Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy                   Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs)Expe...
Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy                                                 Contents  ...
Main objectives of presentationDiscuss certain W-L LENR transmutation networks in context of experiments  Present selecte...
References      Two important source documents referenced in this presentation  2004 ICCF-11 conference paper (not refere...
Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy  Overview and useful background information               ...
Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear EnergyMany-body collective Q-M effects widespread in Nature      ...
Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear EnergyMany-body collective Q-M effects widespread in Nature      ...
W-L mechanism in condensed matter LENR systems                 Weak interaction processes are very important in LENRs     ...
Conceptual details: W-L mechanism in metallic hydrides Side view – not to scale – charge balances in diagram only approxim...
High level overview: W-L mechanism in condensed matter   Chemical and nuclear energy realms can interconnect in small regi...
What is required for LENRs to occur in condensed matter?                                 Key factors for initiation and op...
Technical side note: ULM neutron capture cross-sections   Unlike energetic neutrons produced in most nuclear reactions,  ...
Decays of Neutron-rich Halo Nuclei: More ComplicatedCan dynamically vary their decay „choices‟ depending on their „environ...
Five-peak mass-spectrum: ULM neutron ‗fingerprint‘ - I    Miley‟s dataset is „smoking gun‟ for ULM neutron absorption by n...
Five-peak mass-spectrum: ULM neutron ‗fingerprint‘ - II  W-L ULM neutron absorption model  (2006) strongly predicts a stab...
W-L optical model and Miley data vs. solar abundance  Solar abundance result of fusion up to Fe and neutron capture beyond...
Location of Ni/Fe/Cr-seed LENR Networks in Isotopic Space                                           Map of Isotopic Nuclea...
Cr/Fe/Ni-seed ULM Neutron Catalyzed Network Pathways                  Major vector of LENR Cr/Fe/Ni-seed nucleosynthetic  ...
LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Cr ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays     Stable ‗target‘ seed nuclei on...
LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Cr ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays                                   ...
LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Fe ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays                                   ...
LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Fe ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays                                   ...
LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Ni ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays Stable ‗target‘ seed nuclei on or ...
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011
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Lattice Energy LLC-Nickel-seed LENR Networks-April 20 2011

  1. 1. Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs)Experimental examples: gas-phase Nickel-seed Hydrogen systems and their measured transmutation products; ‗hard‘ radiation is absent What products might be found if Fe, Cr, Pd seeds were also present? Technical Overview Lewis Larsen, President and CEO Lattice Energy LLC April 20, 2011 ―There are two possible outcomes: if the result confirms the hypothesis, then youve made a measurement. If the result is contrary to the hypothesis, then youve made a discovery.‖ Enrico Fermi April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 1
  2. 2. Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Contents Main objectives of presentation ....................................................................... 3 References ……..……………………………………………...............……….……. 4 Overview and useful background information .........................................…… 5 - 25 Discussion of W-L networks and experimental data ...................................… 26 - 34 Gas-phase LENR systems with metallic vessels ……………………..……...... 35 - 49 Pd-seed experiments consistent with ULMN capture ……………................... 50 - 57 Conclusions, W-L technical papers, and final quotation ...................………... 58 - 61April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 2
  3. 3. Main objectives of presentationDiscuss certain W-L LENR transmutation networks in context of experiments  Present selected segments of W-L model LENR nucleosynthetic networks starting with ULM neutron captures on stable Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), and Nickel (Ni) ‗seed‘ isotopes; discuss likely pathways and isotopic products that might be produced  Explain extreme importance of accurate ‗before and after‘ characterization of ALL materials, both compositionally and isotopically, that are exposed to regions of apparatus in which LENRs are occurring; appreciate often severe consequences of poor characterization in terms of being unable to understand what may appear to be bewildering, inconclusive experimental results re observed transmutation products  For gas-phase LENR experiments, explain importance of extensive wall interactions that can occur inside metal reaction vessels, including likelihood of significant wall material ablation over time, and how this might affect experimental observations  Relate described W-L model networks and related concepts to specific experiments involving measurements of LENR transmutation products and photon radiation and how W-L theory can potentially help readers to better understand such observations  Discuss implications of W-L Palladium (Pd) and Cr ‗seed‘ networks in context of selected examples of anomalous isotopic abundances observed in a variety of interesting and different physical environments, including catalytic converters April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 3
