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Lattice Energy LLC- Field Failures and LENRs in Lithium-based Batteries-Jan 23 2013

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LENRs are potentially another mechanism for producing so-called field failures that can trigger catastrophic thermal runaways in Lithium-based batteries; may sometimes, but not always, be associated with internal electrical shorts.

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  • Dear Readers:

    I must note that from what I have seen and heard from other people (and experienced battery experts in particular) there is a substantial subset (perhaps the majority?) of battery thermal runaways that aren't caused by some sort of external mechanical abuse or external shorting events that are most likely caused by some type of failure in the behavior of a battery pack’s control electronics. No argument with the experts on that point.

    That said, I am also told by long-experienced battery experts that there is an irreducible, albeit much smaller subset of thermal runaways which were clearly not caused by any sort of external physical or electrical abuse and in which, by any reasonable measure, the control electronics were apparently functioning within spec and were not detecting any anomalies in monitored parameters when a thermal event occurred. This subset is where an LENR ‘nano-fireball’ mechanism could potentially be operating and serve as a proximate cause for runaway events. At the moment, I cannot cite any anomalous post-event forensic isotopic data on runaways which would indicate non-chemical processes at work. However, most if not all runaway investigations have employed EDAX or the equivalent, not SIMS, so at the moment the question is still open.

    I certainly wish more incident investigators would be on the lookout for telltales of non-chemical processes as possible culprits, but if a runway were in fact caused by just one 100 micron LENR ‘fireball’ at 4,000 to 6,000 Kelvin it might be nearly impossible to locate and measure the minuscule amount of transmuted material left amongst the relatively vast macroscopic mass of debris in a ruined battery cell. That is admittedly a daunting experimental problem.

    What I can say with great confidence based on voluminous published experimental data concerning LENRs as well as our own theoretical work, is that conditions and reactants that would be very favorable for triggering LENRs in rare instances are absolutely, definitely present on nanometer to micron-sized nanostructures (which include dendrites) inside batteries during the course of microscopic or macroscopic internal electrical shorts.

    One might reasonably ask, given that LENRs would be rare occurrence at best, why worry at all that they might be happening inside batteries?

    In my view, depending heavily on their location inside a battery, the answer is that LENRs could serve as an extraordinarily hot ‘match’ with local temperatures that are high enough to potentially be capable of directly initiating even more exothermic metal-oxidation reactions that burn much hotter than a flammable electrolyte fire. Unfortunately, such ‘thermite-like’, pyrotechnic chemical reactions with metals can be nearly impossible to extinguish because they can generate their own Oxygen via dissociation as an advancing flame-front combusts battery materials present inside a casing. In my opinion, that’s where the safety danger lies with regard to LENR-triggered thermal runaways.

    LENRs may well be a rare, “Black Swan” battery event, but it’s a rather deadly one. Hence, on-board battery systems installed on human-passenger-carrying vehicles such as aircraft and submersibles should ideally be designed with mitigation of this newly recognized type of safety risk in mind.

    Lew, Feb. 11, 2013
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  • Please see following public Lattice document that is available for online viewing in ‘fullscreen’ mode within your web browser or free pdf download on SlideShare.net:

    “Could LENRs be involved in some Li-ion battery fires?”
    Lewis Larsen, Lattice Energy LLC
    July 16, 2010 [68 slides]
    http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/cfakepathlattice-energy-llc-len-rs-in-liion-battery-firesjuly-16-2010

    Comments about local power densities in LENR-active surface “patches”:

    Please see discussion that occurs in Slides #17 through #28 in this document, and especially the chart of an adapted Figure from Seidman & Norem (2005) that is presented on Slide #19; in my opinion, some of the data found in that section is eye-opening.

    Specifically, there is strong reason to believe that effective power densities in nanometer-to-micron-scale LENR-active “patches” on condensed matter surfaces can be > 10*21 Watts per cubic meter for up to 300 nanoseconds or thereabouts (which is Lattice’s estimated approximate maximum lifetime for such “patches” before they destroy themselves).

    Such enormous local power densities on small length-scales are what produces distinctive crater-like structures with dimensions ranging from a few nanometers up to several hundred microns that are commonly observed in random locations in post-experiment SEM images of LENR-active surfaces (please see examples provided in the document).

    Interestingly and significantly, nuclear transmutation products (shifts toward heavier stable isotopes and/or different ‘anomalous’ elements that were not previously present) ‘resulting from neutron captures on substrate materials such as Pd, Ni, T, and W can often be detected in and around such “craters” with SIMS. Odd structures suggesting local boiling of molten metal have even been observed on the surfaces of LENR-active pure Tungsten glow-discharge cathodes post-experiment (Cirillo et al. in Italy and others).

