULM neutron capture on Carbon isotopes can produce Helium-4 via beta-delayed alpha decay channels, which under normal circumstances would be unusual for typical nuclei at such values of A As measured in neutron-rich fragments collected and analyzed in RNB particle collider experiments, branching ratios for beta-delayed alpha decays of Nitrogen isotopes are presently thought to be: N-16 (0.001 %); N-17 (0.0025 %); and N-18 (12.2 %) There is reason to believe that such alpha branching ratios could be substantially different for operating LENR systems in which dense local populations of heavy (energetic) SPP electrons and very neutron-rich nuclei simultaneously coexist with large fluxes of ULM neutrons. In such environments, high occupation of local fermionic states may hinder beta- delayed emission of fermions (neutrons and electrons – i.e., beta particles) into the local continuum. All other things being equal, it may be ‘easier’ for nuclei to emit bosons (He-4 particles and gamma photons) that can quickly ‘bleed-off’ excess energy to de-excite September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 14
  15. 15. Lattice Energy LLC ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - V Discussion of ULM neutron captures starting with Carbon ‘seeds’ Depending on the Q-value of the related beta decay, beta-delayed neutrons have particle energies that can range from as little as ~18 keV up to ~5+ MeV (e.g., N-22); however, maximum measured neutron energies published in the literature are typically from <1 - 2 MeV with peaks in their statistical distributions often falling between 0.25 - 0.50 MeV While beta-delayed neutron decays and their related Q-values are shown in the network diagrams, they do not appear to have substantial production cross-sections in LENR systems. This conclusion is based on fact that in 20 years of episodically intense measurement efforts, large fluxes of energetic neutrons have never been observed in any LENR system. What is occasionally seen in experiments where neutrons are measured are relatively small, ‘bursty’ fluxes of relatively low-energy neutrons that do not appear to correlate strongly with the presence or absence of heat production. Indeed, one of the early criticisms of “cold fusion” was that MeV-energy neutron production was many orders of magnitude less than what would normally be expected from prosaic D-D fusion reactions In some LENR systems, small amounts of beta-delayed neutron emissions may occur as a given micron-scale, nuclear-active ‘patch’ site is in the process of ‘shutting down.’ That is, when production of heavy electrons and ULM neutrons declines in such a site, unoccupied fermionic states can then begin to open-up in the local continuum, allowing previously ‘frustrated’ beta decays to proceed that can in turn produce delayed neutron emissions September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 15
  16. 16. Lattice Energy LLC ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - VI Nine different ‘carbon cycle’ pathways can occur within the network Model nucleosynthetic network herein has a total of Please see the Wikipedia article about the CNO ‘carbon cycle’ in stars at: cycle’ nine possible pathways that function as ‘leaky’ carbon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNO_cycle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNO_cycle cycles, regenerating C-12, or C-13, or C-14 and In stars hotter and more massive than our producing one He-4 atom (alpha particle) per cycle sun, CNO-I cycle produces 26.77 MeV/He-4 CNO- MeV/He- Adjusted net Qvs (assume D used to make Total ‘raw’ Q-values for the model’s 9 different carbon ULM neutrons; ‘gross’ Qv is adjusted to gross’ cycles range from ~30.0 MeV/He-4 to ~43.2 MeV/He-4; reflect an input energy ‘cost’ of 0.39 cost’ MeV/neutron) for the model’s nine different model’ when you adjust for the energetic ‘cost’ of making ULM carbon cycle pathways are calculated as neutrons, net Qvs range from ~28.4 to ~40.9 MeV/He-4 follows (in MeV): 40.86, 40.86, 33.05, 40.76, 32.95, 28.44, 40.76, 32.95, and 28.44/He-4 28.44/He- These LENR carbon cycles are ‘leaky’ in that they are an Note: some pathways have identical net Qv Note: incidental byproduct of a ULM neutron-driven Based on branching values measured in nucleosynthetic network that is constantly ‘trying’ to isolated RNB fragments (12.2% for N-18) the N- four ~40 MeV paths might appear to be most produce stable nuclei at higher and higher values of A probable. However, as