  4. 4. References Two important source documents referenced in this presentation  2004 ICCF-11 conference paper (not refereed): “Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys” E. Campari (Dipartimento di fisica, Università di Bologna, Centro IMO, Bologna, Italy), S. Focardi (Dipartimento di fisica, Università di Bologna, Centro IMO, Bologna, Italy), V. Gabbani (Dipartimento di fisica, Università di Siena, Centro IMO, Bologna, Italy), V. Montalbano (Dipartimento di fisica, Università di Siena, Centro IMO, Bologna, Italy), F. Piantelli (Dipartimento di fisica, Università di Siena, Centro IMO, Bologna, Italy), and S. Veronesi (Dipartimento di fisica, Università di Siena, Centro IMO, Bologna, Italy, and INFM, UdR Siena, Siena, Italy) CONDENSED MATTER NUCLEAR SCIENCE pp. 414 - 420 Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion Marseilles, France, 31 October - 5 November 2004 edited by Jean-Paul Biberian (Université de la Méditerranée, France) World Scientific Publishing 2006 DOI No: 10.1142/9789812774354_0034 Source URL (World Scientific website) = http://eproceedings.worldscinet.com/9789812774354/9789812774354.shtml Source URL (purchase online) = http://eproceedings.worldscinet.com/9789812774354/9789812774354_0034.html Source URL (free public copy of conference paper on LENR-CANR.org; this may differ slightly from final version published by World Scientific in 2006) = http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/CampariEGsurfaceana.pdf  2011 Lattice PowerPoint presentation (not refereed): “Nucleosynthetic networks beginning with Nickel „seed‟ nuclei --- why cascades of fast Beta- decays are important and why end-products of LENR networks are mostly stable isotopes” L. Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC Technical Document dated March 24, 2011 Source URL = http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llcnickel-seed-wl-lenr-nucleosynthetic- networkmarch-24-2011April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 4
  5. 5. Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear Energy Overview and useful background information Many-body collective Q-M effects are widespread in Nature “Quantum interference of large organic molecules” Gerlich et al., April 5, 2011 doi:10.1038/ncomms1263 ―PFNS10 and TPPF152 Nature Communications 2, Article number: 263 open publication contain 430 atoms http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v2/n4/full/ncomms1263.html ―Our experiments prove the covalently bound in one quantum wave nature and single particle. This is delocalization of compounds ∼350% more than that in all composed of up to 430 previous experiments and atoms, with a maximal size it compares well with the of up to 60 Å, masses up number of atoms in small to m=6,910 AMU and de Bose–Einstein Broglie wavelengths down condensates (BEC), which, to λdB=h/mv≃1 pm ... In of course, operate in a conclusion, our experiments vastly different parameter reveal the quantum wave regime: The molecular de nature of tailor-made organic Broglie wavelength λdB is molecules in an about six orders of unprecedented mass and magnitude smaller than size domain. They open a that of ultracold atoms and new window for quantum the internal molecular experiments with temperature exceeds nanoparticles in a typical BEC values (T<1 complexity class μK) by about nine orders of comparable to that of small magnitude. Although proteins, and they matter wave interference of demonstrate that it is BECs relies on the de feasible to create and Broglie wavelength of the maintain high quantum individual atoms, our coherence with initially massive molecules always thermal systems consisting appear as single entities.‖ of more than 1,000 internal degrees of freedom.‖ Illustration copyright Mathias Tomandl Artistic view of most complex and massive molecules (PFNS-10, TPP-152) brought to quantum interference by Gerlich et al. (2011)April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 5
  6. 6. Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear EnergyMany-body collective Q-M effects widespread in Nature Welcome to the New World! "I am increasingly persuaded that all physical law we know about has collective origins, not just some of it.― "… I think a good case can be made that science has now moved from an Age of Reductionism to an Age of Emergence, a time when the search for ultimate causes of things shifts from the behavior of parts to the behavior of the collective ….. Over time, careful quantitative study of microscopic parts has revealed that at the primitive level at least, collective principles of organization are not just a quaint sideshow but everything --- the true essence of physical law, including perhaps the most fundamental laws we know … nature is now revealed to be an enormous tower of truths, each descending from its parent, and then transcending that parent, as the scale of measurement increases.‖ ―Like Columbus or Marco Polo, we set out to explore a new country but instead discovered a new world." Robert Laughlin, "A Different Universe - Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down,‖ Basic Books, 2005, pp. xv and 208 April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 6