    In the case of a hypothetical occurrence of LENRs in a failed battery cell, post-failure forensic analysis of elemental composition with only EDAX could potentially misidentify elemental nuclear transmutation products as ‘contaminants’ that could plausibly have occurred during the manufacturing process. By contrast, detection of significant isotopic shifts in compositionally expected elements or unexpected ‘new’ elements with SIMS could provide strong supporting evidence that non-chemical processes had in fact occurred.

    Enormous local power densities on short time-scales are what enable LENR-active patches to briefly hit temperatures of ~4,000 to 6,000 degrees Kelvin. Amazingly, this heating is roughly equivalent to the surface temperature of the Sun.

    Given all this local thermal mayhem, I guess we probably shouldn’t be surprised that just a single tiny LENR nano plasma ball that suddenly erupts in the ‘wrong place’ inside an unlucky battery cell is potentially capable of triggering a field-failure and subsequent, decidedly macroscopic thermal runaway event driven by highly exothermic chemical reactions which may include thermal fratricide of adjacent cells if they are not adequately thermally isolated from each other.
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  • Dear Readers:

    See: Feb 7, 2013 Bloomberg News, “NTSB’s 787 Findings May Lead to Boeing Battery Redesign.”

    Bloomberg’s reporters did a nice job on this news story. As they allude, it does appear more-or-less inevitable that some sort of redesign of the Dreamliner’s battery pack will be mandatory to improve aircraft safety. In particular, certain types of rare (1 in every 4 to 5 million battery cells) but very damaging battery failure modes, one of the worst possible is called a “field failure,” are simply not mitigated by traditional methods of safety engineering and testing (which is what Boeing and its manufacturing partners faithfully performed). So, in effect, Boeing et al. inadvertently did not prepare and engineer the Dreamliner’s battery system to readily handle “Black Swan” field-failure-triggered thermal runaway events with aplomb, which is exactly what happened in the JAL and ANA battery smoke/fire incidents.

    That said, I think that the Dreamliner’s present Lithium-based battery safety problems are readily fixable with some better-informed reengineering by Boeing. Speaking to that particular point, at a breakfast meeting on Feb. 6, NTSB Chairman Hersman made some clarifying statements in which she wisely suggested that regulators should not “categorically' rule-out the use of Lithium-based batteries on aircraft such as the Dreamliner.

    In my opinion, a non-trivial probability of Li-ion battery fires and even thermal runaway events should not a priori forbid their use, as long as aircraft systems integrators can successfully engineer surrounding subsystems (e.g., robust thermal isolation of a battery pack from the rest of an electronics bay; or using materials that can prevent a battery pack external casing melt-through in spite of extremely high temperatures; or aggressive external venting of emitted hot gases and smoke when a problem condition is detected) to assuredly handle a genuine worst-case scenario such as a catastrophic thermal runaway event that may be hot enough to trigger metal-oxidation reactions that can completely combust virtually all internal battery materials.

    Thus, it would seem that with well thought-out local subsystem reengineering around the Dreamliner’s battery packs, a worst-case battery problem would most likely not be able to significantly compromise passenger/crew safety or flight capabilities of an affected aircraft.

    Lew
    Feb. 8, 2013
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Lattice Energy LLC- Field Failures and LENRs in Lithium-based Batteries-Jan 23 2013