we discussed, it appears very likely that these branching He-4 is a boson; has no ‘Fermi pressure’ issues with ratios could have very different values in occupied local states like neutrons and electrons. Can operating LENR systems; for discussion purposes, let’s assume that is true. Note that let’ serve as a ‘bosonic sink’ in LENR systems; also can model’s Qvs fall into two groups: four high- model’ high- readily leave nuclear-active sites in the form of a gas energy paths (avg. net Qv = 40.81) and five lower-energy paths (avg. net Qv = 31.17 lower- LENR carbon cycles will continue to operate as long as MeV/He-4). A simple average of the two MeV/He- Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 group average Qvs is 35.99 MeV/He-4. Also MeV/He- ULM neutrons are available to ‘drive’ reaction network note: all values larger than CNO-I in stars note: CNO- September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 16
  17. 17. Lattice Energy LLC ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - VII ULM neutron fluxes and traversing the Fluorine ‘valley of death’ LENR nucleosynthetic networks operating in condensed Please see the redirected Wikipedia article on the chemistry of Fluorine at: matter have issues with produced Fluorine that are not http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flourine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flourine present with ions in fusion-based stellar environments Also see a short article by: T. Furuya and T. Ritter, “Carbon-Fluorine Reductive Elimination from a Carbon- High-Valent Palladium Fluoride,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. High- Fluoride,” LENR-active micron-scale ‘patch’ sites in condensed 130, pp. 10060 - 10061, 2008 at: matter systems must maintain coherent oscillations of http://www.chem.harvard.edu/groups/ritter/publicati ons/page12/files/2008-10060j.pdf ons/page12/files/2008- protons or deuterons on surfaces for weak interaction In carbon-capture LENR systems, all other things being carbon- ULMN production to continue locally without interruption equal, the greater the input energy (e.g., in the form of electrical current) per unit of time, the higher the potential rate of ULM neutron production. The higher Free Fluorine atoms or F2 molecules produced by LENR the neutron flux, the more effectively and quickly an network in nuclear-active ‘patches’ will react violently with LENR system will be able to traverse Fluorine’s ‘valley Fluorine’ of death.’ Systems producing much smaller neutron death.’ any nearby hydrogen atoms (producing HF, DF, or TF), fluxes in comparison to well-performing aqueous well- electrolytic cells (e.g., using pressure and heat-driven heat- carbon atoms (making fluorinated carbons with ultra- H/D ion permeation-diffusion a la Iwamura et al.’s permeation- al.’ strong C-F bonds), or metal atoms, e.g., PdF6. Such experiments) will likely have difficulty going beyond Oxygen, let alone Fluorine. Rates of chemical reactions energetic chemical reactions can disrupt coherence in can vary from 10-10 sec to > 1 second. In particular, for reactions F + H2 HF + H and F + D2 DF + D the ‘patches,’ thus creating a potential ‘valley of death’ that measured rate constants at 195-294o K are 1.54 x 10-10 195- LENR networks must necessarily traverse in order to be and 0.82 x 10-10 cm3/sec. Therefore, the higher a ULM neutron production rate is above the key value of 1010 able to create heavier elements at higher values of A cm2/sec, the easier it will be for a Carbon-seed LENR Carbon- network to produce higher-A isotopes beyond Fluorine higher- Best strategy to traverse ‘valley of death’ is to combine See: Igoshin et al., “Determination of the rate constant of the chemical reaction F + H2(D2) very high rates of ULM neutron production with largest- HF(DF) + H(D) from the stimulated emission of HF molecules,” Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics molecules,” possible physical dimensions of2007 Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, LENR-active ‘patches’ 3 pp. 306-311 1974 306- September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 17