  7. 7. Commercializing a Next-Generation Source of Safe Nuclear EnergyMany-body collective Q-M effects widespread in Nature C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann (Technical Many-body collective oscillations and mutual quantum University of Berlin) and his collaborators have published extensively on collective entanglement of protons (as well as deuterons and tritons) proton dynamics since 1995. Please also see: and electrons (e.g., SPPs on metallic hydride surfaces), in “Attosecond quantum entanglement in conjunction with a breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer neutron Compton scattering from water in approximation, appear to be relatively common in nature, the keV range” - 2007; can be found at occurring in many different types of systems http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/cond- mat/pdf/0702/0702180v1.pdf While these many-body collective processes chronicled by “Several neutron Compton scattering (NCS) Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann et al. operate very rapidly and experiments on liquid and solid samples containing protons or deuterons show a nanoscale coherence can only persist for time spans on striking anomaly, i.e. a shortfall in the the order of femtoseconds (10-15 sec) to attoseconds (10-18 intensity of energetic neutrons scattered by sec), nuclear processes such as weak interaction ULM the protons; cf. [1, 2, 3, 4]. E.g., neutrons colliding with water for just 100 − 500 neutron production and neutron capture operate on even attoseconds (1 as = 10−18 s) will see a ratio of faster time-scales: 10-19 to 10-22 sec. Therefore, LENRs as hydrogen to oxygen of roughly 1.5 to 1, explained by the Widom-Larsen theory can easily take instead of 2 to 1 corresponding to the advantage of such many-body collective quantum effects chemical formula H2O. … Recently this new effect has been independently confirmed by as an integral part of their amazing dynamical repertoire electron-proton Compton scattering (ECS) from a solid polymer [3, 4, 5]. The similarity It is well-known that metallic surface nanostructures and of ECS and NCS results is striking because the two projectiles interact with protons via SPP electrons can have configurations that are able to fundamentally different forces, i.e. the effectively absorb E-M energy over a wide area, transfer electromagnetic and strong forces.” and concentrate it, and in conjunction with contiguous Also, J. D. Jost et al., “Entangled mechanical surface ‗patches‘ of collectively oscillating protons, create oscillators” Nature 459 pp. 683 – 685 4 June extremely high local electric fields. According to W-L 2009, in which “mechanical vibration of two ion pairs separated by a few hundred theory, ULM neutron production may then follow micrometres is entangled in a quantum way.” April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 7
  8. 8. W-L mechanism in condensed matter LENR systems Weak interaction processes are very important in LENRs No strong interaction fusion or heavy element fission 1. E-M radiation on metallic hydride surface increases occurring below; weak interaction e + p or e + d mass of surface plasmon electrons (High E-M field) + Mass-renormalized (radiation )  e   e  1. ~ surface plasmon polariton electron 2. Heavy-mass surface plasmon polariton electrons react directly with surface protons (p+) or deuterons (d+) to ν 2. + + produce ultra low momentum (ULM) neutrons (nulm or 2nulm, respectively) and an electron neutrino (νe) e   p  n ~  e ulm 3. Ultra low momentum neutrons (nulm) are captured by + + ν 2. e   d   2n nearby atomic nuclei (Z, A) representing some element with charge (Z) and atomic mass (A). ULM ~  e ulm neutron absorption produces a heavier-mass isotope (Z, A+1) via transmutation. This new isotope (Z, A+1) + 3. may itself be a stable or unstable, which will perforce n  ( Z , A)  ( Z , A  1) ulm Unstable or stable new isotope eventually decay 4. + + ν ( Z , A  1)  ( Z  1, A  1)  e    e 4. Many unstable isotopes β- decay, producing: transmuted element with increased charge (Z+1), ~ Unstable Isotope same mass (A+1) as ‘parent’ nucleus; β- particle (e- ); Weak interaction β- decays (shown above), direct and an antineutrino gamma conversion to infrared (not shown), and α decays (not shown) produce most of the excess Note: colored shapes associated with diagram on next Slide heat calorimetrically observed in LENR systemsApril 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 8
  9. 9. Conceptual details: W-L mechanism in metallic hydrides Side view – not to scale – charge balances in diagram only approximate A proton has just reacted with a SPP electron, Collectively oscillating patch of many creating a ‗ghostly‘ ULM neutron via e* + p weak Surface of metallic protons or deuterons with nearby interaction; QM wavelength same ‗size‘ as patch hydride substrate ‗heavy‘ mass-renormalized SPP electrons ‗bathed‘ in high local E-field Local region of very high (>1011 V/m) electric fields ‗above‘ micron-scale, many-body QM wave function of ultra low patches of protons or deuterons where Born- momentum (ULM) neutron Oppenheimer Approximation breaks down Heavily hydrogen-‗loaded‘ metallic hydride atomic lattice Conduction electrons in substrate lattice not shown Region of short-range, high = Proton, deuteron, or triton = Surface ‗target‘ atom = Transmuted atom (nuclear product) strength E-M fields and ‗entangled‘ QM wave functions of hydrogenous ions and SPP electrons = ULM neutron = Unstable isotope = SPP electron = ‗Heavy‘ SPP electronApril 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 9
  10. 10. High level overview: W-L mechanism in condensed matter Chemical and nuclear energy realms can interconnect in small regions LENR Nuclear Realm (MeVs) ‘Transducer’ regions: many-body collective effects, ~eV energies are Chemical Energy Realm (eVs) Occurs within micron-scale ‘patches’ ‘collected’ and ‘summed’ to MeV energies in micron-scale, many-body Everywhere else in LENR systems surface ‘patches’ by ‘film’ of SPP electrons and p+, d+, t+ ions in ―Hot spots:‖reach 3,000 - 6,000+ oC patches; all oscillate collectively Energy must be inputted to create ‗Craters‘ visible in post-experiment SEM high surface E-M radiation fields images of LENR device surfaces that are needed to produce ULM e   p  n ~  e neutrons. Required input energy ulm E-M energy can be provided from one or a E-M energy E-M energy Input e   d   2n ~  e combination of: electron ‗beams‘ ulm Mass- (electric currents); ion ‗beams‘, i.e., Many-body, Normal-mass fluxes of ions