  1. 1. LENRs and field failure runaway fires in advanced batteries LENRs are potentially another mechanism for producing so-called field failures that can trigger catastrophic thermal runaway fires in Lithium-based batteries Lewis Larsen President and CEO Lattice Energy LLC Chicago, IL USA 1-312-861-0115 lewisglarsen@gmail.comPlease see the following technical documents:1. “Batteries for Sustainability – Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability in Science andTechnology”Ralph J. Brodd, EditorSpringer ISBN 978-1-4614-5791-6 (eBook)Chapter 9 by B. Barnett et al., “Lithium-ion Batteries, Safety” [25 pages of annotated quotes attached]Book version print length: total is 519 pagesPublisher: Springer New York; 1 edition (December 11, 2012)Preview is available at source URL:http://www.amazon.com/Batteries-for-Sustainability-ebook/dp/B00APXDLXACan also be purchased for US$143.50 through Amazon as a Kindle Edition at source URL:http://www.amazon.com/Batteries-for-Sustainability-ebook/dp/B00APXDLXA2. LENRs in Lithium-ion batteries [68 slides]Lewis Larsen, Lattice Energy LLCJuly 16, 2010Source URL: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/cfakepathlattice-energy-llc-len-rs-in-liion-battery-firesjuly-16-20103. Evanescent localized superconductivity in LENR ‘patches’ [92 slides]Lewis Larsen, Lattice Energy LLCAugust 23, 2012Source URL: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-hightemperature-superconductivity-in-patchesaug-23-20124. Index to concepts and documents about Widom-Larsen theory, LENRs, and Lattice Energy [63 slides]Lewis Larsen, Lattice Energy LLCNovember 21, 2012Source URL: http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llcindex-to-documents-re-widomlarsen-theory-of-lenrsnov-21-2012LENRs might be triggers for field failures/thermal runaway events in some Lithium battery fires:There is a heretofore little appreciated subset of Lithium-based battery problems cryptically called a “fieldfailure” mode that, while much rarer than ‘plain vanilla’ safety issues such as punctures and other typesmechanical damage, seem to be highly correlated with catastrophic thermal runaway events. Accordingto a major Lithium-ion battery manufacturer in a private communication, field failures apparently occuralmost randomly in roughly 1 out of every 4 to 5 million Lithium-based battery cells right off the productionline, regardless of their chemistry.Lattice Energy LLC Copyright 2013 All rights reserved
  2. 2. LENRs and field failure runaway fires in advanced batteriesThis somewhat obscure field failure problem involves catastrophic thermal failure of a single battery cell.While it is often thought to be associated with internal shorts and electrical arcing within a somehowdefective cell, some battery manufacturers will admit privately that this peculiar failure mode is not well-characterized and very poorly understood --- most of them are presently at a loss for ideas about exactlyhow to definitively mitigate such a problem. It is well known that if just a single cell in a large, multi-cellbattery pack fails in this particular manner, it can potentially trigger an even more catastrophic large-scalethermal runaway event that rapidly propagates through an entire battery pack, destroying adjacent cellsvia thermal fratricide as well as possibly the entire interior of, for example, an all-electric motor vehicle.This additional new source of concern about the safety of advanced Lithium-based batteries has arisenbecause, in the course of our company’s ongoing R&D efforts, Lattice has applied the Widom-Larsentheory of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs) on a practical level to try to help better understand thepossible role of nanoscale metal dendrites and nanoparticles in certain types of failure modes that mayoccur in smaller Lithium-based batteries as well as in extremely large, multi-thousand-cell battery packsutilized in all-electric vehicles and some military applications.In May 2010, academic researchers at Oxford University published a new and we think important paperthat many believe implicates the involvement of Lithium metal dendrites in a significant number of Li-ionbattery failures (please see R. Bhattacharyya et al., "In situ NMR observation of the formation of metallicLithium microstructures in lithium batteries," Nature Materials 9 pp. 504 - 510). What is of great concernfrom a safety standpoint is that nanoscale internal metal dendrites that are prone to shorting-out can growspontaneously over time as a given battery ages and goes through many charge-discharge cycles.A battery pack may well be perfectly safe during the first months of ordinary use; however, dendrites andother types of nanoparticulate structures grow inside over time, increasing the probability of dangerousinternal electrical shorts as the battery ‘ages’. The problem is that nobody in the world has any realworking experience with large multi-cell Lithium-based battery backs that have endured hard usage andvibration for periods of many years. Also, nanoscale internal metallic dendrites can potentially form andgrow in almost any type of Lithium-based battery chemistry.Approaching battery safety from perhaps a different technical perspective than many scientists, we havebecome increasingly concerned that some present/future Lithium-based battery chemistries couldpotentially be susceptible to rare, but potentially very damaging occurrences of LENRs in isolatednanometer to micron-scale regions within some failing battery cells. Cell field failures arising fromnanoscale internal shorts/arcs are thus very worrisome with regard to potentially triggering LENRs thatcan in turn readily initiate macroscopic, catastrophic thermal runaways.Please see the hyperlinked Lattice presentation