  18. 18. Lattice Energy LLC ULMN catalyzed LENR network starting from 6C12 - VIII β decays of neutron-rich isotopes can release large amounts of energy The good news about Uranium and Plutonium fission reactions Please see: see: is that they have Qvs of ~190+ MeV, releasing most of their France et al., “Absolute branching ratio of beta-delayed gamma-ray emission of 18N” beta- gamma- energy on a time scale of ~10-19 seconds in the form of prompt http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro- http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro- neutron and gamma radiation as well as fast moving, neutron- ph/pdf/0307/0307129v2.pdf (2003) rich, asymmetric fission fragments comprising unstable Controversy about measurements: measurements: products that undergo further decays; bad news is production Buchmann et al., “Some remarks about β- delayed α-decay of 16N” at: of large quantities of prompt ‘hard’ radiation and hazardous http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0907/090 long-lived radioactive isotopes; massive shielding is mandatory 7.5340v1.pdf (2009) Other measurements: measurements: Good news about ‘cleaner’ D-T fusion reactions in commercial C. S. Sumithrarachchi, PhD thesis, Michigan Sumithrarachchi, power reactors is Qv of ~17.6 MeV; bad news is that much of the State University, “The study of beta-delayed beta- energy released is in the form of hard to manage 14.1 MeV neutron decay near the neutron drip line” at: line” neutrons along with gammas and neutron-induced radioactivity http://www.nscl.msu.edu/ourlab/publications /download/Sumithrarachchi2007_231.pdf in apparatus; high temps create huge engineering problems (2007) Raabe et al., “Beta-delayed deuteron Beta- Good news about LENR-based nucleosynthetic networks is that emission from 11Li: decay of the halo” ” at: halo” they do not produce biologically significant quantities of hard http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0810/081 gamma/neutron radiation or hazardous long-lived radioactive 0.0779v1.pdf (2008) Comment: please recall that fission and fusion Comment: isotopes; in contrast to fission/fusion, no bad news for LENRs reactions mainly involve the strong interaction, whereas key nuclear processes in LENRs Many scientists mistakenly believe that weak interactions are involve weak interaction, i.e., ULM neutron production via e+p or e+d and beta decays weak energetically;Nature, 445, incorrect. In network herein, N-17 Source of Graphic: that is January 4, 2007 and N-18 beta - decays release 22.8 and 23.8 MeV, respectively September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 18
  19. 19. Lattice Energy LLC Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Review and discussion of LENR experiments - I Metallic Palladium (substrate for nuclear-active sites) with Carbon 1999 SRI replication of 1998 Case/D2 gas; McKubre et al. September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 19
  20. 20. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - I SRI replicates 1998 Case experiment – measurements of He-4 and heat Details of these experiments at SRI are fully Please see: described in two papers cited to the right McKubre et al., “The emergence of a coherent explanation for anomalies observed in D/Pd and H/Pd Goals of Case replication experiments at SRI system: Evidence for 4He and 3He production” ICCF-8 production” ICCF- were to measure the following parameters conference, Lerici, Italy (2000) Lerici, over the duration of a given experiment: (a.) Free document available online at: at: excess heat with calorimetry; and (b.) http://www.lenr- http://www.lenr- production of Helium (He-4) with mass canr.org/acrobat/McKubreMCHtheemergen.pdf spectrometry – by design, no other types of Another detailed description and extensive discussion of this experimental work can be found in a document nuclear transmutation products were prepared for the DOE technical review of “cold fusion” that fusion” measured or assayed during the experiments occurred in November 2004: Commercial preparations of ‘activated’ C --- Hagelstein et al., “New physical effects in metal deuterides” (see Section 3. “Helium and excess heat” deuterides” heat” carbon powder (ordinary charcoal, containing on pp. 7 – 10, especially Fig. 6 on pp. 8 showing helium 0.4 - 0.5% of finely-divided, nano/micron-sized increase vs. estimated energy, as well as the long particles of Pd) were placed in steel vessels, discussion found in Appendix B. “Results for the Case experiment at SRI” from pp. 18 - 21) SRI” after which they were filled with D2 or H2 gas can be found at: http://www.lenr- http://www.lenr- under 1- 3 atm. of pressure and sealed tightly. canr.org/acrobat/Hagelsteinnewphysica.pdf They were then heated up to 170 – 250o C and In January 2005, copies of written comments submitted by left to ‘cook’ for up to 45+ days. Heat evolution the outside scientists on the 2004 DOE “cold fusion” review fusion” was measured continuously; Helium-isotopes panel were leaked to the public; it is a truly fascinating 45- 45- page document that can be found at: were measured either by taking 2007 Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, samples at intervals or at the end of a given experiment http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/DOEusdepartme.pdf http://www.lenr- September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 20