across the surface + + ν collectively renormalized surface plasmon ‗film‘ of SPP electrons (protons, oscillating surface polariton (SPP) or π deuterons, tritons, or other ions); n  (Z , A)  (Z , A  1) surface‘ plasmon and E-M photons, e.g., from lasers ulm patches‘ of p+, polariton electrons on Either a stable (SPP) surfaces of certain if nanoscale surface roughness d+, or t+ ions + isotope electrons – carbon structures coupling parameters are satisfied Or unstable also convert isotope in an Gamma photons IR Infrared (IR) photons IR photons excited state γ gammas to IR excite lattice - may emit gammas Micron-scale surface regions with Surface ‗film‘ of SPP phonons or X-rays electrons inherently ULM neutron Unstable isotope: very high local electromagnetic fields oscillates collectively captures on ‗target Which then subsequently undergoes fuel‘ elements and some type of nuclear decay process Born-Oppenheimer Approximation breaks down in many- subsequent nuclear body ‗patches‘ of p+, d+, or t+ on ‗loaded‘ hydride surfaces reactions all In the case of typical beta- decay: release nuclear Heat + + ν Two-way, collective energy transfers occur back-and-forth via E-M binding energy – ( Z , A)  ( Z  1, A)  e  e neutrons are the fields coupling the chemical and nuclear realms ‗match‘ that lights the fuel ‗on fire‘ In the case of typical alpha decay: LENR final products: primarily stable isotopes, Energetic + energetic β-, α (He-4) particles, other charged charged ( Z , A)  ( Z  2, A  4)  4 He Output particles, IR photons (with small ‘tail’ in soft X- Output particles 2 excite lattice Extremely neutron-rich product isotopes rays), and neutrinos Neutrinos (ν) fly phonons may also deexcite via beta-delayed off into space at decays, which also emit small fluxes of neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, etc. End with: ν, γ, IR photons velocity c April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 10
  11. 11. What is required for LENRs to occur in condensed matter? Key factors for initiation and operation  Substantial quantities of Hydrogen isotopes must be brought into intimate contact with ‗fully-loaded‘ metallic hydride-forming metals; e.g., Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium, Nickel, Titanium , Tungsten, etc.; please note that collectively oscillating, 2-D surface plasmon (SP) electrons are intrinsically present and cover the surfaces of such metals. At ‗full loading‘ of H, many-body, collectively oscillating ‗patches‘ of protons (p+), deuterons (d+), or tritons (t+) will form spontaneously at random locations scattered across such surfaces  Or, delocalized collectively oscillating π electrons that comprise the outer ‗covering surfaces‘ of fullerenes, graphene, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules behave very similarly to SPs; when such molecules are hydrogenated, they can create many-body, collectively oscillating, ‗entangled‘ quantum systems that, within context of W-L theory, are functionally equivalent to loaded metallic hydrides  Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down in tiny surface ‗patches‘ of contiguous collections of collectively oscillating p+, d+, and/or t+ ions; enables E-M coupling between nearby SP or π electrons and hydrogen ions at these locations --- creates local nuclear-strength electric fields; effective masses of coupled electrons are then increased to some multiple of an electron at rest (e → e*) determined by required simultaneous energy input(s)  System must be subjected to external non-equilibrium fluxes of charged particles or E-M photons that are able to transfer input energy directly to many-body SP or π electron ‗surface films.‘ Examples of such external energy sources include (they may be used in combination): electric currents (electron ‗beams‘); E-M photons (e.g., emitted from lasers, IR-resonant E-M cavity walls, etc.); pressure gradients of p+, d+, and/or t+ ions imposed across ‗surfaces‘; currents of other ions crossing the ‗electron surface‘ in either direction (ion ‗beams‘); etc. Such sources provide additional input energy that is required to surpass certain minimum H-isotope-specific electron- mass thresholds that allow production of ULM neutron fluxes via e* + p+, e* + d+, or e* + t+ weak interactions  N.B.: please note again that surface plasmons are collective, many-body electronic phenomena closely associated with interfaces. For example, they can exist at gas/metal interfaces or metal/oxide interfaces. Thus, surface plasmon oscillations will almost certainly be present at contact points between purely metallic surfaces and adsorbed ‗target‘ nanoparticles composed of metallic oxides, e.g., PdO, NiO, or TiO 2, etc., or vice-versaApril 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 11
  12. 12. Technical side note: ULM neutron capture cross-sections Unlike energetic neutrons produced in most nuclear reactions, Please note: ultra low momentum (ULM) neutrons have enormous collectively produced LENR neutrons are effectively ‗standing absorption cross-sections on 1/v still‘ at the moment of their creation in condensed matter. Since isotopes. For example, Lattice has they are vastly below thermal energies (ultra low momentum), estimated the ULMN fission capture ULM neutrons have huge DeBroglie wavelengths (from nm to cross-section on U-235 to be ~1 million barns (b) and on Pu-239 at ~100 microns) and accordingly large capture cross-sections on 49,000 b, vs. ~586 b and ~752 b, nearby nuclei; most or all will be locally absorbed; few will be respectively, for „typical‟ neutrons at detectable as ‗free‘ neutrons thermal energies A neutron capture expert recently For the vast majority of stable and unstable isotopes, their estimated the ULMN capture cross- neutron capture cross-section (relative to measurements of section on He-4 at ~20,000 b vs. a value of <1 b for thermal neutrons; cross-sections at thermal energies where v = 2,200 m/sec and this is a