dated July 16, 2010: field failures are exactly the type ofnanoscale event that Lattice believes could potentially lead to the creation of tiny, internal micron-scaleLENR ‘fireballs’ that could in principle initiate large-scale macroscopic, very hot-burning metal oxidationreactions that are very capable of generating their own free oxygen inside battery casings (as describedin the presentation).Nonpublic experiments have been conducted by a large company involving custom-built Li-ion batterypacks comprising 50-60 commodity 18650 Li-ion cells with a standard chemistry; the wiringinterconnection architecture was ~ the same as a typical EV battery pack. According to a privatecommunication, results from deliberately induced, catastrophic Li-ion battery field failures were eye-opening: anomalously high temperatures in excess of 3,000 degrees were measured and recorded beforethermocouples in failing battery packs were obliterated by intense heat. A detailed explanation of exactlyhow such anomalously high temperatures were achieved under such conditions is still under activeinvestigation by the company’s scientists.What is somewhat worrisome about new types of Lithium Titanate battery chemistries in a field failuremode is that Titanium metal burns at a much hotter temperature than Lithium --- at ~3,400 degrees C. So,for example, an all-electric EV cruising down a highway could potentially encounter a 3,400 degreeinternal Lithium and Titanium metal fire with a fast-spreading flame front that generates its own oxygen asLattice Energy LLC Copyright 2013 All rights reserved
  3. 3. LENRs and field failure runaway fires in advanced batteriesit combusts materials located inside a vehicle’s failing battery pack. This could create a dangerous firethat might be difficult or impossible to extinguish. Even new types of inert Argon-foam fire suppressionsystems such as those retrofitted in some cargo aircraft are likely to be incapable of stopping aconflagration this hot that also creates its own source of oxygen as it aggressively heats battery materials.If a large aircraft in flight were to experience a hypothetical good-sized Li-Ti EV-class LENR-triggeredbattery fire, absent a robust thermal containment system it would seem that the plane’s structural integritycould potentially be compromised because (ignoring the effects of a pressure-pulse if a large batterypack’s casing actually detonates) a large heterogeneous blob of molten material at 3,400 degrees iscertainly hot enough to melt all the way down through the aluminum or composite fuselage of an aircraft... a disturbing possibility.A for-now nameless engineering firm with a large battery consultancy believes that about midway throughsuch a super-hot fire in a very large EV-class battery pack, enough excess combustible gases couldpotentially accumulate inside the casing just ahead of a advancing flame front to enable a powerfuldetonation that completes the process of battery destruction --- i.e., a large chemical explosion combinedwith white-hot shrapnel that can ignite other nearby combustibles.Interestingly, as speculatively discussed in the hyperlinked Lattice presentation dated August 23, 2012,evanescent ‘flickering’ superconductivity may occur in micron-scale patches just before they go LENR-active and make neutrons. If in fact this behavior occurred inside a battery, nearby nanostructures holdingcharge might well be trying to locally ‘dump’ current into a superconducting patch, further exacerbatingthe field failure problem. Also, per the Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs some fraction of the electronslocated in such a patch would get converted into neutrons via an electroweak reaction (e + p  n) whichlocally destroys charge, thus possibly causing more nearby charge to rush-in and fill the ‘gap.’Please now refer to the attached annotated excerpts from the book chapter by Barnett et al.: they havewritten an excellent, very informative document that discusses safety issues in the context of field failuremodes in Lithium-based batteries. In my opinion, it is a must-read for people interested in battery safetyand well-worth the purchase price of $143.50 for Springer’s full Kindle eBook version.I have taken the liberty to annotate Barnett et al.’s book chapter so that readers can easily connect blocksof text to LENR-related ideas found in this cover preface as well as in the other mentioned Latticepresentations found on SlideShare. You will find that their thinking resonates strongly with ours and thatLENRs appear to be a plausible trigger for some indeterminate subset of field failure events. These can inturn potentially lead to catastrophic thermal runaway processes that presently pose a major safety risk inadvanced batteries with high energy densities.As long as it does not involve any disclosure of Lattice-proprietary technical information that we deemrelevant to energy production applications, Lattice is interested and prepared to engage in fee-basedconsulting with other companies in regard to assessing safety issues involving LENRs in connection withfield failures, battery fires, and thermal runaways.Technical questions and inquiries are welcome.Thank you.Lew LarsenJanuary 23, 2013Lattice Energy LLC Copyright 2013 All rights reserved
  4. 4. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Following are annotated (by me) quoted text that was extracted from Barnett et al.spublication; readers are strongly urged to purchase the e-book version to obtain fulldetails about their excellent work on field failures in Lithium-based batteries.Lewis LarsenJanuary 23, 2013 01/23/2013 1 Copyright Springer 2012