  21. 21. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - II SRI replication of 1998 Case experiment in light of W-L theory of LENRs In the light of the Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs, it is apparent that Case replication experiments at SRI were, in some ways, conceptually similar to Mitsubishi/Iwamura experiments (see Lattice Technical Overview dated June 25, 2009, Slides # 44 - 45) Case experiment is similar to Iwamura’s in that the external input energy required to produce ULM neutrons comes from just a combination of pressure/temperature-driven loading of D+ or H+ ion fluxes into Pd (no external electric currents are applied) According to W-L theory, this means that ULM “Figure 11. Configuration of the Case experiment at SRI.” neutron fluxes produced in such cells would Source: Hagelstein et al., “New physical effects in metal likely be substantially less than ULM neutron deuterides” - this Figure found in Appendix B. “Results for deuterides” fluxes observed in well-performing Pons- the Case experiment at SRI” on pp. 19 of 2004 paper SRI” Fleischmann-type electrolytic experiments Note: one flask contains D2 gas under pressure and the Note: second flask contains H2 gas at the same pressure ULMNs would be produced on outer surfaces Evolved gases are acquired for measurement in a mass of Pd particles in intimate contact w. Carbon; spectrometer by bleeding-off small samples through the bleeding- nuclear products Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 be on top Source of Graphic: (e.g., He-4) would valves in extraction tubes shown at top of diagram of such surfaces or released directly into gas September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 21
  22. 22. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - III Central results of SRI’s replication of Case experiments - I Note: Figure 1 was present in the original conference report Note: present in 2000 and in paper specially prepared for DOE in 2004 prepared by McKubre et al. for presentation at ICCF-8 in 2000 Figure 1 and its related text were not present in paper prepared in 2004 for DOE review panel Discrepancy between D-D ‘cold” fusion hypothesis and experimental observations This Figure (but not the caption) present on pp. 6 in earlier paper Note: green dashed line predicted by D-D fusion; blue solid line was observed presented at ICCF-8 in 2000 “It is clear from the slopes of these two lines that the observed 4He constitutes only 76 “Figure 6. Excess energy determined by gradient (boxes) and differential (diamonds) ± 30% of the 4He predicted by equation [1]. A more significant problem in Figure 1 is calorimetric methods plotted against the increase in 4He concentration in a metal-sealed that three further 4He samples, taken at times of non-zero excess power (open helium leak-tight vessel. The experiment was performed by heating palladium on carbon diamonds), exhibited helium concentrations only at the level of the analytical hydrogenation catalyst materials to ∼190o C in ∼3 atmospheres of D2 gas pressure (see uncertainty, as did numerous samples taken in the apparent absence of excess power Appendix B).” production. Clearly if 4He is produced in association with excess power, it is not released to the gas phase immediately, or completely.” Source of Figure and caption: Hagelstein et al., “New physical caption: effects in metal deuterides” - this Figure is found on pp. 8 of 2004 deuterides” paper specially prepared for the DOE “cold fusion” review panel fusion” Source of Figure and caption: McKubre et al., “The emergence of caption: a coherent explanation for anomalies observed in D/Pd and H/Pd Note measured results: 31 to 32 MeV/He-4, plus or minus an est. results: MeV/He- Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 system: Evidence for 4He and 3He production” pp. 3 production” error of plus or minus 13 MeV (range of heat/He-4 is ~18 - 45 MeV) heat/He- September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 22