huge increase neutron DeBroglie wavelength is ~2 Angstroms) is proportional By comparison, the highest known to ~1/v, where v is velocity of a neutron in m/sec. Since v is thermal n capture cross section for any stable isotope is Gadolinium-157 extraordinarily small for ULM neutrons, their capture cross- at ~49,000 b sections on atomic nuclei will therefore be correspondingly The highest measured cross-section larger. After being collectively created, an enormous percentage for any unstable isotope is Xenon-135 of the ULMNs produced will be locally absorbed before at ~2.7 million b scattering on nearby atoms can elevate them to thermal kinetic Crucial technical point: ULMNs have energies; per Prof. S. Lamoreaux (Yale) thermalization would many-body scattering, NOT 2-3 body require ~0.1 to 0.2 msec, i.e. 10-4 sec., a very long time on typical scattering as, for example, in stellar plasmas or thermalized neutrons 10-16 - 10-19 sec. time-scale of nuclear reactions traveling through condensed matter April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 12
  13. 13. Decays of Neutron-rich Halo Nuclei: More ComplicatedCan dynamically vary their decay „choices‟ depending on their „environment‟ Per W-L theory, once ULM neutron production begins at high rates, populations of unstable, very neutron-rich ‗halo‘ isotopes LENR Nuclear Realm (MeVs) build-up locally on 2-D surfaces. Such nuclei likely have Occurs within micron-scale ‗patches‘ W-L neutron production interaction e   p  n substantially lengthened half-lives because they may have a ~  e Weak difficult time emitting beta electrons or neutrons (both of which ulm are fermions) into locally unoccupied Q-M states. By contrast, e   d   2n ~  e ulm alpha (He-4) particle and gamma photon emissions are bosons + + ν and are unaffected by the exclusion principle. If fermionic decay channels are ‗blocked‘, neutron-rich halo nuclei may emit bosons  (Z , A)  (Z , A  1) interaction n Neutron capture ulm Strong or continue capturing ULM neutrons as long as it is energetically favorable or until they finally get so neutron-rich and excited, or a + or previously occupied local state opens-up, that ‗something breaks‘ Either a: stable or unstable HEAVIER isotope and β- decay cascades ending in stable isotopes can begin. This is one important reason why LENR systems typically do not end- isotopes: beta and alpha (He-4)decays In the case of unstable isotopic products: Transmutations: isotope shifts occur; Decays of unstable, very neutron-rich chemical elements disappear/appear they subsequently undergo some type of up with large amounts of long-lived, radiologically ‗hot‘ isotopes nuclear decay process; e.g., beta, alpha, etc. In the case of a typical beta- decay: Importantly, the neutron-capture phase of LENRs can release substantial amounts of nuclear binding energy, much of it in the + + ν form of prompt and delayed gammas (which are bosons). Unique ( Z , A)  ( Z  1, A)  e  e to LENR systems and according to W-L theory, those gammas are In the case of a typical alpha decay: converted directly to infrared photons by heavy SP electrons also + present in nuclear-active ‗patches‘ on surfaces in LENR systems. As explained elsewhere, beta-decay cascades of unstable ( Z , A)  ( Z  2, A  4)  4 He 2 isotopes with short half-lives can proceed very rapidly, release Note: extremely neutron-rich product isotopes large amounts of binding energy, and produce complex arrays of may also deexcite via beta-delayed decays, which can also emit small fluxes of neutrons, different transmutation products that, if neutron fluxes are high protons, deuterons, tritons, etc. enough, can rapidly traverse rows of the periodic table; in one spectacular experiment, Mizuno went from K to Fe in <2 minutes April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 13
  14. 14. Five-peak mass-spectrum: ULM neutron ‗fingerprint‘ - I Miley‟s dataset is „smoking gun‟ for ULM neutron absorption by nuclei Production Rate vs. Mass Number Top chart to right is Miley‘s raw data; chart 20/40 A/X* = fission center point mass/complex nucleus mass below is same data only with results of W-L * 38/76* neutron optical potential model of ULMN 97/194* 155/310* Product Contour neutron absorption by nuclei (yellow peaks) Prod. Rate, atoms/cc/sec superimposed on top of Miley‘s data; good correspondence of Miley obs. vs. W-L calc. Model not fitted to data: only ‗raw‘ calc output 6 RUNS W-L model only generates a five-peak Miley‘s transmutation rate data resonant absorption spectrum at the zero Mass Number A momentum limit; neutrons at higher energies will not produce the same result This means that 5-peak product spectrum experimentally observed by Miley and Mizuno is a unique ‗signature‘ of W-L ULM neutron production and absorption (capture) in LENRs See: ―Nuclear abundances in metallic hydride electrodes of electrolytic chemical cells‖ arXiv:cond- W-L optical model superimposed on Miley‘s data mat/0602472 (Feb 2006) A. Widom and L. LarsenApril 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 14
  15. 15. Five-peak mass-spectrum: ULM neutron ‗fingerprint‘ - II W-L ULM neutron absorption model (2006) strongly predicts a stable Peak point: stable transmutation product isotopic abundance peak at products predicted to strongly around mass # A ~63 - 66 (i.e., stable accumulate at around Mass # A ~ 63 - 66 isotopes will tend to accumulate around that value of mass ), that is, at around ~Cu thru ~Zn, which is clearly observed in Miley‘s 1996 experimental data shown to the right. The next major mass-peak number where somewhat larger quantities of stable LENR transmutation products are predicted by W-L to accumulate lies out at A ~120, which is also observed in Miley‘s (and Mizuno‘s) data. Please recall that Miley‘s ending transmutation product rate data came from multiple P-F type electrolytic Ni-H Starting point for Miley: experimental cell systems that were run was a Nickel ‗seed‘ at A ~ Erratum: in fact, we drew the yellow curve showing our ‗raw‘ model for up to several weeks. Also, the 58 - 60 output in 2006, not in 2000 as Krivit states beginning Nickel ‗seed‘ in Miley‘s experiments was a prosaic Ni cathode comprised of (this is starting point): • Ni-58 ~ 68.0% • Ni-60 ~ 26.2% • Ni-61 ~ 1.14% • Ni-62 ~ 3.63% • Ni-64 ~ 0.92% Source of modified graphic: New Energy TimesApril 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 15