  5. 5. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013) So-called "field failures" are a key topic of discussion in this well-written, extremely informative book chapter by Barnett et al. This material is a must-read for those interested in better understanding safety issues with regard to Lithium-based batteries.01/23/2013 2 Copyright Springer 2012
  6. 6. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Defines the term"field failure." 01/23/2013 3 Copyright Springer 2012
  7. 7. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Energetics of"field failure"events can beimpressive inworst-casethermal scenarios 01/23/2013 4 Copyright Springer 2012
  8. 8. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Low EnergyNuclearReactions(LENRs) canpotentially bean additional,potentnanoscalecausativemechanism fortriggering "fieldfailures" inbatteries undercertain specificconditions,regardless oftheir chemistry. Note: LENRs are NOT necessarily a "manufacturing defect" per se; physical conditions favorable to triggering LENRs can slowly grow on tiny nanostructures (one type of such structures is dendrites, but it is not the only one) in various regions within batteries as they gradually age and go through many charge-discharge cycles. 01/23/2013 5 Copyright Springer 2012
  9. 9. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013) Very important points are made here in these bullets. Esp. see underlined text. In some, but certainly not all instances of battery field failures, LENRs could provide a plausible nanoscale mechanism that could enable a random, microscopic internal electrical short to very rapidly turn into a catastrophic, macroscopic chemical thermal runaway event.What the authorsare saying here isthat theres nosuch thing as a arisk-free advancedLithium-basedbattery --- it simplydoesnt exist andfurthermore isprobably anunattainable,impossiblemanufacturinggoal. 01/23/2013 6 Copyright Springer 2012
  10. 10. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Au contraire, incertain casesthe underlyingmechanism forfield failuresmight very wellbe LENRs,although thatmay be difficultto proveunequivocally.Much moreexperimentationon this point iscrucial andsorely needed.Note importanceof dendrites. 01/23/2013 7 Copyright Springer 2012
  11. 11. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Exact location ofelectrical short(spark) in abattery cell is veryimportant as towhether the eventultimately turns-into a thermalrunaway or not.Lattice stronglyagrees with this.Please note thatNickel happens tobe a substratethat is alsoutilized in someLENRexperiments thatcan producesubstantialamounts ofexcess heat. 01/23/2013 8 Copyright Springer 2012
  12. 12. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Nanoscaleregions proneto shorts cangrow overtime and mayoften NOT bepresent justafter a givenbattery wasmanufactured. 01/23/2013 9 Copyright Springer 2012
  13. 13. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)See Lattice SlideShare presentation dated July 16, 2010, for an in-depth discussion ofextremely high electric fields that can occur in the vicinity of dendrite tips and juxtaposednanoparticles in which there can be utterly enormous micron-scale local power densities.01/23/2013 10 Copyright Springer 2012
  14. 14. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Micron-scaleLENR-activepatches, whilerather tiny on thescale of the entireinterior of abattery, createvery potentlocalized hotspots that mayreach peaktemperatures ashigh as 4,000 to6,000 degreesKelvin --- LENRshave beenexperimentallyobserved to boilrefractory metalsin micron-sizedsurface cratersover a period of~10 to 300nanoseconds,which is roughlythe lifetime of anactive LENRpatch. 01/23/2013 11 Copyright Springer 2012
  15. 15. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 12 Copyright Springer 2012
  16. 16. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 13 Copyright Springer 2012
  17. 17. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)This is why, in thepresentlyindeterminatesubset of fieldfailure events inwhich LENRscould potentiallybe occurring,even a minusculesuper-hot nuclearheat spark mightvery well beextremelyeffective attriggering vastlylarger chemicalthermal runawayprocesses. 01/23/2013 14 Copyright Springer 2012
  18. 18. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 15 Copyright Springer 2012
  19. 19. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)This is a keydistinction tounderstand -they make averyimportantpoint here. 01/23/2013 16 Copyright Springer 2012
  20. 20. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013) Excellent summary of characteristics of field failures.Super-importantpoint that theyare making here- please heedthis warning 01/23/2013 17 Copyright Springer 2012
  21. 21. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Those whoknowinglychoose toignore theseimportantpoints maylive to regrettheir decisionto do so. 01/23/2013 18 Copyright Springer 2012
  22. 22. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)Once runawayevent istriggered, celltemperaturecan go from150 degrees Cup to over 600degrees C,"almostinstantly."Internal celltemperaturesrise veryquickly insuch events. 01/23/2013 19 Copyright Springer 2012
  23. 23. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 20 Copyright Springer 2012
  24. 24. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 21 Copyright Springer 2012
  25. 25. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 22 Copyright Springer 2012
  26. 26. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 23 Copyright Springer 2012
  27. 27. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 24 Copyright Springer 2012
  28. 28. Chapter 9 by Barnett et al. Batteries for Sustainability R. Brodd, ed. Springer 2012 (e-book 2013)01/23/2013 25 Copyright Springer 2012

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