  23. 23. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - IV Central results of SRI’s replication of Case experiments - II Figure is present in 2000 and in paper prepared for DOE in 2004 Figure is present in 2000 and in paper prepared for DOE in 2004 See discussion of anomalous declining He ppm in this region in Slide #37 “Figure 12. Results of 4He measurements from the case experiment at SRI.” “Figure 13. Excess energy and helium production as a function of time from the Case experiment at SRI.” Quoting caption in 2000 paper: “Figure 2 [labeled as Figure 12 in 2004 paper] summarizes 6 of 16 results obtained in paired cells…Using direct, on-line, high- Quoting caption in 2000 paper: “The energy estimated in excess of that provided by resolution mass spectrometric measurement of [4He] we observed the following the heater for these two calorimetric methods is plotted in Figure 3 [labeled as Figure behaviors: (i) cells that show no increase of 4He over long periods of time (including 12 in 2004 paper], together with the measured helium concentration during the time all cells operated with H2 instead of D2); (ii) cells that exhibit a slow, approximately of greatest derivative, ∂ [4He]/ ∂t in experiment SC2. It is clear that the appearance of exponential increase in [4He] with time; (iii) cells that display no measurable increase excess heat and the apparent increase in [4He] are temporally correlated … [now in [4He] for a period of several days, followed by a rapid, approximately linear rise in from 2004] …There is reasonable confidence that the 4He source of the rising trends [4He] to levels sometimes exceeding that of the ambient background.” in Figures 12 and 13 is not a release of stored 4He from the catalyst …” ” Source of Figure and caption: Hagelstein et al., “New physical caption: Source of Figure and caption: Hagelstein et al., “New physical effects in Source deuterides” - this Figure is found on pp. 20 of metal deuterides” of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 effects in metal deuterides” - this Figure is found on pp. 21 of deuterides” 2004 paper prepared for the DOE “cold fusion” review panel fusion” 2004 paper prepared for the DOE “cold fusion” review panel fusion” September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 23
  24. 24. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - V Initial discussion of SRI’s replication of Case experiments Results shown in Figs. 1, 6, 12, and 13 show strong As to McKubre et al.’s attempted al.’ positive correlation between the production of He-4 explanation for the observed discrepancy, and production of excess heat in Pd/C/D LENR system please see their ICCF-8 paper (2000) cited ICCF- on Slide #20; quoting directly from it: Depending on the calorimetric estimation method, pp. 3 “… if 4He is produced in association with quantitative results shown in Figs. 1, 6, and 13 indicate excess power, it is not released to the gas phase immediately, or completely.” completely.” a value of excess heat produced per observed He-4 pp. 6 [paragraph beneath Fig. 4] “Clarification of a atom of ~31 to 32 MeV along with an estimated possible origin for the apparent 4He deficit in experimental error of plus or minus ~13 MeV; this error experiments “1” and “2” can be obtained from the results of experiment “3”. Approximately 82 kJ of results in likely range of values from ~18-45 MeV excess heat was measured in the electrolysis of a 100 mm x 1mm Pd wire cathode in D2O. This Authors implicitly assumed that only one heat- experiment was performed in a rigorously metal sealed and helium leak-tested cell and apparatus leak- producing nuclear process could possibly take place provided with the facility to sample the gas in the in their system: D-D “cold fusion” reaction wherein headspace. When initially analyzed following a period of excess power production, the gas phase D+ + D+ He-4 + [heat] with a Qv = 23.846 MeV (BNL) contained only 62% of the 4He expected if reaction [1] were the source of the excess heat. A second Issue with SRI’s results: authors’ D-D “cold fusion” sample showed an increase in [4He] despite the fact that the helium content of the vessel had been hypothesis predicted a Qv of ~23.8 MeV/He-4, but diluted with D2 containing low levels of 4He, in order values of 31 – 32 MeV/He-4 were actually measured to make up the initial gas volume after the first gas sample. Taking these increases as evidence of sequestered 4He, the cathode was subjected to an Question: how can one explain discrepancy between extended period (~200 hours) of compositional and measured quantities of excess heat vs. amount of He-4 temperature cycling by varying the current density in both anodic and cathodic directions.” directions.” detected with mass spectroscopy of gas samples? September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 24