  16. 16. W-L optical model and Miley data vs. solar abundance Solar abundance result of fusion up to Fe and neutron capture beyond Region of charged- Region of stellar nucleosynthetic processes Peak Point #3: W-L optical model predicts that stable particle nuclear fusion driven by neutron production and capture: LENR transmutation products should strongly accumulate reactions in stars mixture of so-called s- and r-processes at approximately Mass # A ~ 63 - 66; this corresponds well to Miley condensed matter transmutation data. Condensed matter LENR neutron capture processes can operate at all values of A from 1 (H) to 200+ (beyond Pb) s-process (slow; also ‗weak s‘) thought to occur in stars, e.g., red giants; neutron fluxes from 105 -1011 cm2/sec; r-process (rapid) thought to occur in supernova explosions; neutron fluxes > 1022 cm2/sec. According W-L, steady-state condensed matter LENR (no pulsed high energy inputs) ULM neutron fluxes in well-performing systems can range from 109 – 1016 cm2/sec. Different from stellar processes in that neutrons in LENR systems can be ultra low momentum; thus ULMNs have vastly larger capture cross-sections. Unlike stars, little gamma photodissociation in LENRs due to presence of heavy-mass electrons; thus net rate of nucleosynthesis can be >> higher in condensed matter LENRs than in many stellar environments. Fe at A ~56 Solar abundance data ca. 1989 per Anders & Grevesse W-L optical model superimposed on Miley‘s ca.1996 data Solar abundance data reflects the integrated cumulative results of stellar nuclear transmutation processes operating in super-hot plasmas across distances of AUs to light years and time spans of up to billions of years. By contrast, Miley‘s condensed matter LENR transmutations occurred in a volume of less than a liter over several weeks at comparatively low temperature and pressures.April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 16
  17. 17. Location of Ni/Fe/Cr-seed LENR Networks in Isotopic Space Map of Isotopic Nuclear Landscape The neutron-capture While they differ so-called ―r- from stellar process‖ R-process pathway environments in (see path on many important chart) that aspects, LENR astrophysicists systems can believe occurs Valley of stability produce large mainly in stellar fluxes of a wide supernova variety of explosions is extremely neutron- thought to produce rich nuclei from ~half of the nuclei Palladium low to very high heavier than Iron Zinc values of A. Thus, (Fe). It operates in they may someday the neutron-rich be able to provide region of the nuclear physics nuclear landscape Copper with a new and to the right of the Neutron ‗dripline‘ ??? exciting, much Nickel valley of stability to lower-cost beta- decay. experimental tool Iron Extremely neutron- for exploring the rich isotopes have a Chromium far reaches of the much wider variety nuclear landscape of available decay and boundaries of channels in addition nuclear stability. to ‗simple‘ β-. This possibility deserves further careful study. In this presentation, we will apply W-L theory and examine model LENR Ni/Fe/Cr-seed nucleosynthetic networks operating in the approximate yellow rectangular regions from the valley of stability (small black squares) out thru very neutron-rich, beta- decay isotopic regions that lie to right of valley of stability near Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and also in another context, Palladium (Pd) April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 17
  18. 18. Cr/Fe/Ni-seed ULM Neutron Catalyzed Network Pathways Major vector of LENR Cr/Fe/Ni-seed nucleosynthetic pathways discussed herein indicated by red arrow ‗Seeds‘ of Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), and Chromium (Cr) are all present Mostly end-up at Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 18
  19. 19. LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Cr ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays Stable ‗target‘ seed nuclei on or very near LENR nuclear-active Chromium surfaces: Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53,, and Cr-54 Increasing values of A via ULM neutron capture 7.3 8.5 6.1 7.3 5.0 6.2 23V-51 23V-52 23V-53 23V-54 23V-55 23V-56 Stable 99.8% 4.9 b HL = 3.7 min HL = 1.6 min HL = 49.8 sec HL = 6.5 sec HL = 216 μsec ε 753 keV β- 4.0 β- 3.4 β- 7.0 β- β- 6.0 9.2 9.3 12.0 7.9 9.7 6.3 8.3 5.3 24Cr-50 24Cr-51 24Cr-52 24Cr-53 24Cr-54 24Cr-55 24Cr-56 Stable 4.4% 15 b HL = 27.7. days <10 b Stable 83.8% 0.8 b Stable 9.5% 18 b Stable 2.4% 0.36 b HL = 3.5 min HL = 5.9 min Increasing values of Z via Beta decay Seed Substrate: begin with ULM neutron captures on Chromium ‗seed‘ nuclei β- 2.6 β- 1.6 Legend: 7.3 8.7 25Mn-55 25Mn-56 ULM neutron captures go from left to right; Q-value of capture reaction (MeV) above green horizontal Stable 100% HL = 2.6 hrs 13.3 b arrow; capture cross-sections (illustrative selected data, in barns, b, @ thermal energies) below green arrow Beta (β-) decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted with dark blue vertical arrow with Q-value (MeV) to right β- 3.7 Beta-delayed decays (e.g., alphas, protons, etc.) are not shown; except in one case, beta-delayed neutron 7.7 emissions not shown either; it is experimentally well-established that such neutron emissions are strongly 26Fe-56 suppressed in condensed matter LENR systems (they are rarely observed by experimentalists and then Stable 91.8% 2.6 b typically only amount to relatively small, very ‗bursty‘ fluxes of such neutrons); gamma