  25. 25. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - VI MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s replication of Case experiments - I There are several aspects to the discrepancy between Continuing to quote directly from McKubre et theory (hypothesized D-D “cold fusion” reaction) and al.’s ICCF-8 paper (2000): pp. 6 – 7 “A mass al.’ ICCF- balance of 4He was calculated based on two experiment in McKubre et al.’s published results: further gas samples: one to determine the helium content of the D2 gas used initially to fill and refill 1. Shortfall in amount of observed He-4 relative to what the sealed metal cell (0.34 ± 0.007 ppmV); the is theoretically predicted by the “cold” D-D fusion other to measure the final helium concentration in the gas phase after exercising the cathode to reaction. Assuming that McKubre et al.’s calorimetry release trapped gases (2.08 ± 0.01 ppmV). was accurate (heat measured correctly) and that all Taking into account the amounts lost by sampling, their mass spectrometry data on He-4 was correct, and introduced with make-up D2, a calculated make- where did all the Helium-4 produced by the “cold” D-D mass balance for 4He in the gas phase after compositional and thermal cycling of the cathode reaction go? If He-4 did not leak-out, and since it will results in a number that is 104 ± 10% of the not react chemically with any materials inside number of atoms quantitatively correlated with the apparatus (which could produce molecular ions that observed heat via reaction [1].” [1].” may ‘confuse’ a mass spectrometer), then what? Reiterating the magnitude of the issue with the anomalously ‘lost’ He-4, they state: pp. 6 lost’ He- 2. Odd anomaly of declining Helium concentrations “When initially analyzed following a period of observed in sealed vessels that occurred beyond day excess power production, the gas phase contained only 62% of the 4He expected if #20 in experiments SC2 and SC4.2 as shown in Figure reaction [1] were the source of the excess heat” heat” 12 on left-hand side of Slide #23 – was that the result Finally they conclude that: pp. 8 “Evidence for of: (a) leakage from the vessels; (b) ad- or ab- sorption near-surface retention of 4He in the lattice can be near- of helium onto/into materials (Pd, C, or Fe) found used to accommodate the discrepancy between within theGraphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 else? Source of vessels; or (c) something measured and expected yields of 4He.” He.” September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 25
  26. 26. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - VII MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s replication of Case experiments - II Leakage from experimental vessels was rapidly (and al.’ As to Hagelstein et al.’s discussion of the observed discrepancy four years later, correctly) ruled-out as an explanation for discrepancy please see their paper for the DOE “cold fusion” review panel (2004) cited on Slide fusion” Elimination of leakage left three remaining possibilities: #20; quoting directly from it: 1. During experiments, Helium was being absorbed and/or pp. 7 “If helium were created in the cathode interior, then one might expect to see helium adsorbed by one or more materials found inside the dissolved in the metal. If helium were sealed vessels (including vessel walls); in order of produced near the surface, then perhaps it physical abundance and exposed surface area, these gas.” would show up in the surrounding gas.” materials included: Carbon (C – charcoal), Palladium pp. 8 [following a paragraph discussing He-4 He- (Pd), and 316-series stainless steel (Fe, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn) measurements of Miles & Bush, McKubre, and Gozzi] “Several important conclusions Gozzi] 2. If it were truly present above levels attributable to can be drawn from the studies cited above … external contamination, He-4 is undeniably a product of amount of helium observed in the gas stream is generally within a factor of about 2 less than nuclear processes. That being the case, perhaps other would be expected for a reaction mechanism heat- and/or He-4-producing nuclear reactions besides consistent with D + D -> 4He … Helium is D-D fusion took place in their Case Pd/C/D experimental partly retained, and dissolved helium is released only slowly to the gas phase for systems (not considered by McKubre et al.; no other analysis.” analysis.” ‘nuclear ash’ besides He was assayed) pp. 9 [in Section 3.2 “Reaction Q Value”] “One Value” 3. He-4 was actually being consumed as a reactant by can measure energy production, and assay for 4He in the gas stream or the solid, with other non-fusion nuclear reactions that transmuted it to uncertainties introduced in the reaction energy some other element besides Helium (not considered by Q because all of the helium produced may McKubre/Hagelstein et al.; only considered Item 1.) Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 not be accounted for in the measurement. August 10, 2009 September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 26
  27. 27. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - VIII MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s replication of Case experiments - III With regard to the 1999 Pd/C/D Case replication Continuing to quote from Hagelstein et experiments reviewed herein, please note it is al.’ al.’s discussion of the discrepancy in their paper for DOE panel (2004) cited on Slide Lattice’s considered opinion that McKubre et al.’s : #20; at this point, they are discussing an Reported calorimetric measurements of excess aqueous electrolytic experiment in LiOD that purportedly ‘proves’ that 4He is ad- or proves’ ad- heat production were probably accurate; ab-sorbed on/in Pd and can be ‘liberated’ ab - liberated’ Initially reported mass spectrometric assays of exercising’ into gas stream by ‘exercising’ the LENR cathode with imposed deuterium fluxes: observed He-4 atoms were probably accurate; pp. 9 - 10 “After making these measurements, Conclusion that leakage and/or external an attempt was made to dislodge near surface contamination were not significant issues in the 4He either thermally or by D atom motion by experimental results was probably correct; subjecting the cathode to a period of compositional cycling, while still sealed in Belief that “cold” D-D fusion was the only nuclear the calorimeter. Square and sine wave reaction that could possibly take place in their modulations of varying period and amplitude were imposed on the DC (negative) potential at experiments was incorrect; and that their, the Pd electrode in an attempt to flux Explanation for the discrepancy was incorrect. deuterium atoms through the interface and near- thus act to dislodge near-surface ad- or ad- An erroneous “cold fusion” conceptual paradigm absorbed 4He atoms. At the end of this period, the potential was reversed to withdraw all clearly influenced their experimental approach (e.g., deuterium atoms from the Pd bulk. No excess did not bother to look for any other ‘nuclear ash’ heat was observed during the periods of besides Helium isotopes) and hampered their ability oscillation although calorimetric uncertainties were large due to the strong departures from to properly interpret numerous anomalies present the steady state that accompanied the pulsing.” pulsing. Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 in their reported experimental results September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 27
  28. 28. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - IX MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s replication of Case experiments - IV Continuing to quote from Hagelstein et al.’s al.’ Please see excerpts of McKubre/Hagelstein et al.’s discussion of the discrepancy in their paper explanation for the observed discrepancy in the right- for DOE panel (2004) cited on Slide #20: hand columns on Slides # 24 – 28 (this slide) pp. 10 “Gas samples were taken before this procedure, again after purging the cell and refilling Underlying logic behind their explanation is that: with D2 from the gas bottle with 0.34 ppmV 4He, and once more after cycling. The latter sample After Helium was produced in gas-phase Case Pd/C/D exhibited the highest concentration of 4He reaction cell, rather than virtually all of it being released measured in this cell, specifically 2.077±0.01 2.077± almost immediately into the nearby gas, some ppmV/V. By making a proper mass balance of the significant portion of produced He-4 was sequestered helium lost through sampling and purging, and in