emissions not shown (‗automatically‘ converted to IR photons by ‗heavy‘ e* SP electrons) Network continues to Neutrino emissions not shown (‗automatically‘ accompany beta decay) next slide Electron captures (e.c.) or β+ indicated by purple vertical arrow; their Q-value (MeV) to right Accepted natural abundances of stable isotopes (green boxes) are indicated in % Half-lives of unstable isotopes (purplish boxes) when measured are shown as HL = xxxx Nucleosynthetic network model assumes that Chromium isotopes are the ONLY ‗seed‘ nuclei present in the system at the beginning of ULM neutron production and capture processes All other things being equal, in ‗competition‘ to absorb (capture) ULM neutrons, nuclei with relatively larger capture cross-sections at thermal energies will have proportionately larger capture cross-sections at ULMN energies (which can be larger by a factor of as little as 5x or as much as 1,000,000x, depending upon the Q-M DeBroglie wavelength of an ULM neutron) April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 19
  20. 20. LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Cr ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays Stable ‗target‘ seed nuclei on or very near LENR nuclear-active Chromium surfaces: Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, and Cr-54 Increasing values of A via ULM neutron capture 6.2 4.1 4.9 3.6 4.9 3.1 4.6 2.6 23V-57 23V-58 23V-59 23V-60 23V-61 23V-62 23V-63 HL = 350 μsec HL = 191 μsec HL = 75 μsec HL = 122 μsec HL = 47 μsec HL = 34 μsec HL = 17 μsec β- 8.3 β- 11.6 β- 10.8 β- 13.9 β- 12.8 β- 16.0 β- 14.6 5.3 7.4 4.1 6.7 3.8 6.3 3.2 5.7 24Cr-57 26Cr-58 26Cr-59 26Cr-60 26Cr-61 26Cr-62 26Cr-63 Note: Fe-seed LENR network BEGINS on the next slide HL = 21.1 sec HL = 7.0 sec HL = 460 μsec HL = 560 μsec HL = 261 μsec HL = 199 μsec HL = 129 μsecIncreasing values of Z via Beta decay β- 5.0 β- 4.1 β- 7.6 β- 6.7 β- 9.4 β- 7.6 β- 10.8 8.7 6.5 7.6 5.8 6.5 4.6 6.4 4.4 25Mn-57 27Mn-58 27Mn-59 27Mn-60 27Mn-61 27Mn-62 27Mn-63 HL = 1.4 min HL = 3.0 sec HL = 4.6 sec HL = 51 sec HL = 670 μsec HL = 671 μsec HL = 275 μsec β- 2.7 β- 6.3 β- 5.2 β- 8.2 β- 7.4 β- 10.9 β- 9.2 7.7 10.0 6.6 8.8 5.6 8.1 4.7 7.3 26Fe-57 26Fe-58 26Fe-59 26Fe-60 26Fe-61 26Fe-62 26Fe-63 2.6 b Stable 2.1% 2.5 b Stable 0.28% 1.3 b HL = 44.5 days 13 b HL= 1.5x106 yrs HL = 6.0 min HL = 1.1 min HL = 6.1 sec Note: large amounts of nuclear β- 1.6 β- 237 keV β- 4.0 β- 2.5 β- 6.3 binding energy can be released via ULM neutron captures on isotopes 7.5 9.3 6.6 8.5 6.0 in this network; related subsequent 27Co-59 27Co-60 27Co-61 27Co-62 27Co-63 beta decays simply add more MeVs Stable 100% ~21 b HL = 5.3 yrs 2b HL = 1.7 hrs HL = 1.5 min HL = 26.9 sec to grand total of net Q-values β- 2.8 β- 1.3 β- 5.3 β- 3.7 7.8 10.6 6.8 9.7 28Ni-60 28Ni-61 28Ni-62 28Ni-63 Stable 26.2% 2.9 b Stable 1.1% 2.5 b Stable 3.6% 15 b HL = 100 yrs* 20 b β- 67 keV *N.B. Ni-63: in certain very highly ionized states, its half-life known to be reduced by 7.9 29Cu-63 >200x; i.e., down from ~100 to ~0.4 yrs Stable 69.2% 4.5 b April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 20
  21. 21. LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Fe ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays Stable ‗target‘ seed nuclei on or very near LENR nuclear-active Nickel surfaces: Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, and Fe-58 Increasing values of A via ULM neutron capture 7.3 8.7 6.5 7.6 5.8 6.5 25Mn-55 25Mn-56 25Mn-57 25Mn-58 25Mn-59 25Mn-60 Stable 100% 21 b HL = 2.6 hrs 2b HL = 1.4 min HL = 3.0 sec HL = 4.6 sec HL = 51 sec ε 231 keV β- 3.7 β- 2.7 β- 6.3 β- 5.2 β- 8.2 9.3 11.2 7.7 10.0 6.6 8.8 5.6 26Fe-54 26Fe-55 26Fe-56 26Fe-57 26Fe-58 26Fe-59 26Fe-60 Stable 5.9% 2.7 b HL = 2.74 yrs 13 b Stable 91.8% 2.6 b Stable 2.1% 2.5 b Stable 0.3% 1.3 b HL = 44.5 days 13 b HL = 1.5x106 yrs Increasing values of Z via Beta decay Seed Substrate: begin with ULM neutron captures on Iron ‗seed‘ nuclei β- 1.6 β- 237 keV Legend: 7.5 9.3 27Co-59 27Co-60 ULM neutron captures go from left to right; Q-value of capture reaction (MeV) above green horizontal Stable 100% HL = 5.3 yrs ~21 b 2b arrow; capture cross-sections (illustrative selected data, in barns, b, @ thermal energies) below green arrow Beta (β-) decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted with dark blue vertical arrow with Q-value (MeV) to right β- 2.8 Beta-delayed decays (e.g., alphas, protons, etc.) are not shown; except in one case, beta-delayed neutron 7.8 emissions not shown either; it is experimentally well-established that such neutron emissions are strongly 28Ni-60 suppressed in condensed matter LENR systems (they are rarely observed by experimentalists and then Stable 26.2% 2.9 b typically only amount to relatively small, very ‗bursty‘ fluxes of such neutrons); gamma emissions not shown (‗automatically‘ converted to IR photons by ‗heavy‘ e* SP electrons) Neutrino emissions not shown (‗automatically‘ accompany beta decay) Network continues to next slide Electron captures (e.c.) or β+ indicated by purple vertical arrow; their Q-value (MeV) to right N.B: in some cases, Q-values for ULM neutron capture Accepted natural abundances of stable isotopes (green boxes) are indicated in % reactions are significantly larger than Q-values for Half-lives of unstable isotopes (purplish boxes) when measured are shown as HL = xxxx „competing‟ beta decay reactions. Also, neutron capture processes are much, much faster Nucleosynthetic network model assumes that Iron isotopes are the ONLY ‗seed‘ nuclei (~picoseconds) than most beta decays; if ULM neutron present in the system at the beginning of ULM neutron production and capture processes fluxes (rates) are high enough, neutron-rich isotopes of a given element can build-up (move along same row to All other things being equal, in ‗competition‘ to absorb (capture) ULM neutrons, nuclei with right on the above chart) >>> faster than beta decays relatively larger capture cross-sections at thermal energies will have proportionately larger can transmute them to different chemical elements capture cross-sections at ULMN energies (which can be larger by a factor of as little as 5x or (e.g., move downward to other rows on chart) as much as 1,000,000x, depending upon the Q-M DeBroglie wavelength of an ULM neutron) April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 21