activated Carbon material (powder form with 0.4 - that gained through make-up from the gas bottle, make- it is possible to assess with defined uncertainty 0.5% Pd); it was ad- or ab-sorbed into Pd and/or Carbon the results of deuterium fluxing in freeing lightly (charcoal) and did not enter gas trapped 4He. The final integral mass balance He. If significant % of produced He-4 is ‘locked-up’ in yielded a value of 104± 10% of the expected 104± value if the excess power in Figure 5 is due to a materials inside reaction vessels, smaller numbers of reaction of the sort D+D → 4He + ∼ 23.8 MeV He-4 atoms will be detected in samples analyzed in a (heat) … This value remains the most accurately mass spectrometer; effectively increases amount of determined in this field (in the sense that calorimetrically measured heat (MeV) per detected He-4 contributions from both the gas stream and the atom, thus MeV/He-4 values ‘artificially’ high metal are included), but it suffers from the included), criticisms that the numbers of samples were few, To support their argument, SRI conducted yet and the largest value of 4He measured was less than 50% of that in air … Q value of 31 ± 13 and another experiment that they claim ‘proved’ He-4 was 32 ± 13 MeV per 4He atom measured is also sequestered in Pd metal; that one involved very consistent with the reaction D+D → 4He + ∼ 23.8 different-type of aqueousJanuary 4, 2007 electrolytic cell Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, Pd/LiOD MeV (heat). Because of the importance of this result, it is discussed further in Appendix B.” B. September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 28
  29. 29. Lattice Energy LLC 1999: SRI replication of Case/D2 gas by McKubre et al. - X MeV/He-4 discrepancy in SRI’s replication of Case experiments - V Continuing to quote from Hagelstein et al.’s paper for al.’ Separate experiment designed to supposedly DOE panel (2004); this excerpt is from Section 2.6 titled “Deuterium Flux and Triggering Issues”: Issues” demonstrate release of bound Helium from Pd was conducted at SRI and involved a, “Johnson Matthey pp. 6 “The excess heat effect is often observed to be stimulated by changes in the experimental conditions … Pd wire cathode 10 cm long and 1 mm diameter in 1.0 Bockris described a regimen in which the current periodically M LiOD containing 200 ppm Al.” (from caption below changed direction ... Quantitative evidence indicating that Fig. 5 on pp. 6 of 2004 DOE Review paper) - very deuterium flux plays an important role in determining the excess heat in a Fleischmann-Pons cell was found at SRI … Fleischmann- different from gas-phase Case Pd/C But experiments seem to show that deuterium flux makes a difference, independent of whether it is incoming, outgoing, Bound Helium was to be released from the Pd wire axial, or traversing.” traversing.” by, “… subjecting the cathode to a period of By their own words quoted above, they admit that in compositional cycling, while still sealed in the LENRs, enhanced Deuterium flux is very important to calorimeter. Square and sine wave modulations of triggering production of excess heat and He-4. That He- varying period and amplitude were imposed on the DC being the case, couldn’t more new He-4 be produced by couldn ’ He- precisely the procedure they are describing to the left (negative) potential at the Pd electrode in an attempt that is supposedly designed to dislodge ‘old’ bound old’ to flux deuterium atoms through the interface and thus Helium atoms? If excess heat were produced during that act to dislodge near-surface ad- or absorbed 4He procedure, any detected He-4 could not be He- atoms. At the end of this period, the potential was unequivocally attributed solely to the release of bound ‘old’ He-4 because it could just as easily have been old’ He- reversed to withdraw all deuterium atoms from the Pd.” atoms of newly produced He-4. Conveniently they say: He- (pp. 9 of 2004 DOE Review paper – see Slide #27) – pp. 10 “No excess heat was observed during the periods of main goal of this procedure was to significantly oscillation although calorimetric uncertainties were large due accelerate D+ ion flux thru the Pd surface region Source of Graphic: Nature, 445, January 4, 2007 to the strong departures from the steady state that accompanied the pulsing.” [caveat re calorimetry errors] pulsing.” September 3, 2009 Copyright 2009 Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 29

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