  22. 22. LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Fe ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays Stable ‗target‘ seed nuclei on or very near LENR nuclear-active Nickel surfaces: Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, and Fe-58 Increasing values of A via ULM neutron capture 6.5 4.6 6.4 4.3 6.1 3.7 5.2 3.3 25Mn-61 25Mn-62 25Mn-63 25Mn-64 25Mn-65 25Mn-66 25Mn-67 HL = 670 μsec HL = 671 μsec HL = 275 μsec HL = 88.8 μsec HL = 92 μsec HL = 64.4 μsec HL = 45 μsec β- 7.4 β- 10.9 β- 9.2 β- 12.2 β- 10.2 β- 13.3 β- 12.3 Note: Ni-seed LENR network BEGINS on the next slide 5.6 8.1 4.7 7.3 4.2 6.8 4.2 5.5 26Fe-61 26Fe-62 26Fe-63 26Fe-64 26Fe-65 26Fe-66 26Fe-67 HL = 6.0 min HL = 1.1 min HL = 6.1 sec HL = 2.0 sec HL = 1.3 sec HL = 440 μsec HL = 394 μsecIncreasing values of Z via Beta decay β- 4.0 β- 2.5 β- 6.3 β- 5.0 β- 8.3 β- 6.5 β- 9.4 9.3 6.6 8.5 6.0 7.5 5.0 7.0 4.4 27Co-61 27Co-62 27Co-63 27Co-64 27Co-65 27Co-66 27Co-67 2b HL = 1.7 hrs HL = 1.5 min HL = 26.9 sec HL = 300 μsec HL = 1.2 sec HL = 194 μsec HL = 425 μsec β- 1.3 β- 5.3 β- 3.7 β- 7.3 β- 6.0 β- 9.9 β- 8.7 7.8 10.6 6.8 9.7 6.1 9.0 5.8 7.8 28Ni-61 28Ni-62 28Ni-63 28Ni-64 28Ni-65 28Ni-66 28Ni-67 2.9 b Stable 1.14% 2.5 b Stable 3.63% 15 b HL = 100 yrs* 20 b Stable 0.92% 1.6 b HL = 2.5 hrs 22 b HL = 2.28 days HL = 21 sec β- 67 keV 61% β+ 653 keV β- 2.1 β- 252 keV β- 3.6 *N.B. Ni-63: in certain very highly ionized states, its half-life known to be reduced by 7.9 9.9 7.1 9.1 6.3 29Cu-63 29Cu-64 29Cu-65 29Cu-66 29Cu-67 >200x; i.e., down from ~100 to ~0.4 yrs Stable 69.2% 4.5 b HL = 12.7 hrs 270 b Stable 31.8% 2.2 b HL = 5.1 min 140 b HL = 2.6 days Note: large amounts of nuclear 39% β- 579 keV β+ 330 keV β- 2.6 β- 562 keV binding energy can be released via ULM neutron captures on isotopes 8.0 11.1 7.1 10.2 in this network; related subsequent 30Zn-64 30Zn-65 30Zn-66 30Zn-67 beta decays simply add more MeVs Stable 48.6% 0.7 b HL = 244 days 66 b Stable 27.9% 0.9 b Stable 4.1% 6.9 b to grand total of net Q-values April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 22
  23. 23. LENR W-L ULM neutron capture on Ni ‗seeds,‘ neutron-rich isotope production, and decays Stable ‗target‘ seed nuclei on or very near LENR nuclear-active Nickel surfaces: Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, and Ni-64 Increasing values of A via ULM neutron capture 7.5 9.3 6.6 8.5 6.0 7.5 27Co-59 27Co-60 27Co-61 27Co-62 27Co-63 27Co-64 Stable 100% 21 b HL = 5.3 yrs 2b HL = 1.7 hrs HL = 1.5 min HL = 26.9 sec HL = 300 μsec β+ 50.1 keV β- 2.8 β- 1.3 β- 5.3 β- 3.7 β- 7.3 9.0 11.4 7.8 10.6 6.8 9.7 6.1 28Ni-58 28Ni-59 28Ni-60 28Ni-61 28Ni-62 28Ni-63 28Ni-64 Stable 68.0% 4.6 b HL = 1 x 105 yrs 92 b Stable 26.2% 2.9 b Stable 1.14% 2.5 b Stable 3.63% 15 b HL = 100 yrs* 20 b Stable 0.92% 1.6 b Seed Substrate: begin with ULM neutron captures on Nickel ‗seed‘ nuclei Increasing values of Z via Beta decay β- 67 keV 41% β+ 653 keV Legend: 7.9 9.9 29Cu-63 29Cu-64 ULM neutron captures go from left to right; Q-value of capture reaction (MeV) above green horizontal Stable 69.2% HL = 12.7 hrs 4.5 b 270 b arrow; capture cross-sections (illustrative selected data, in barns, b, @ thermal energies) below green arrow 39% β- 579 keV Beta (β-) decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted with dark blue vertical arrow with Q-value (MeV) to right 8.0 30Zn-64 Beta-delayed decays (e.g., alphas, protons, etc.) are not shown; except in one case, beta-delayed neutron Stable 48.6% 0.74 b emissions not shown either; it is experimentally well-established that such neutron emissions are strongly suppressed in condensed matter LENR systems (they are rarely observed by experimentalists and then typically only amount to relatively small, very ‗bursty‘ fluxes of such neutrons); gamma emissions not shown *N.B. Ni-63: in certain very highly ionized (‗automatically‘ converted to IR photons by ‗heavy‘ e* SP electrons) states, its half-life known to be reduced by Neutrino emissions not shown (‗automatically‘ accompany beta decay) >200x; i.e., down from ~100 to ~0.4 yrs Electron captures (e.c.) or β+ indicated by purple vertical arrow; their Q-value (MeV) to right N.B: in some cases, Q-values for ULM neutron capture Accepted natural abundances of stable isotopes (green boxes) are indicated in % reactions are significantly larger than Q-values for Half-lives of unstable isotopes (purplish boxes) when measured are shown as HL = xxxx ‗competing‘ beta decay reactions. Neutron capture processes are much, much faster (~picoseconds) than Nucleosynthetic network model assumes that Nickel isotopes are the ONLY ‗seed‘ nuclei most beta decays; if ULM neutron fluxes (rates) are present in the system at the beginning of ULM neutron production and capture processes high enough, neutron-rich isotopes of a given element can build-up (on the above chart: move horizontally to All other things being equal, in ‗competition‘ to absorb (capture) ULM neutrons, nuclei with right along the same row) >>> faster than beta decays relatively larger capture cross-sections at thermal energies will have proportionately larger can transmute them to different chemical elements (i.e., capture cross-sections at ULMN energies (which can be larger by a factor of as little as 5x or move downward to ‗lower‘ horizontal rows on chart) as much as 1,000,000x, depending upon the Q-M DeBroglie wavelength of an ULM neutron) Network continues to next slide April 20, 2011 Copyright 2011, Lattice Energy LLC All Rights Reserved 23

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